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Article

AMS Teacher Education Scholarships

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 28, no. 3

Pages: 25-26

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Applications-typically about 100 per cycle-are reviewed by a small AMS selection committee, under the leadership of the chair of the Teachers Section of the AMS Board of Directors-currently Suzanne Bayer.Since the scholarship program began in 1993, AMS has awarded over $587,000 to more than 300 aspiring teachers.Sarah Chase (Early Childhood), Northeast Montessori Institute, Wenham, MA **Cristal Garza (Early Childhood), Montessori Teacher Academy, Dana Point, CA *Abigail Goeller (Early Childhood), Adrian Dominican Montessori Teacher Education Institute, Adrian, MI Elizabeth Hill (Elementary I-II), Institute for Montessori Innovation at Westminster College, Salt Lake City, UT Lisa Huff (Early Childhood), Greater Cincinnati Center for Montessori Education, Covington, KY *Ada Kulbickaite (Elementary III), Duhovka Montessori Teacher Education Program, Prague 6, Czech Republic Estefanía Maldonada (Early Childhood), Palm Harbor Montessori Teacher Education Center, Palm Harbor, FL *Jessica Marshall (Elementary I), Montessori Education Center of the Rockies, Boulder, CO Erin Mergil (Early Childhood), Center for Montessori Education I NY, New Rochelle, NY Shawnnee Miranda (Early Childhood), New England Montessori Teacher Education Center, Newton, MA *Rebekah Moore (Early Childhood), Greater Cincinnati Center for Montessori Education, Covington, KY Leah Park (Elementary I), Institute for Advanced Montessori Studies, Silver Spring, MD Misty Pasco (Infant and Toddler), Mid-America Montessori Teacher Training Institute, Omaha, NE *Stephanie Powell (Early Childhood), Montessori Center for Teacher Education, San Diego, CA *Kimberly Torres (Elementary I-II), Institute for Montessori Innovation at Westminster College, Salt Lake City, UT Mariah White (Elementary I), University of Wisconsin-River Falls Montessori Teacher Education Program, River Falls, WI Ashley Wooten (Early Childhood), Shelton Montessori Teacher Education Center, Dallas, TX Marah Zabibi (Early Childhood), Hope Montessori Educational Institute, Lake Saint Louis, MO *Scholarships partially funded from the Zell Family Scholarship Fund **Scholarship funded by the Joanne P. Hammes Scholarship Fund Scholarships were drawn from three sources, all administered by AMS: the AMS Living Legacy Scholarship Fund, for which monies were raised in honor of the 2016 Living Legacy, Carolyn Kambich; the Zell Family Scholarship Fund, established by Dr. Pamela Zell Rigg to honor the memory of her late mother, Agnes Kister, and her late brother, John Kister Zell; and the Joanne P. Hammes Scholarship Fund, established by an anonymous donor to honor Ms. Hammes' lifelong work as a Montessori educator.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

Measuring Parent Perception and Understanding of Montessori Education in Three Massachusetts Montessori Schools

Available from: University of Pepperdine

Americas, Montessori schools, North America, Parents - Perceptions, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori method is a comprehensive, child-centered, developmentalist philosophy of education developed by Dr. Maria Montessori in Rome, Italy, in the early 1900s. The Montessori method differs from traditional approaches to education, and has had limited exposure in the U.S. until the last 20 years. Despite this growth, little research data exists on the effectiveness of the method or of parent understanding of the method. This research project attempted to determine parent understanding of the Montessori method of education at three Montessori schools in Massachusetts that educate children from toddlers to grade 8. The objective of the research was to design, implement, and analyze a survey that measured parent understanding of the Montessori principles and classroom practices. The survey was developed using the Montessori principles as the foundation. The goal was to determine both the extent of parent understanding of the Montessori principles and parent perception of how these principles are carried out in the Montessori classroom. Parents and guardians were asked a total of 10 questions, 7 of which were five-point Likert scales. The quantitative questions specifically addressed the six Montessori principles and were designed to test parents’ overall understanding of each principle. Responses ranged from a principle being not at all important to very important. The qualitative portion of the survey instrument utilized three open-ended, self-completed questions designed to reveal a range of parent perceptions about Montessori education and classroom practices. The surveys revealed that parent values and thinking do line up with some aspects of the Montessori method and philosophy. The surveys also revealed that parents seem to value classroom practices contrary to the founding principles. What parents value and what parents think about regarding concepts such as goal setting, achievement, competition with peers, and teachers preparing and presenting lessons is in direct contrast with some of the Montessori founding principles and intentions. If Montessori schools wish to remain viable, they will need to reconcile the Montessori principles with conflicting parent values and, further, determine how to better align their principles with parent views and desires for their children.

