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Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Connecting Rituals on Verbal Conflicts in the Montessori Preschool Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this action research project was to see if a program through Conscious Discipline called Connecting Rituals would decrease the number of verbal conflicts in a Montessori preschool classroom. Conscious Discipline is a non-punitive, non-adversarial behavior program that is backed by current brain science. One aspect of the Conscious Discipline model is Connecting Rituals. Connecting Rituals are short games, nursery rhymes, and finger plays that adults and children do together in large or small groups. The Connecting Rituals would increase self-regulation and social skills in a Montessori preschool classroom. The study was conducted in a Montessori preschool classroom at a small Montessori school in the Midwestern United States with 23 preschool children, 2.5-6 years old children. Data was collected over a 4 week period using tally marks to record the number of conflicts, a large group discussion, a teacher daily journal and a post-connecting ritual form. Every day the researcher did a Connecting Ritual at the large group gathering with all the children before lunch and at least one Connecting Ritual with each child during the morning work time over a two week period. The study found that the Connecting Rituals did decrease the number of verbal conflicts, but the results were not significant. Further study is needed to understand the long term effects of using Connecting Rituals in the classroom.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2020

Doctoral Dissertation

The Effects of Multiple External Mandates on Curriculum, Pedagogy and Child Activity in the Preschool Classroom

Available from: University of Massachusetts - Scholar Works

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Abstract/Notes: Within the last decade, the pressures of implementing state mandated early learning guidelines and meeting the requirements from federal, state and local agencies, have taken their toll on many preschool programs. In the present study, preschool programs were given a chance to voice their opinions about how curriculum standards and other external mandates were directly and indirectly influencing curriculum planning, teaching practices, and child activity. A brief survey was sent to 90 preschool directors in a region in Massachusetts, 28 directors completed this survey. A sample of nine directors, from the survey respondents, volunteered to be interviewed. In two separate interviews the researcher asked a series of questions to obtain data from the participants. These interview questions focused on how the participants made sense of the mandatory integration of early learning standards and other external mandates into their preschool program and their concerns based on their role as a preschool director. The results of the study revealed that external guidelines set forth by the state and federal government were a great concern to the preschool directors. These directors agreed that curriculum mandates were necessary yet the amount of work, time and expenditure needed to meet the demands of these mandates could be quite overwhelming. Concerns were particularly relevant in the areas of obtaining or maintaining NAEYC accreditation and the push for a standardized curriculum and/or a standardized assessment tool. To recieve specific types of funding, a program must be using a standardized assessment tool. Many funding sources also require that a program be accredited by NAEYC. The financial and physical expense of both of these requirements was prohibitive . The results were analyzed with respect to child development and early childhood education principles. The findings indicated that curriculum mandates focused primarily on young children’s cognitive development to the detriment of social and emotional competence. The findings also indicated that children were being pressured to spend more time on narrow academic skills and less time on play. Yet play has been found to provide children with opportunities to interact socially, express and control emotions, and develop symbolic thinking skills (Nicolopoulou, 2010).

Language: English

Published: Amherst, Massachusetts, 2011

Doctoral Dissertation

Success and Failure in Five Different Programs of Preschool Intervention With Culturally Disadvantaged Children

Available from: University of Illinois - IDEALS

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Language: English

Published: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 1969

Doctoral Dissertation (Ed.D.)

Effectiveness of Preschool in Preparing Students for Kindergarten: A Comparison of Early Childhood Curriculum Models

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Early childhood education has been shown to positively impact future academic performance, as well as social and emotional development. With ever-increasing demands being placed on children's academic performances, school readiness has become a key component of academic success. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to examine the effectiveness of different early childhood curriculum models in preparing children for kindergarten, and to investigate whether one early childhood curriculum model better prepares students than another. The theoretical framework for the study is based on the developmental constructivist theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, and Dewey. Kindergarten teachers assessed school readiness by administering the Kindergarten Observation Form. Each student had matriculated from either Montessori, High/Scope, or Reggio Emilia programs or early childhood programs without an identified curriculum model. Kindergarten teachers rated students on 24 items related to areas of cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical development. ANOVA and post-hoc tests revealed that students matriculating from programs without an identified curriculum model scored significantly better than their counterparts, F (3,122) = 5.33, p = .002. Implications for social change include improved kindergarten readiness on the part of students, increased awareness by educators as to best practices in early childhood education, and, a move towards understanding the types of environments in which children learn best.

