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507 results

Article

The Education of Normal Children Together with Children Suffering from Various and Multiple Handicaps

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1976, no. 1/2

Pages: 18–28

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Theodor Hellbrügge - Speeches, addresses, etc., Theodor Hellbrügge - Writings, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Lecture given in Frankfurt, Germany, 1975

Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959

Article

Integrated Edcuaton of Healthy Children and Children with Multiple and Variable Disorders

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1981, no. 1/2

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Special education

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959

Article

Fort Play: Children Recreate Recess

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 19, no. 3

Pages: 20-30

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Recess beckons well before it actually arrives. Its allure can be heard in children's lunchtime conversations as they discuss imaginary roles, plans, alliances and teams, with an obvious appetite for play and its unbounded possibility. For some children, recess provides the most important reasons to come to school. In team sports, games of chase and tag, clique-bound conversations, solitary wandering and exploration, pretend and war play, recess offers reliable access to a scarce resource of immense value in the lives of children: spontaneous self-direction. Although watched over by the protective though generally unobtrusive gaze of supervising teachers, children at recess interact with their natural environment and with each other as they choose--a freedom denied them at other times while at school, and increasingly in their homes and neighborhood. As a lower elementary teacher at Lexington Montessori School (LMS) in Lexington, MA, from 1994 through 2002, the author witnessed for eight years the development of an extraordinary child-centered and spontaneous world of recess play (Powell, 2007). As children entered the elementary program at LMS, their peers initiated them into a culture of fort building. The forts, built entirely from sticks, leaves, and found objects from the surrounding woods, were the sites of considerable experimentation with different forms and rules of social organization and various styles of construction. They were also the vehicles for much of the conflict that occurred at the school. Children negotiated and clashed over ownership of land and resources and argued about the rules and roles of fort play and whether the rights of those already identified with a structure outweighed the rights of outsiders to be included. In doing so, they developed and influenced each other's reasoning about such moral principles as benevolence, justice, and reciprocity. Fort play was unpredictable, immediate, exciting, and fun, a brief window of opportunity,among hours of mostly adult-inspired activities and expectations, in which these children were free to manage their own lives and interact with each other on their own terms. As in the case of other schools where fort play has flourished, the LMS forts were in no way a programmed activity but rather a spontaneous one that simply wasn't stopped.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

I bambini alla conquista di sé con la vita pratica / Niños a la conquista de sí mismos con la vida práctica / Children conquering themselves with the practical life