Language: English

Published: Malibu, California, 2015

Doctoral Dissertation

Montessori in India: A Study of the Application of her Method in a Developing Country

Available from: University of Sydney Libraries

Asia, Ceylon, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia, Sri Lanka, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: In India the Montessori Method has survived in various forms for a continuous period longer than virtually anywhere else in the world. Its adoption coincided with a crucial period in the nation's history when a growing nationalist movement was seeking to rid the country of foreign domination and dependency. Although the Method was foreign, the emphasis on liberty and the development of individuals capable of independent thought and action appealed to elite groups and to elements of the nationalist movement. The Method was believed to be modern and scientific and was greeted with enthusiasm by those who sought modernization and progress in a traditional society. Late in life Maria Montessori, accompanied by her son Mario, visited India, and her presence over a period of almost nine years from 1939-46 and 1947-49 gave a boost to the growing Montessori movement. Whilst in India, Montessori gave full voice to the spiritualism inherent in her work. In the West she was considered eccentric and her Method out of date, but in India, where religion exerted a powerful and pervasive influence, she was consistent with an ancient tradition of religious educators. A sprinkling of Indians had always attended her international training courses abroad, and in India they flocked to hear her message of human regeneration through the child. The Montessori Method was largely patronized by a relatively affluent, Westernized and urbanized elite who could afford the expensive apparatus. Gandhi, however, had urged Montessori to devise materials in accordance with the economic and social conditions prevailing in India's villages. Although she found much time during the years in India to develop her Method further to cover the period from birth to three years and from six to twelve years, she appears to have given little thought to its application among the country's largely illiterate poor who comprised the bulk of the population. However, an "Indianized" Montessori movement emerged in Western India, allied to the Gandhian nationalist movement, which became concerned with "adapting" the Method according to Gandhian principles, and applying it in the villages. The resultant hybrid pre-primary education enjoyed widespread application in post-Independence India and received recognition at the national level by government and non-government agencies. Recently it has been afforded a crucial role in a major human resources development programme designed to alleviate the effects of poverty amongst women and young children. The present study has drawn on a wide range of primary and secondary sources including archival material, newspapers, journals, published and unpublished correspondence, and personal interviews to trace the history of the Montessori movement in India from the time of early interest in the Method in 1912. The early chapters provide an introduction to Montessori's life and work and an historical background to the adoption of the Method. The application of the Method and the expansion of the Montessori movement is explored in subsequent chapters and, finally, in chapters six and seven, the study discusses directions in the movement after the departure of Madame Montessori and her son in 1949.

Language: English

Published: Sydney, Australia, 1987

Article

Efficacy of Montessori and Traditional Method of Education on Self-Concept Development of Children

Available from: Journal Issues

Publication: International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 29-35

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is a method of education started by Maria Montessori in 1903 for the educationally backward children; after finding its efficacy on them it was thought that it even well suits for the normal children. It became very popular throughout the world in the 20th century and has been implemented both in private and public institutions. Based on certain principles it is evident in many of the researches conducted so far that the Montessori education is conducive for the overall development in social, emotional and cognitive components of children. With this background the present study was conducted to explore the effect of Montessori education on social development in terms of self-concept of the children as compared to the children of traditional method of education. Using descriptive and parametric tests for the obtained data it was found that the Montessori children have very high self-concept than the traditional children. Percentage result shows that the traditional children’s self-concept ranges from low to high category and the Montessori children’s self-concept ranges from high and very high, which indicated marked difference between them in self-concept. According to independent samples t-test results there was a statistical significant difference between the Montessori children group and the traditional children group, the Montessori children are found to have higher self-concept.

