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437 results

Article

Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Academic Assistance Networks in a Holistic Education Secondary School

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 25-41

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Abstract/Notes: One goal of Erdkinder schools is for students and teachers to provide academic assistance to their peers, particularly to less-knowledgeable ones. However, traditional educational evaluations do not provide a means to investigate the exchange of academic help. This study piloted the use of social network analysis to describe academic assistance relationships within a Montessori secondary school. Using a network survey, social network data concerning the exchange of academic help were collected from 23 students and 8 teachers. The results show that while students provide help to both fellow students and teachers, teachers are the main source of assistance for students. In some subjects, a few students and teachers neither provided nor received assistance, indicating another area for improvement. The results of a multiple regression quadratic assignment procedure (multiple regression-QAP) show that for most subjects, their willingness to help others was not significantly influenced by their own personal level of knowledge. Thus, more-knowledgeable individuals do not provide more assistance to less-knowledgeable peers. To adhere to Erdkinder principles, this school should encourage more-knowledgeable students to recognize their responsibility to help others and to actually help those who need support. This pilot yielded valuable information, and social network analysis warrants further study within holistic education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i1.6639

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 46, no. 2

Pages: 299-311

Asia, Comparative education, East Asia, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Taiwan

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Abstract/Notes: The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study. Children’s scores were measured by Elementary School Language Ability Achievement Test (ESLAAT), Elementary School Math Ability Achievement Test (ESMAAT), and Social Studies Ability Achievement Test (SSAAT). One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that students who had Montessori experience had a significantly higher score in language arts in all three grade levels. In math, first grade students scored higher but not second and third grade students. However, in social studies, students who had received Montessori education did not score significantly higher than the non-Montessori students. There was also no significant difference between the number of years spent in Montessori programs and students’ language arts, math, and social studies test scores in first, second, and third grade.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s13158-014-0108-7

ISSN: 0020-7187, 1878-4658

Article

Comprehensive School Reform and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: Review of Educational Research, vol. 73, no. 2

Pages: 125-230

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Abstract/Notes: Using 232 studies, this meta analysis reviewed the research on the achievement effects of the nationally disseminated and externally developed school improvement programs known as "whole-school" or "comprehensive" reforms. In addition to reviewing the overall achievement effects of comprehensive school reform (CSR), the meta analysis considered the specific effects of 29 of the most widely implemented models. It also assessed how various CSR components, contextual factors, and methodological factors associated with the studies mediate the effects of CSR. The analysis concludes that CSR is still an evolving field and that there are limitations on the overall quantity and quality of the research base. The overall effects of CSR, though, appear promising and the combined quantity, quality, and statistical significance of evidence from three of the models in particular set them apart from the rest. Whether evaluations are carried out by the developer or by third-party evaluators and whether these evaluators use one-group pre-post designs or control groups are especially important factors for understanding differences in CSR effects. Schools implementing CSR models for five years or more showed particularly strong effects, but the models benefited equally schools of higher and lower poverty levels. A long-term commitment to research-proven educational reform is needed to establish a strong marketplace of scientifically based models capable of bringing comprehensive reform to the nations schools. One appendix lists studies included in the meta analysis, and the other discusses CSR design characteristics. (Contains 1 figure, 5 tables, and 74 references.) (SLD) Also included in JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3516091

Language: English

DOI: 10.3102/00346543073002125

ISSN: 0034-6543, 1935-1046

Article

Multiage Programming Effects on Cognitive Developmental Level and Reading Achievement in Early Elementary School Children

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Reading Psychology, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 1-17

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Abstract/Notes: Differences in cognitive developmental level and reading achievement of elementary school children in multiage programming and traditional classrooms were explored. There is controversy regarding the benefit of multiage classrooms for learning academic subjects. According to previous research (e.g., Almy, Chittenden, & Miller, 1967; Brekke, Williams, & Harlow, 1973; Cromey, 1999), cognitive developmental level, reading achievement, and classroom type all seem to be related entities. This study assesses the effects of multiage classrooms compared to traditional classrooms on cognitive developmental level and reading ability of kindergartners, first graders, and second graders. The effects of cognitive developmental level on reading ability were also explored. The results support the connections among cognitive developmental level, reading ability, and classroom type.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/02702710490271800

ISSN: 0270-2711

Article

Follow-up of Children from Academic and Cognitive Preschool Curricula at 12 and 16

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: Exceptional Children, vol. 71, no. 3

Pages: 301-317

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Abstract/Notes: We report here cognitive and academic outcome measures at ages 12 and 16 for approximately 80% of a sample of 205 children who had been randomly assigned to 2 programs for developmentally delayed preschoolers, Direct Instruction (DI) and Mediated Learning (ML). There were no main effect differences between programs, but there were aptitude-by-treatment interactions similar to those found earlier: initially lower functioning students benefited more from the ML program, whereas initially higher functioning students benefited more from the DI program. Multiple regression analyses suggested that lower scores on cognitive and academic achievement measures are associated with greater experience in special education, even controlling for preschool period ability measures, gender, and ethnicity. The challenges of interpreting this result are discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1177/001440290507100306

