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952 results

Article

Child Guidance, Dynamic Psychology and the Psychopathologisation of Child-Rearing Culture (c. 1920-1940): A Transnational Perspective

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: History of Education, vol. 49, no. 5

Pages: 617-635

Americas, Europe, Holland, Netherlands, North America, United States of America, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The historiography of child guidance has focused primarily on the United States, where it first developed before travelling across the English-speaking world. The rapid expansion of child guidance in the interwar years was enabled by private philanthropy, which provided fellowships to foreign professionals to study in the United States. This article focuses upon the transnational transfer of child guidance, the dynamic psychology on which it was based, and the accompanying psychopathologisation of child-rearing culture to a non-English speaking country, the Netherlands. First, it discusses the development of child guidance and the reception of dynamic psychology in the United States and Britain. Next, it analyses the transfer to the Netherlands. It turns out that the Dutch did not copy the American model, but adapted it to fit their conditions and created a more diverse child guidance landscape, in which educational psychology played a less important role than child psychiatry.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2020.1748727

ISSN: 0046-760X, 1464-5130

Article

What's Going on with This Child? Child Study for the 21st Century

Available from: ERIC

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 42, no. 2

Pages: 249-260

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Abstract/Notes: Allison Jones and Jacqueline Cossentino have taken the term child study to describe the work they do with children experiencing challenges. Their approach to child study attempts to change the typical question of "What is wrong with this child?" to "What is going on with this child?" They have created a system by which they try to pinpoint what is going on with a child (the BASE System) and then create an action plan for working with that child. It is a collaborative effort on the part of the school community, including multiple teachers and the school's instructional leader. In this work with children experiencing challenges, organizing and recording the work and progress is crucial to understanding what is effective, what is not, and ultimately in determining what is best for each individual child. [This talk was presented at the NAMTA conference titled "Children on the Edge: Creating a Path for Happy, Healthy Development," January 12-15, 2017 in New Orleans, LA.]

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Konsep Montessori Tentang Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Dalam Perspektif Pendidikan Islam [The Montessori Concept of Early Childhood Education in the Perspective of Islamic Education]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga (Indonesia)

Publication: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam [Journal of Islamic Religious Education], vol. 11, no. 1

Pages: 37-52

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Religious education, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Education is the business of adults to prepare children to be able to live independently and is able to perform the duties of his life as well as possible. The toddler years are a golden period for the growth and development of children. Development of each child must be observed, education and teaching needs to be ailored to the child’s development. Montessori is early childhood education leaders who opened the eyes of their sensitive period in children, Montessori asserted that education is self-education. Montessori then use the freedom and liveliness of the child with the best in the method, so that each child had the opportunity to evolve according to the nature and talent. In Islam, God entrusted the child is to be protected and educated with the best. Therefore, addressing the development and early childhood education, the need for an educational program that is designed in accordance with the child’s developmental level. This study aims to describe and analyze the Montessori concept of early childhood education in the perspective of Islamic education. Data collection through literature study is based on primary and secondary data. Data analysis using analytic descriptive with inductive thinking patterns. The results showed: 1) Montesssori shift from teacher-education center central (teachers as a source of learning) be child-central (protégé as a center of learning); 2) Sensitive Periods expressed early age is a sensitive period; 3) The freedom and independence according to the Montessori system is not real freedom, but freedom is limited; 4) Child’s Self-Construction stating that children construct their own development of his soul; 5) At the time of early childhood have a soul absorbent range of knowledge and experience in his life. Montessori concept in Islamic educational perspective, the emphasis is on the child’s intellectual is right. However, it should pay attention to other aspects such as emotional aspects and skills.

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.14421/jpai.2014.111-03

ISSN: 2502-2075

Conference Paper

Multistructural Model of Speech and Language Development in Montessori Pedagogy

Available from: ICLEL

2nd International Conference on Lifelong Education and Leadership for ALL-ICLEL 2016

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Abstract/Notes: The goal of the article is to provide theoretical justification of the speech and language development multistructural model, analyse speech therapists’ opinion about the significance of various language development preconditions in the child’s speech and language development, as well as justify application options of the multistructural model in the Montessori pedagogy aspect. In Latvia every second or third pre-school aged child has insufficient or impaired speech and language development. Assessing the child’s language development, it has to be taken into account how it is influenced by the combination of different endogenous and exogenous factors, which lie into a diverse mutual interaction. The interaction model of factors in each individual case is different and it determines the individual character of the child’s language development process. The speech or language impairment is not quite often the leading (primary) symptom, but as a part of an illness, specific psychological or socially economic condition and is considered as a secondary phenomenon. In order to state all possible causes of the language development delay or impairment, their possible interaction and to work out an appropriate correction and development plan, the peculiarities of the speech and language development multistructural model of each individual case have to be found out. Understanding the reasons of the insufficient language development or impairment and their elimination, reduction or compensation guarantees a more efficient pedagogic or speech therapy correction process. However, teachers or speech therapists do not always observe it in their professional work, as still the main attention is being paid to the expressions of development insufficiency or impairment and not to the causal identification and decrease of their negative impact. Montessori pedagogy is as one of the methods, in which the holistic approach is implemented in the educational and also correction process, and thus also the speech and language development multistructural model.

Language: English

Published: Sakarya, Turkey: ICLEL Conferences, Sakarya University Faculty of Education, 2016

Pages: 429-437

ISBN: 978-605-66495-1-6

Article

Interventions Shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4 to 12 Years Old

Available from: AAAS - Science

Publication: Science, vol. 333, no. 6045

Pages: 959–964

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Abstract/Notes: To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga).