Language: English

DOI: 10.15739/IJEPRR.16.005

ISSN: 2360-7076

Undergraduate Thesis

Implementasi metode montessori dalam pembelajaran Matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi [Implementation of the Montessori method in learning Mathematics for children aged 3-4 years at PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya Digital Library

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, dengan kemampuan matematika yang dimiliki anak lain, secara umum anak masih bergantung pada orang tua atau guru dalam memahami pembelajaran yang diberikan guru. Jika dilihat pada anak usia 3-4 tahun yang ada di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, mereka sudah memperlihatkan kemampuan yang dimilikinya mulai dari mengenal bilangan melalui jumlah benda sampai dengan anak mampu menyelesaikan tugas yang diberikan guru. Pada dasarnya dengan memberikan kesempatan kepada anak untuk mencari pengalaman secara langsung dapat menambah kemampuan matematika pada diri anak. Maka metode pembelajaran seperti apakah yang dilakukan di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah sehingga kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun dapat berkembang dengan baik. Rumusan masalah penelitian ini adalah (1) Bagaimana kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo, (2) Bagaimana Implementasi metode Montessori dalam kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Analisa yang digunakan yakni model Miles dan Huberman dimana dalam proses analisanya dimulai dari mereduksi data, kemudian menyajikan dan verifikasi. Teknik keabsahan data yang digunakan yakni metode triangulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa implementasi metode Montessori dalam pembelajaran matematika khususnya di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi berkembang cukup bagus karena anak mulai mampu mengenal bilangan sampai dengan memahami konsep dan mampu menyelesaikan tugas yang diberikan guru dengan sedikit atau tanpa bantuan sama sekali, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa startegi guru dalam menerapkan metode montessori dalam meningkatkan kemampuan matematika yang dimiliki anak sudah mulai berkembang dengan baik. Begitu juga dengan implementasi yang telah dilaksanakan di lembaga PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi sudah sesuai dengan tahapan yang ada pada metode Montessori mulai dari tahapan menunjukkan bilangan, tahapan mengenalkan dengan media pembelajaran kongkret sampai dengan tahapan mengingat kembali pembelajaran matematika yang sudah diberikan guru sebelumnya, sehingga anak dapat meningkatkan kemampuan matematika yang dimilikinya dengan baik. [This research is motivated by the mathematical ability of children aged 3-4 years in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, with the mathematical abilities of other children, in general children still depend on their parents or teachers in understanding the learning given by the teacher. If you look at children aged 3-4 years in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, they have shown their abilities ranging from recognizing numbers through the number of objects until the child is able to complete the tasks given by the teacher. Basically, by providing opportunities for children to seek direct experience, they can increase their mathematical abilities. So what kind of learning method is used in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah so that the mathematical abilities of children aged 3-4 years can develop well. The formulation of the research problem is (1) How is the mathematical ability of children aged 3-4 years at PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo, (2) How is the implementation of the Montessori method in the mathematical abilities of children aged 3-4 years at PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo. This study used a qualitative approach and data collection was carried out using the methods of observation, interviews, and documentation. The analysis used is the Miles and Huberman model where the analysis process starts from reducing data, then presenting and verifying. The data validity technique used is the triangulation method. The results showed that the implementation of the Montessori method in learning mathematics, especially in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi developed quite well because children began to be able to recognize numbers to understand concepts and were able to complete tasks given by the teacher with little or no help, this shows that the teacher's strategy in applying the Montessori method in improving children's mathematical abilities has begun to develop well. Likewise, the implementation that has been carried out at the PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi institution is in accordance with the stages in the Montessori method starting from the stage of showing numbers, the stage of introducing concrete learning media to the stage of recalling mathematics learning that has been given by the previous teacher, so that children can improve their mathematical abilities well.]