Language: English

Published: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2012

Doctoral Dissertation

An Exploration of the Relationship Between Preschool Experience and the Acquisition of Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In order to address perceived problems of readiness for kindergarten it is important to know more about the effect of preschool attendance on improving the literacy skills of phonological awareness. The purpose of the study was to explore the possible effects of belonging to a particular ethnic group, attending preschool, belonging to varying socioeconomic groups, and belonging to a group classified as English as a second language on academic progress in phonological awareness. The data set included 134 children who attended kindergarten in the 2000-2001 school year. The children belonged to one of four preschool cohorts: those who attended a preschool using the High/Scope curriculum, a Montessori preschool program, a Head Start preschool program, and children who had not attended preschool of any kind, including summer preschool. Variables included the seven subtests from the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) for the fall and spring of kindergarten, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (free and reduced lunch) and English as a second language classification. Analysis of variance was used for the exploratory study. Exploratory analysis suggested that ethnicity had an effect on a child's scores in the fall and spring of kindergarten in select subtests (spelling, letter sound and summed score). Analysis also suggested a significant main effect on fall scores of all subtests for socioeconomic status. For children classified as English as a second language, analysis suggested order of means for both fall and spring for all subtests was native English and then English as a Second Language. Finally, the analysis suggested Montessori programs had the highest mean score in all subtests. The no preschool cohort was lowest in both fall and spring on word recognition, alphabet recognition, letter sounds, and summed score. A significant main effect attributable for preschool program was noted on all subtests for both fall and spring.

Language: English

Published: Fairfax, Virginia, 2003

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of Montessori and Non-Montessori Teachers' Beliefs About Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Preschools

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In this study, 173 preschool teachers (80 non-Montessori teachers and 93 Montessori teachers) were given a survey at two early childhood professional conferences that examined their beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP). The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate preschool teachers' beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP); (b) discover the similarities and differences in the factor structures of the Teacher's Beliefs Scale (TBS) between the study conducted by Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thomasson, Mosley, and Fleege in 1993 and the current study about DAP; (c) discover the similarities and differences of Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP) beliefs between Montessori teachers and preschool teachers; and (d) investigate the factors that are related to teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) was used to assess preschool teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. Factor analysis was used to support the validity of TBS in the current study. Multiple t-tests were used to identify the differences in developmental appropriate/inappropriate beliefs between Montessori and non-Montessori teachers. Multiple regression analyses were used to explain the relationship between variables of 173 Montessori and non-Montessori preschool teachers. Results of the study showed that a majority of preschool teachers agreed with 22 Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) and 12 Developmentally Inappropriate Practices (DIP). Responses to seven items were different from the original study (Charlesworth et al., 1993). There was a significant difference on Inappropriate Activities and on Appropriate Child Choice between non-Montessori and Montessori teachers. There was a relationship between teachers' beliefs about DAP and teachers' educational backgrounds, teaching experiences, ethics, and DAP understanding level in the current study.

Language: English

Published: Greeley, Colorado, 2003

Doctoral Dissertation

Where Have All the Children Gone? A Case Study of Three American Preschools

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In sociological investigation, Weber (1968) believes that concrete historical events can be interpreted in terms of social action. These patterns of action differ from historical accounts, which explore the importance of causal explanation of individual events. Entwistle and Alexander (1993) contend that sociologists of education have paid little attention to patterns of class interaction and inequality in preschools. Adding to Hartley's (1993) work on nursery schools in Scotland, and using an organizational model with a sociohistorical standpoint, this ethnographic case study helps to bridge that gap by concentrating on the historical and ecological contexts of (1) a Laboratory school; (2) a Montessori school; and, (3) a Head Start center. The central problem of the study seeks an answer to the question "If inequalities in preschools exist, what do they look like?" This study assumes that historically educational systems have exerted a form of social control over children in order to transmit cultural values. Part I of the study examines ancient and modern societies, their cultures and their philosophical grounding to reveal the values and trends that contribute to social change in the early education of children. Part II adds a triangulation strategy to explore the ecology (environment and culture) of the three schools in the study. These strategies include archival content analysis of the preschool organizations, nonparticipant observation of the classrooms (Bell, 1993), intensive interviewing of the staff and administration members and a brief survey of the preschool parents. This study draws from the sociology of Weber's "ideal bureaucracy," Berger's "bureaucratic cognitive style," Elias' "civilizing process," Bernstein's "visible and invisible" pedagogy, Bourdieu's "cultural capital" and Anyon's "biased ideological messages." In this exploratory study, the data analysis uses a descriptive methodology, not to draw conclusions, but similar to Glaser and Strauss' "grounded theory" to introduce questions to be explored further by researchers. A final section on policy recommendations is included.

Language: English

Published: Boston, Massachusetts, 2000

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Okul Öncesi Montessori Eğitimi Yaklaşımında Sanat Eğitimi ve Yaratıcılık / Art Education and Creativity in Preschool Montessorian Educational Approach

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi / Dicle University Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education Journal, no. 34