Language: English

DOI: 10.1126/science.1204529

ISSN: 0036-8075, 1095-9203

Article

Teacher Training for Early Childhood Development and Education in Kenya

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, vol. 30, no. 3

Pages: 220-229

Africa, East Africa, Kenya, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The training of early childhood development and education (ECDE) teachers in Kenya remains a priority in recognition of the vital role well-trained professionals play in the quality of early childhood experiences for children ages 0+ to 5+. This article provides a detailed overview of the current structure and training of ECDE professionals, including pedagogical strategies and curricular guidelines. Specific attention is given to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology's intersectoral framework for stakeholders and the holistic, child-centered, multidimensional approach to coordinated early childhood development and education. A cross-section of challenges to training ECDE teachers and recommendations are offered.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/10901020903084256

ISSN: 1090-1027

Article

The Benefits of Mixed-Age Grouping

Available from: ERIC

Publication: ERIC Digest

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: The intention of mixed-age grouping in early childhood settings is to increase the heterogeneity of the group so as to capitalize on the differences in the experience, knowledge, and abilities of the children. One of the benefits of mixed-age groups is that they provide a context in which older children's dispositions to nurture can be strengthened. Other benefits relate to ways of learning. Whereas single-age groups create pressures on children and teachers to expect the same knowledge and skills from all children, in groups of children with a wide age span, the range of behavior and performance likely to be accepted is wider. Results of experiments in which children worked in same-age or mixed-age groups of three have shown that in the latter, older children spontaneously facilitated other children's behavior. In a single-age triad, however, the same children became domineering. Mixed-age groups also provide social and intellectual benefits. In mixed-age groups, younger children are capable of contributing to far more complex activities than they could working by themselves. Both older and younger children benefit from discussions centering on tasks which one understands better than the other. Along with these benefits, there are risks related to mixed-age groups. Younger children might be overwhelmed or pestered by older children, or older children might gloat over their superior skills. Teachers can alleviate these risks by encouraging children to turn to each other for explanations and comfort, showing younger children how to protect themselves, and encouraging older children to read to or write down text for younger children. (BC)

Language: English

Doctoral Dissertation

'My Self-Image and Your Interactions': The Influence of the Preschool Educator's Image of the Child as a Learner on Children's Wellbeing and Involvement

Americas, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Europe, Ireland, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, Northern Europe, Play, Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education)

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Abstract/Notes: The introduction in 2011 of a universal free preschool year for all children in Ireland prior to attending primary school was heralded as a significant commitment to children and families. As a result of this policy initiative there are increasing numbers of young children accessing preschool provision. However, despite increased access and increased investment in ECEC provision, little is known about the quality of preschool children’s experiences, or the impact of the pedagogical approach on children’s levels of wellbeing and involvement in their learning. Equally there has been no evaluation of the quality or the effectiveness of the preschool provision in supporting children’s development of 21st century skills. This thesis explores how the preschool educator’s image of the child as a learner influences her/his pedagogical approach and how the educator’s pedagogical approach subsequently impacts on children’s levels of wellbeing and involvement in their meaning making processes. The study, an ethnographic comparative study, was conducted across three preschool setting types, Montessori, Play-based and Reggio inspired in the west of Ireland and Boston. The findings identify that children’s levels of wellbeing and involvement are high when their basic needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are met in an autonomy supportive, child-centred learning environment. In comparison, when the learning environment is controlling and the approach to teaching and learning is didactic and adult-led, children’s levels of wellbeing and involvement are low. These findings have significant implications for policy and practice and provide a compelling argument for the evaluation of the quality of preschool provision in Ireland.

Language: English

Published: Galway, Ireland, 2020

Article

Let the Child Teach Himself: Let the Child Teach Himself Let the Child Teach Himself

Publication: New York Times (New York, New York)

Pages: Magazine - 34-35, 42, 44, 47, 49-50

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Language: English

ISSN: 0362-4331

Doctoral Dissertation

The Nature of Teacher Control and Children's Freedom in a Child-Centered Classroom

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation explores the meanings of child-centeredness in early childhood education (ECE), by examining the interrelationship of theory and praxis. This study included theories which underpin the concept of child-centeredness for current ECE teachers, including Piaget's and Vygotsky's child development theories and Dewey's and Montessori's educational philosophies. While these theories all advocate the importance of children's individual interests and needs in education, they diverge somewhat in their perspectives about the teacher's role in education. From these theoretical divergences arises a central question about the idea of child-centeredness: what is the nuanced relationship between teacher control and children's freedom? This study was conducted in a public kindergarten and based on interviews designed to elicit information concerning a teacher's pedagogical philosophy, and on observation of her classroom over a period of three months. The results of this study showed high teacher control and high children's freedom in a holistic teaching process. Teacher control and children's freedom were not exclusive of one another: children's freedom was defined in an active way, as freedom to participate, rather than in a passive way, as freedom from any constraints. Findings may offer some insights helpful to those who have struggled with the tension between teacher control and children's freedom in the context of critical and progressive pedagogy. Adopting multiple theories and reflecting upon or adapting them in order to meet individual children's needs embodies Dewey's advocacy of the intellectual responsibilities of teaching, which value “interaction” and “continuity” in the teaching process.

Language: English

Published: Bloomington, Indiana, 2004

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