Language: English

Published: Surubaya, Indonesia, 2020

Master's Thesis

Pedagoška glasbena načela po Edgarju Willemsu v povezavi s pedagogiko montessori v predšolskem obdobju [Edgar Willems' Pedagogic Principles of Music in Conjunction with the Montessori Method in Pre-School Teaching]

Available from: Digital Library of the University of Maribor (DKUM)

Classroom environment, Edgar Willems - Philosophy, Europe, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Music education, Prepared environment, Slovenia, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori pedagogika in glasbeni pristopi Edgarja Willemsa vzbujajo interes številnih, ki se ukvarjajo z vzgojo in izobraževanjem v povezavi z glasbeno umetnostjo. Težko je opisati razloge, zakaj je temu tako, ker se večina procesov odvija na emocionalni in podzavestni ravni, ki temeljijo na občutenju, nedvomno pa je, da oba pristopa obravnavata otroka kot prioriteto in se ob zavedanju njegovih sposobnosti optimalno razvijata otrokove individualne potenciale. Metodi temeljita na vsebinah, ki otroka vodijo do znanja na sprejemljiv in zabaven način. Oba pristopa poznata seveda tudi drugače misleče, vendar lahko na podlagi izkušenj trdimo, da je razlog temu v nepoznavanju in nekompetentnosti določenih pedagogov in glasbenih pedagogov v kontekstu pedagogike Montessori in metode Edgarja Willemsa. V magistrski nalogi predstavljamo v prvem teoretičnem delu pedagogiko montessori, njena načela in filozofska izhodišča ter pedagoški pristop in metode dela Edgarja Willemsa. V nalogi obravnavamo njune skupne in nasprotujoče vsebine, izhodišča in pristope. Med drugim izpostavljamo, kako glasbeno izobraževanje vpliva na kognitivno-socialni, afektivni in psihomotorični razvoj otrok. Oba pristopa pomembno ugotavljata, da je potrebno razumeti otroka, ga sprejemati kot individuum, vedeti, na kakšen način razmišlja in kako mu je potrebno ustrezno predstaviti nove vsebine, ki bodo otroka zanimale, ga pritegnile in ohranile pri delu dalj časa. V nalogi predstavljamo tudi vlogo vzgojitelja in pomembnost otrokovega okolja. V empiričnem praktičnem delu predstavljamo, kako montessori pedagogika ponuja otrokom glasbo in s katerimi pripomočki. V nalogi predstavljamo tudi posamezne vsebinske dele Willemsovih vzgojno učnih ur, postopek in predloge, kako jih lahko izvajamo ter nekatere pripomočke za uspešno delo. Willems je nedvomno natančneje in bolj strukturirano izoblikoval glasbeno pedagoške metode dela, kot je to razvila pedagogika montessori v predšolskem obdobju. Njegova dognanja sem umestila v montessori okolje tako pri glasbenih dejavnostih, kot tudi v kontekstu pripravljanja materialov, ki so otrokom dostopni kadarkoli v času varstva. Tako se lahko otrok v pripravljenem montessori okolju s pomočjo Willemsovega pristopa bolje seznani z glasbeno umetnostjo. [The Montessori pedagogy and Edgar Willems' approaches to music education arouse interest in many people who work in teaching and education combined with music. It is difficult to define the reasons for this because most of the processes occur on the emotional and subconscious level based on feelings but it is a fact that in both approaches a child is viewed as a priority. While being aware of their abilities, both of them develop individual child’s potentials optimally. The methods are based on the contents that motivate a child to learn in an acceptable and fun way. There are some people who oppose these approaches but from experience we can tell that it is because certain pedagogues and music pedagogues are incompetent and don’t know The Montessori pedagogy and Edgar Willems' method. In the postgraduate thesis we present the Montessori pedagogy, its principles and philosophy basis and Edgar Willems' pedagogic approach and his teaching methods in the first theoretic part. We present the contents, the basis and the approaches they have in common and the ones that are different. We point out how music education influences the cognitive-social, affective and psychomotor children's development. Both approaches point out that it is necessary to understand a child, accept them as individuals, understand their way of thinking and introduce new topics that will be interesting and will motivate them to learn for a longer period of time. We present the role of the teacher and the importance of the child's environment. In the empirical practical part we present how the Montessori pedagogy offers music to the children and what teaching accessories they use. In the thesis we present individual learning content parts of Willems’ lessons, the procedure and suggestions for the process of teaching and some teaching accessories for successful work in class. Willems has undoubtedly created musical pedagogy methods more thoroughly and structurally than the Montessori pedagogy in the preschool period. I have incorporated his discoveries into the Montessori environment with music activities and within preparing the materials which the children can use during the day care. So a child in a well arranged Montessori environment with help of the Willems’ approach can learn more about music.]