ISSN: 0014-4029, 2163-5560

Doctoral Dissertation

Executive Function, Social-Emotional Skills, and Academic Competence in Three Preschool Programmes: Pathways to School Readiness

Available from: British Librarty - EthOS

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Abstract/Notes: Research findings indicate that executive function (EF), social-emotional skills, and pre-academic competence significantly promote children's school readiness and later success. School readiness broadly refers to a combination of skills necessary to function successfully in school and lack thereof may increase the risk of children's school problems. Therefore, it is essential for school systems to provide appropriate and timely support to the development of these fundamental skills. The present study focused on three particular preschool programmes: Montessori, Reggio Emilia, and the traditional play-based (British Columbia Early Learning Framework: BCEFL) programmes in Western Canada. Although they are popular, there is little empirical research that examines and compares the benefits of these programmes to the development of school readiness skills. As such, the present study aimed to 1) determine the effectiveness of these three preschool programmes in Western Canada on the development of children's school readiness; and 2) examine other sources of influences in the child, family and school in relation to the development of school readiness skills. Overall, 119 preschool children (48 Montessori, 42 Reggio Emilia, 29 BCELF) participated in the study. Observation was conducted once in the autumn of 2015 for each classroom using the CLASS observation tool. Teachers and parents of participating children filled in a series of questionnaires regarding the quality of their relationship with their child and their perceptions of daily EF and social-emotional skills of their child. The researcher also assessed individual children's fluid intelligence, EF, and pre-academic competence. The results showed that 1) although Montessori education appeared to be the most effective in facilitating numeracy skills, no curriculum stood out as notably more effective than any of the others at improving other areas of school readiness skills; 2) well-run classrooms where teachers were effective in time, behavioural, and attention management were most effective in promoting children's numeracy skills; 3) EF, social-emotional skills, and pre-academic competence exhibited an overlapping developmental process over time; 4) relational quality in both home and school environments significantly affected the development of school readiness skills, especially social-emotional skills; and 5) adults' perceptions of children's EF and social-emotional skills had a significant consequence for how teachers and parents formed their relationships with their children.

Language: English

Published: Oxford, England, 2018

Doctoral Dissertation

Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable to measure student performance. A matched control was utilized in which nongraded students were compared with graded students based on gender, ethnicity, and date of birth. Data analysis included independent samples t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and effect size. Results showed that nongraded students had a significant advantage over their graded counterparts in literacy achievement (p=0.000). Effect size for the matched group increased with length of exposure in the nongraded program from Cohen's d=0.49 to d=0.99. It is difficult to determine if significant outcomes were the result of classroom structure or instructional strategies used in the nongraded setting. However, a unique quality of this study involves the rare conditions and matched control design that allowed for variables to be controlled, which have yet to be simultaneously accounted for in multiage studies to date. Based on the results, this study suggested that nongraded education, by responding to the developmental nature of children in the classroom, may offer a viable alternative to the graded system. In nations such as Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Finland, and Canada with the highest literacy rates in the world, nongraded classrooms are common educational practice.

Language: English

Published: Los Angeles, California, 2011

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effect of Student-Led Conferencing at School and at Home on Goal-Setting, Goal-Fulfillment, Effort, Achievement, Intrinsic Motivation, and Satisfaction for Montessori Lower Elementary 3rd Year Students.

Available from: St. Catherine University

Academic achievement, Action research, Americas, Goal setting, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study was designed to determine the effect of weekly student-led conferences (both at-home and at-school) on goal setting, goal fulfillment, effort, achievement, intrinsic motivation, and satisfaction. One teacher, eight Montessori third-year lower elementary students, and eight parents participated in the study for six weeks. Baseline data on goal setting and fulfillment was collected and analyzed. Guiding questions designed to encourage and support the students formed the content of the conferences. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered. The results showed that while the intervention did not help the students set and fulfill greater quantities of goals, it did have a positive effect on the prioritizing of academic and project-based goals. Communication and relationships between parties also increased, resulting in greater adult awareness of student success and challenge, as well as more supportive adult behavior. Continued research could involve a modified home and school conference format for all lower elementary students.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2017

Doctoral Dissertation

Prediction of School Achievement in Preschool Montessori Children

Academic achievement, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools

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Language: English

Published: Buffalo, New York, 1977

Conference Paper

Promoting Achievement in Child Centered Education: Evaluation of a Non-Graded, Multi-age, Continuous Progress Primary School (K-3)

Available from: ERIC

American Education Research Association Annual Meeting (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 4-8, 1994)

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Abstract/Notes: An evaluation was conducted of a comprehensive plan to restructure a primary school in Candler County, Georgia, into a non-graded, multi-age, continuous progress learning center. The project entailed restructuring the classroom, implementing a shared decision-making structure, developing a learning curriculum, and using portfolio assessment to monitor student progress. The project was evaluated on three objectives: academic success, positive self-esteem and socialization, and the project's shared decision-making structure. These objectives were evaluated according to a case-study design, with the inclusion of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Academic success was examined through the following instruments: the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, portfolio writing, an informal reading inventory, and teacher ranking. Parent questionnaires, teacher questionnaires, and teacher interviews were used to evaluate positive self-esteem and socialization. Teacher interviews, teacher workshops,

Language: English

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