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 3, no. 3

Pages: 75-96

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Abstract/Notes: L’autrice studia il campo di applicazione delle attività della «vita pratica» sviluppate da Maria Montessori, che costituiscono i fondamenti principali nella Casa dei Bambini (3-6 anni). Queste sono sovente considerate meno importanti delle altre attività in quanto non sono strettamente congiunte all’apprendimento accademico di base. Dopo averne spiegato le origini, l’autrice presenta varie definizioni, soffermandosi sulla differenza tra i «giochi di far finta» e le attività della vita pratica. Dopo aver commentato le classificazioni più importanti, presenta gli obiettivi che queste attività raggiungono affinché la personalità del bambino si sviluppi in maniera integrale. Ciò viene mostrato tramite numerosi esempi osservati in tutto il mondo. È dimostrato che le attività della «vita pratica» rispondo alle profonde necessità che il bambino ha di muoversi e lavorare facendo uso delle sue grossolane abilità motorie. Si sottolinea il nesso tra questo lavoro e lo sviluppo del pensiero matematico, che mostra come queste attività sviluppano le funzioni esecutive del cervello. Spesso l’adulto, cercando di evitare di far stancare il bambino, produce l’effetto contrario e dunque non gli permette di produrre lavori autentici, come al bambino piacerebbe. Vengono analizzate le preparazioni necessarie dell’ambiente e del modo di presentare queste attività. C’è un interesse particolare nell’analisi e nell’economia dei movimenti, temi prediletti da Maria Montessori. L’autrice descrive anche i principi più importanti che devono guidare la selezione dei materiali, che diversamente da altre aree del lavoro non sono scientifiche e dunque lasciano maggiori opportunità di creatività alle maestre. / La autora investiga el campo de aplicación de las actividades de la “vida práctica” desarrolladas por Maria Montessori, que constituyen la base fundamental en la Casa dei Bambini (3-6 años). Éstas son muchas veces consideradas menos importantes que otras actividades porque no están íntimamente ligadas al aprendizaje académico básico. Después de explicar sus orígenes, la autora presenta varias definiciones, para, a continuación, centrarse en las diferencias entre el “juego simbólico” y las actividades de la vida práctica. Después de comentar las clasificaciones más importantes, se presentan los objetivos que logran estas actividades para que la personalidad del niño se desarrolle de una forma integral. Se ilustra a través de numerosos ejemplos observados en todo el mundo. Está demostrado que las actividades de la “vida práctica” responden a las profundas necesidades que el niño tiene de moverse y trabajar usando sus habilidades motoras gruesas. Se hace hincapié en la conexión entre este trabajo y el desarrollo del pensamiento matemático, que muestra cómo estas actividades desarrollan las funciones ejecutivas del cerebro. Muchas veces el adulto, tratando de evitar cansar al niño, produce el efecto contrario y así, no permite al niño producir trabajos auténticos como al niño le gustaría. Se analiza también la preparación necesaria del ambiente y del modo de presentar estas actividades. Hay un interés particular en el análisis y la economía de movimientos, temas preferidos por Maria Montessori. La autora también describe los principios más importantes que deben guiar la selección de materiales que, en contra de lo que sucede en otras áreas de trabajo no son científicos, por lo tanto, dejan más oportunidades de creatividad a las profesoras. / The author investigates the scope of “Practical Life” activities developed by Maria Montessori that are mainly found in the Children’s House (3-6 years). These are often regarded less important than other activities because they are not closely linked to basic academic learning. After explaining their origin, the author presents several definitions, pausing to focus on the distinction between “pretend” games and practical life activities. After commenting on the major classifications, she presents the objectives that these activities accomplish so that the personality of the child is developed in an integral way. This is illustrated with numerous examples observed from around the world. It is shown that practical life activities respond to the deep needs that the child has to move and work using their gross motor skills. The link between this work and the development of mathematical thinking is also noted, showing how these activities develop the executive functions of the brain. Many times the adult, trying to avoid tiring out the children, produces the opposite effect and therefore does not allow the children to produce authentic work as they would have liked. The necessary preparations of the environment and the way of presenting these activities are analyzed. There is a particular appeal to the analysis and economy of movements, themes that are dear to Maria Montessori. The author also describes the main principles that should guide the choice of materials, which, unlike that of other areas of work, is not scientific and therefore leaves more opportunity for creativity to teachers.

Language: Italian

ISSN: 2255-0666

Master's Thesis

Patterns of Concentration in Montessori Preschools: Investigating Concentration When Children are Free to Choose Their Own Work

Available from: University of Virginia

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Abstract/Notes: One key characteristic of Montessori classrooms is that children freely choose to engage with whatever they are most interested in. A common concern about Montessori is thus whether students will concentrate on their work throughout the day, and even whether they will actually choose to work at all. We completed 115 observations of children in Montessori Primary classrooms (ages 3-6), coding for children’s concentration and activity across two to three hours in the morning. The best fitting model of concentration across time was a quartic model, including age. This model indicated that 3-year-olds had two bouts of concentration, with a brief period of fatigue mid-morning. Four-year-olds showed an increased ability to concentrate across the entire morning, with minimal indication of fatigue. Five-year-olds showed a higher level of concentration than their younger peers, and were able to concentrate longer than the 3-year-olds, but this was followed by a period of fatigue. These findings are in line with Montessori theory, and suggest that children do freely choose to concentrate on their work. In regard to activities that children chose to do, we found children choose to spend a majority of the time engaged in work. Further, children distributed their time across all areas of the classroom, indicating that choice does not limit their exposure to any one area of learning.