Language: Slovenian

Published: Maribor, Slovenia, 2018

Doctoral Dissertation

L’impact de la pédagogie Montessori sur le développement cognitif, social et académique des enfants en maternelle [The impact of Montessori pedagogy on the cognitive, social and academic development of children in kindergarten]

Available from: HAL Theses - Online Theses

Academic achievement, Child development, Europe, France, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: La pédagogie Montessori est une méthode d’éducation qui a été mise au point au début du siècle dernier par Maria Montessori pour des enfants d’un quartier défavorisé de Rome en Italie. Depuis sa création, elle s’est développée à la marge de l’éducation nationale et se retrouve principalement dans des écoles privées. La pédagogie Montessori devient cependant de plus en plus populaire auprès des enseignants de l’école maternelle publique. Ce récent engouement apparaît fondé à la vue de plusieurs principes de cette méthode. En effet, elle promeut l’autonomie, l’auto-régulation, la coopération entre pairs d’âges variés et l’apprentissage à partir de matériels sensoriels et auto-correctifs. Ces caractéristiques sont plutôt en accord avec les connaissances scientifiques sur l’apprentissage et le développement de l’enfant. Cependant, à ce jour, les preuves expérimentales rigoureuses de son efficacité sont limitées. Dans cette thèse, nous avons mesuré les compétences langagières, mathématiques, exécutives et sociales d’enfants d’une école maternelle, repartis aléatoirement entre des classes appliquant la pédagogie Montessori ou une pédagogie conventionnelle. Nous avons suivi leurs progrès au cours des trois années de l’école maternelle (étude longitudinale) et avons comparé les performances des enfants en fin de Grande Section (étude transversale). Nous avons également élaboré une mesure pour évaluer objectivement la qualité d’implémentation de la pédagogie Montessori dans cette école, situé dans un quartier défavorisé. Nos résultats ne montrent pas de différences entre les groupes dans les domaines des mathématiques, des compétences exécutives et des compétences sociales. Cependant, les enfants issus des classes Montessori avaient de meilleures performances en lecture que les enfants issus des classes conventionnelles en fin de Grande Section. La pédagogie Montessori apparaît donc comme adaptée à l’apprentissage de la lecture chez le jeune enfant. [The Montessori method of education was created at the beginning of the last century by Maria Montessori to help children in a disadvantaged neighborhood of Rome in Italy. Although it is nowadays most commonly found in private schools, the Montessori method has gained popularity among teachers in public preschool and kindergarten in France and around the world. This popularity may appear legitimate with regards to the principles underlying the Montessori methods, which involve autonomy, self-regulation, cooperation between children from different age groups and learning with multi-sensorial and self-correcting materials. These characteristics are broadly in line with research on learning and development in young children. However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Montessori method in the scientific literature. In this thesis, we measured the linguistic, mathematical, executive and social skills of preschoolers and kindergarteners from a public school in which children were randomly assigned to classrooms in which the Montessori method was implemented or to classrooms in which a conventional teaching was used. We followed children from the first year of preschool to kindergarten (longitudinal study) and compared the performance of children at the end of kindergarten (cross-sectional study). We also developed a scale to evaluate the quality of implementation of the Montessori method in the school, located in a disadvantaged neighborhood. Our results do not show any difference between groups in terms of mathematical, executive and social skills. However, children from Montessori classrooms had better reading performance than children from conventional classrooms at the end of kindergarten. Therefore, the Montessori method appears to be well suited for developing reading skills of young children.]