Pages: 48-59

Art education, Asia, Creative ability in children, Creative thinking in children, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Middle East, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: In this research, the effect of Montessori education approach on the creativity of pre - school children in visual arts lesson was investigated and the creativity developments in students were observed. 20 students between 48-66 months were applied the Montessori Education Approach and 60 students were applied the Ministry of National Education Teacher-centereted Approach program and these two were compared to each other. Equal units are applied in both programs. This research has tried to determine the effects of visual presentations on student's creativity, reflections of artworks in terms of originality and innovations, attitudes of liberated children to lesson and their effects on achievement. The results of the research show that in the classrooms where the Montessori Education Approach is applied, the cooperation is significantly increased, the students are participated to the lectures without any instruction, the creativity is developed in the positive direction and it was seen that the students learned the places of the materials and took it when they needed it. In the visual arts education courses implementated by the Ministry of Education Program Teacher Centered Approach, teachers use visual materials, sample models, narration and question-answer methods to guide the students and reach the result which limits original and new ideas. It has been observed that the limitation of the creativity of the students is the effect of the presence of the material cupboards in closed cupboards at the height that they can not reach. / Bu araştırmada, okul öncesi eğitim programında yer alan görsel sanatlar eğitimi ders konularının, Montesori Eğitimi Yaklaşımı programı uygulanarak, yaratıcılık gelişimlerine etkisinin nasıl olduğu belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. 48-66 ay grubundaki 20 öğrenciye Montessori Eğitimi Yaklaşım programı, aynı yaş grubundaki 60 öğrenciye Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Öğretmen Merkezli Yaklaşım uygulanmış ve iki yaklaşım karşılaştırılmıştır. Görsel sanatlar eğitimi dersi, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı okul öncesi programı Öğretmen Merkezli Yaklaşım ve Montessori eğitimi yaklaşımı ayrı araştırma gruplarında eşit üniteler halinde uygulanarak işlenmiştir. Bu araştırma ile görsellerle yapılan anlatım sunumlarının öğrencilerin yaratıcılıklarına etkileri, sanat çalışmalarının özgünlük ve yenilik açısından yansımaları, özgür bırakılan çocukların derse karşı tutumları, öğrenci başarısına etkileri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçları, Montessori Eğitimi Yaklaşımı uygulanan sınıftaki öğrencilerde yardımlaşmanın önemli ölçüde arttığı, çocuklara yönelik yönerge olmadan derslere kendi istekleri doğrultusunda katıldıkları, yaratıcılıklarının olumlu yönde geliştiği ve malzemelerin yerlerini öğrenerek ihtiyaç duyduklarında aldıkları görülmüştür. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Programı Öğretmen Merkezli Yaklaşım ile işlenen görsel sanatlar eğitimi derslerinde, öğretmenlerin görsel materyalleri, örnek modelleri, anlatım ve soru-cevap yöntemlerini kullanmaları öğrencileri yönlendirerek özgün ve yeni fikirleri sınırlardığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Öğrencilerin yaratıcılıklarının sınırlanmasında malzeme dolaplarının ulaşamayacakları yükseklikte kapalı dolaplarda bulunmasının da etkisi olduğu gözlemlenmiştir.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.14582/DUZGEF.1902

ISSN: 1305-0060

Doctoral Dissertation

Empathy, Social Problem-Solving, and the Social Behavior of Preschoolers

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: A social skills intervention was implemented at two suburban preschools. The purpose of the intervention was to develop subjects' empathic and social problem-solving skills to test whether this training would increase prosocial behavior in class. In addition, the study compared the effectiveness of two teaching methods in promoting cognitive and affective skills: training using role playing and discussion-based training. The subjects were 45 children of both sexes between the ages of four-and-one-half to five-and-one-half years. At each school, teachers led one of three training groups: empathy and problem-solving using role playing; the same training using discussion; home and outdoor safety training, which served as an attention-control group. Training sessions were conducted for 15 to 20 minutes, three times a week for six weeks. Pre- and post-intervention empathy, role-taking, problem-solving scores, observational behavior ratings, and teacher ratings using the Devereux scales were administered. Results of pre-testing revealed expected, significant associations between cognitive and affective skills and between these abilities and subjects' social behavior, with empathy showing the strongest associations. Responses to affective measures, however, did not prove to be consistent across emotions. Empathic and role-taking responses to anger and fear stimuli were unrelated to responses to happiness and sadness stimuli, yet were associated most strongly with observed and rated social behaviors. No significant differences in gain scores emerged across the three treatment groups on outcome measures, although gains in cognitive and affective skills correlated significantly with behavioral improvement. The most likely reasons for this lack of training effects across groups were: all children were from a higher SES background and displayed fewer behavioral problems than subjects used by many other studies in this area; children at one setting (a Montessori program) were much less receptive to a group social skills approach; the small sample size provided insufficient statistical power to assess small effects. Implications of the study's findings for future measurement and training of empathy and social problem-solving skills were discussed.

Language: English

Published: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1983

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of a Collaborative Team on Early Intervention in a Preschool

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this project was to see what effects collaboration had on early intervention in a preschool. Fourteen guides at a Montessori preschool in Texas were asked to complete a beginning survey, attend weekly collaborative meetings for seven weeks, attend a focus group and complete an ending survey. Data showed that collaboration helped the teachers feel more valued and supported when helping all kinds of different learners. For the purpose of this study, different learners included children with behavioral concerns, learning disabilities and support needs. Interventions ranged from activities or exercises for individual children to lessons given to a group. Future research could be focused on how to bring the parents into the collaborative process for intervention and/or at what point a child should be referred for speech or occupational therapy evaluations.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2016

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