Language: English

Published: Charlottesville, Virginia, 2020

Article

R. Stanziale, Ulteriori Ricerche Istologiche sulle Alterazioni Luetiche delle Arterie Cerebrali (recensione) [R. Stanziale, Further Histological Research on Luetic Alterations of Cerebral Arteries (review)]

Publication: Rivista Quindicinale di Psicologia, Psichiatria, Neuropatologia: ad uso dei medici e dei giurusti, vol. 1, no. 16

Pages: 252-253

Maria Montessori - Writings

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Language: Italian

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

We in Our Turmoil: Theological Anthropology Through Maria Montessori and the Lives of Children

Available from: The University of Chicago Press Journals

Publication: The Journal of Religion, vol. 95, no. 3

Pages: 318-336

Feminism, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Spirituality

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Abstract/Notes: A few decades ago, a small stone of concern about whom theology excludes began rolling through the field of theology. It gained momentum as it gathered questions, including important ones in theological anthropology: What is the significance of the fact that almost all preserved writings pondering what it means to be human originate from monastic—and often privileged—men? And then: How might theological anthropology look different if authored by and attentive to different bodies? Various feminists and liberationists have identified the way patriarchy, whiteness, and power have determined theological discussion, and slowly mainstream theology has opened to these concerns. But there is another class of humans whose bodies have been insufficiently acknowledged in theological discourse: children. This neglect is especially grievous if Maria Montessori is right that children name not just one group of humanity among others, nor a phase on the path to adulthood, but an entire pole of humanity, one that must be kept in balance with the adult. By her lights, the child and adult are not just successive phases in an individual life but are “two different forms of human life, going on at the same time, and exerting upon one another reciprocal influence.” If childhood constitutes a “form of human life” rather than simply incomplete human life or a transitional phase preparing for adulthood, then the dearth of serious theological reflection on children should alarm scholars as a woeful imbalance in theological anthropology. In what follows, I continue the work of feminist and liberationist theologians by noting the importance of children to theological reflection. I do so, in particular, by establishing Montessori as a figure worthy of theological consideration. She did not profess to be a theologian, but Montessori’s observations of children can help us articulate a supple theological anthropology that offers a sophisticated and persuasive approach to original sin despite initial impressions. Her images of original sin depict a chain connecting the sin of Eden to the sin of Calvary to those neglecting “the least of these,” as she makes plain the way we are responsible for a fallenness that is yet beyond us. Montessori’s remarks on the nature and Christ-likeness of children advance a doctrine of original sin that helps to make sense of the darkness in the world even as she identifies sources of hope within it.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1086/681109

ISSN: 0022-4189

Book

The Advanced Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to the Education of Children: Spontaneous Activity in Children

Maria Montessori - Writings

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Abstract/Notes: First published in Italian in 1915, the English translation, titled The Advanced Montessori Method, vol. 1: Spontaneous Activity in Education, was first published in 1917.

Language: English

Published: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Montessori Pierson Publishing Company, 2018

ISBN: 978-90-79506-27-9

Series: The Montessori Series , 9

Volume: 1 of 2

Doctoral Dissertation

The Role of Collaboration in Children's Understanding of Informational Texts

Available from: University of Illinois - IDEALS

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Abstract/Notes: This study investigated how children collaborated with their peers to read informational texts and complete a variety of reading-related tasks. The kinds of comprehension and monitoring strategies children employed in their reading were of particular interest, especially since they had little prior knowledge about the content of the curriculum--marine animals. Children worked in pairs on three different kinds of tasks: question-answering, error detection and math problem solving. Because they discussed the tasks with each other, their comprehension strategies were made more explicit than is often the case in studies based on individual responses to questions or group discussions. The study was conducted in two classrooms, one a combined third-fourth grade in a public school and the other a first through third grade classroom in a private, Montessori school. All of the tasks were part of the on-going curriculum and observations continued for approximately six months in each classroom. From the beginning, the classroom context was viewed as an important influence on children's task behaviors. Therefore, a careful description of the context--including classroom observations and teacher interviews--guided the analysis of children's behaviors. Extensive videotaped observations of children completing the three kinds of tasks were scored for a variety of cognitive and social interactions. Individual and pair progress in comprehension (accuracy and elaboration), monitoring and collaborative behaviors was determined by examining children's scores over time and with different partners. Children's discussions with their partners were also examined to determine what kinds of interactions facilitated acquisition of information from the texts. While the study was descriptive in nature, the quality of children's partnership interactions was found to influence children's learning and comprehension behaviors more than their reading or math ability. The findings also suggest that children in their early years of elementary school can acquire considerable information from expository texts and illustrate sophisticated comprehension and monitoring behaviors when given the opportunity to collaborate with their peers.

Language: English

Published: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 2011

Article

What Children Love . . . What Children Hate . . .

Publication: Montessori Education, vol. 8, no. 4

Pages: 34–35, 39

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Language: English

ISSN: 1354-1498

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