Language: French

Published: Lyon, France, 2019

Article

AMS Awards Teacher Education Scholarships

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 27, no. 3

Pages: 17

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Abstract/Notes: Applications-usually about 100 per cycle-are reviewed by a small AMS work group, under the leadership of the AMS Board of Directors Teachers Section chair (currently Suzanne Bayer).Since the program's inception, AMS has awarded over $550,000 to more than 200 aspiring teachers.MARYAM BEIRAMI (Early Childhood), Institute for Advanced Montessori Studies, Silver Spring, MD SARAH BROWN (Elementary I), Montessori Education Center of the Rockies, Boulder, CO SAXON BROWN (Early Childhood), Hope Montessori Educational Institute, Lake St. Louis, MO NEUS CARMONA SAUS (Early Childhood), New England Montessori Teacher Education Center, Goffstown, NH SARAH GALLEY (Early Childhood), Center for Montessori Teacher Education/NC, Angier, NC MONICA GUCWA (Elementary I), Montessori Education Center of the Rockies, Boulder, CO *KRISTINE HABELMANN (Elementary I), Montessori Education Center of the Rockies, Boulder, CO MOLLY HARDY (Early Childhood), New England Montessori Teacher Education Center, Goffstown, NH **DANIELLE HINES (Infant & Toddler), Virginia Center for Montessori Studies, Richmond, VA KAYLA IANNUZZO (Early Childhood), Summit Montessori Teacher Training Institute, Davie, FL FARZANA KHAN (Early Childhood), Dallas Montessori Teacher Education Program, Dallas, TX DEEPIKA KOTTE GANGODA THALAPITIGODAGE (Early Childhood), Midwest Montessori Teacher Training Center, Libertyville, IL CHRISTINA KRENICKI (Early Childhood), Northeast Montessori Institute, Warren, ME LAUREN LUND (Secondary I-II), Cincinnati Montessori Secondary Teacher Education Program, Cincinnati, OH KYLEE MEYER (Early Childhood), Center for Montessori Education/NY, White Plains, NY EILYS ORTA (Infant & Toddler), Village Montessori Training Center, Miami, FL ALYNA PHETSINOR (Early Childhood), Midwest Montessori Teacher Training Center, Libertyville, IL ELISABETH ROSOFF (Infant & Toddler), West Side Montessori School, New York, NY LISA SCHAD (Elementary I-II), Montessori Elementary Teacher Training Collaborative, Arlington TAYLOR WEBB (Early Childhood), Hope Montessori Educational Institute, Lake St. Louis, MO *Scholarship awarded is from the Zell Family Scholarship Fund. **Scholarship partially funded by the Joanne P. Hammes Scholarship Fund.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

The Growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States, 1909-1970

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States during the periods 1909-1921 and 1952-1970. The Montessori system was viewed as an innovation in American education and special attention was directed to the leaders of the movement and the role they played in its growth. The primary sources used for the initial period were the papers of Mabel Bell kept in the Bell Room of the National Geographic Society and the McClure Manuscripts housed in the Lilly Library at Indiana University. For the latter period, the following sources were utilized: American Montessori Society files, files of Whitby School, tape recordings from the American Montessori Society, interviews with Nancy Rambusch, Cleo Monson, John McDermott and correspondence with Mario Montessori and Margaret Stephensen. In addition to visits to the original Casa dei Bambini in Rome and modern Case in Italy, many Montessori schools in the United States were observed. The background of Dr. Montessori was discussed and the influences, principles and contributions of her method were examined. The period from 1909-1921 was analyzed with reference to the leadership of Maria Montessori, S.S. McClure, Mabel Bell, Helen Parkhurst and William Kilpatrick. The social, educational, political, theoretical and communications problems were examined to determine possible reasons for the demise of Montessori education in that era. The renascance [sic] of Montessori education in the United States (1952-1970) was examined with emphasis on the leadership of Mario Montessori, Nancy Rambusch, Margaret Stephenson, Cleo Monson and John McDermott. The areas of social, educational, theoretical and communications were studied for likely reasons for the resurgence of Montessori education in America. A paradigmatic schema was used to compare the role of the leaders in each period: Policy maker- Maria Montessori and Mario Montessori; Promoter- S.S. McClure and Nancy Rambusch; Organizer- Mabel Bell and Cleo Monson; Disciple- Helen Parkhurst and Margaret Stephenson; Professional Educator- William Kilpatrick and John McDermott. The qualities of leadership which led to the original demise of the Montessori Movement were: 1) Mistrust and lack of direct contact with United States educators and Montessori promoters by Maria Montessori; 2) Withdrawal of lecture and film rights from S.S. McClure by Dr. Montessori; 3) Dissolution of Montessori organizations by Mabel Bell and Helen Parkhurst because of lack of confidence in them by Maria Montessori; 5) Strong influence by William Kilpatrick (who did not believe in the Montessori method) on kindergarten teachers. The rebirth of the Montessori Movement was influenced by: 1) Mario Montessori's strong adherence to the original ideas of Maria Montessori; 2) Nancy Rambusch's proper use of leadership and timing and the formation of the American Montessori Society by her; 3) The organized efforts of the American Montessori Society and its teacher-training and public relations function by Cleo Monson; 4) The loyalty and knowledge displayed by Margaret Stephenson in running the Association Montessori Internationale teacher-training course in Washington; 5) the efforts of John McDermott to put Montessori in an American cultural context in teacher-training and professionalization of Montessori education. The writer finds strong indications for the thesis that it was the leadership which effected the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States and recommends further research into other educational innovations in the United States such as the British Infant School Movement and Headstart with attention to the leadership.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1971

Doctoral Dissertation

Montessori e a mídia contemporânea: análise discursiva de textos midiáticos estadunidenses sobre o método Montessori publicados entre 2000 e 2015 [Montessori and the contemporary media: a discursive analysis of american media texts about the Montessori method published between 2000 and 2015]

Available from: Universidade de São Paulo

Americas, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: O método Montessori, como se convencionou chamar a perspectiva pedagógica derivada do trabalho de Maria Montessori (1870-1952), foi desenvolvido, principalmente, ao longo da primeira metade do século XX. Até hoje, no entanto, há escolas, publicações e cursos para professores sendo criados em todo o mundo. Desde o início de sua história, a pedagogia montessoriana aparece frequentemente na mídia de vários países do mundo, e, em alguns momentos da história, representou tanto um fenômeno midiático quanto editorial (KRAMER, 1988). Esta pesquisa trabalhou com um arquivo de textos midiáticos, publicados desde 1911 nos Estados Unidos da América e dedicou-se à análise e à interpretação de um corpus de textos da mesma natureza. Uma ênfase da análise foi dada aos textos publicados entre os anos 2000 e 2015. O aporte teórico das análises e das reflexões expostas aqui é a Análise de Discurso filiada aos estudos do inconsciente e da ideologia, iniciada na França, por Michel Pêcheux, e desenvolvida e ampliada no Brasil por autoras como Eni Orlandi. A história da perspectiva pedagógica de que tratamos já foi explorada antes por diversos autores (STANDING, 1962; KRAMER, 1988; POVELL, 2010, entre outros), mas poucos tangenciaram o trabalho da mídia quanto a essa pedagogia, embora mencionem a importância desta mesma instância de produção, e nenhuma das publicações emprega a perspectiva discursiva, que pode oferecer outros pontos de vista e permite a interlocução de diversas áreas de estudo. Os resultados obtidos com esta pesquisa apontam para uma direção previsível e duas bifurcações importantes desta. Em primeiro lugar, como propõe a teoria da Análise de Discurso, a produção discursiva é atravessada pela ideologia, e, assim, os textos com que trabalhamos fazem parte de um conjunto de sentidos e proposições que harmonizam com o verdadeiro, como operado pela ideologia dominante. Isso tem duas consequências específicas para este corpus. Por um lado, os sentidos que caracterizam o método Montessori são vinculados a valores não estranhos ao neoliberalismo e ao discurso empreendedor: fala-se muito de diversão, e, ao mesmo tempo, de alto desempenho, liberdade, sucesso, escolha individual e liderança. Por outro lado, há uma contradição muito presente entre caracterizar-se Montessori como uma pedagogia alternativa e dizer-se que Montessori é só uma via diversa para se alcançar os mesmos fins: alto desempenho acadêmico e sucesso financeiro. Em segundo lugar, notamos a proeminência do ponto de vista adulto sobre o possível ponto de vista infantil. Os textos, especialmente a partir de 2011, fazem sentido, com frequência, construindo as vantagens que a pedagogia montessoriana representa para o adulto, segundo uma perspectiva corporativa ou empreendedora. Por meio de nossa análise, pudemos caracterizar a configuração do discurso midiático sobre o método Montessori nos Estados Unidos e compreender como os sentidos se articulam para fazer de Montessori uma perspectiva válida e positiva, ao mesmo tempo, silenciando os sentidos que, ligados a ela, poderiam ser desarmônicos e, até mesmo, arriscados para a hegemonia do verdadeiro sobre a criança e sobre a educação. [The Montessori method, as the pedagogical perspective derived from the work of Maria Montessori (1870-1952) is usually called, was developed mainly during the first half of the twentieth century. To this day, however, there are schools, publications and courses for teachers being created around the world. From the beginning of its history, Montessori pedagogy has frequently appeared in the media of several countries, and at some moments in history has represented both a mediatic and editorial phenomenon (KRAMER, 1988). This research relies on an archive of media texts published since 1911 in the United States of America and is focused on the analysis and interpretation of a corpus of texts of the same nature. Emphasis was given to those texts published between the years 2000 and 2015. The theoretical foundation for the analyzes and reflections exposed here is the Discourse Analysis affiliated to the studies of the unconscious and the ideology, initiated in France by Michel Pêcheux, and developed and expanded in Brazil by authors such as Eni Orlandi. The history of the pedagogical perspective that we have dealt with has already been explored by several authors (STANDING, 1962, KRAMER, 1988, POVELL, 2010 and others), but few have touched on the work of the media in relation to this pedagogy, although they recognize its relevance, and none of the publications adopts the discursive perspective, which can offer other points of view, allowing the interlocution with several areas of study. The results obtained with this research point to a predictable direction, and two important and novel bifurcations. First, as the theory of discourse analysis proposes, discursive production is traversed by ideology, and thus the texts we work with are part of a set of meanings and propositions that harmonize with the truth, as operated by the dominant ideology. This, in turn, has two specific consequences for this corpus. On the one hand, the meanings that characterize the Montessori method are linked to values not unfamiliar to neoliberalism and entrepreneurial discourse: much is said of fun, and at the same time high performance, freedom, and success, individual choice, and leadership. There is a very present contradiction between characterizing Montessori as an alternative pedagogy and saying that Montessori is only an alternative way to achieve the same ends: high academic performance and financial success. Secondly, we notice the prominence of the adult point of view over the possible infantile one. The texts, especially as of 2011, often make sense from the advantages that the Montessori pedagogy represents for the adult, from a corporate or entrepreneurial perspective. Through our analysis, we have been able to characterize the configuration of the media discourse on the Montessori method in the United States and to understand how the senses are articulated to make Montessori a valid and positive pedagogical perspective, while silencing the meanings that could, if linked to that, be disharmonious, and we would say risky, for the hegemony of the truth about the child and about education.]

Language: Portuguese

Published: São Paulo, Brazil, 2019

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