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640 results

Doctoral Dissertation

Does Parental Involvement Matter? A Comparison of the Effects of Two Different Types of Parental Involvement on Urban Elementary Students' Academic Performance

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This mixed method study seeks to utilize a comparative analysis to explore the impacts of two types of parental involvement in urban elementary school students’ academic performance. Epstein’s (1995) widely cited typology describes six different types of parental involvement, and this typology serves as a framework for this study. More specifically, this study compares learning at home and collaborating with community, as parent involvement types, to student academic performance. The study utilizes descriptive statistics and correlational analyses to compare parent-reported student performance via a survey instrument and semi-structured focus group interviews to collect narrative data. Parental involvement has been vigorously studied over the last two decades, however, not much data appears to address how collaborating with the community, as a form of involvement, influences student performance and other studies provide an ambiguous picture for learning at home as another parenting type. Furthermore, there is evidence that direct-action parent organizing, as a parental involvement form of collaborating with the community, may impact educational outcomes and this study examines these research areas. After analyzing the data, the researcher did not find evidence of a significant relationship between learning at home and parent-reported student academic performance. However, the study did reveal a significant association between parents who were collaborating with the community and the parent-reported academic performance of their children. This moderate correlation from an often overlooked parenting type, collaborating with the community, may harbor rich findings within the literature and point to the need for greater scrutiny herein. In fact, this provides a warrant for additional research to explore the “efficacy” of collaborating with community as a type of parental involvement that significantly influences positive student academic performance.

Language: English

Published: Baltimore, Maryland, 2018

Article

Academic Environments in Preschool: Do They Pressure or Challenge Young Children

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Early Education and Development, vol. 1, no. 6

Pages: 401-423

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Abstract/Notes: The question of whether early academic environments provide a challenge or a pressure for young children is being hotly debated, yet there is little empirical research on this topic. This paper presents a subset of data from a two-year comprehensive project designed to examine this question. Parental attitudes and behaviors along with school philosophy and practices comprised the predictor variables used to define "academic environments." This study then focused on how these family and school variables related to child outcome measures of academic competence, creativity, and emotional well-being for 90 prekindergarten children, and a follow-up sample of 56 kindergarten children. The results suggest no academic advantages for children from highly academic environments, and potential disadvantages in creative expression (measured as originality) and emotional well-being (measured as test anxiety and attitudes toward school). Possible interpretations and ramifications of these results are discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1207/s15566935eed0106_1

ISSN: 1040-9289, 1556-6935

Article

Self-Esteem and Academic Anxiety of High School Students with Montessori and Traditional Method of Education

Available from: Informatics Publishing Ltd

Publication: Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, vol. 7, no. 5

Pages: 543-545

Asia, India, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori Method of education focuses on students overall development. Montessori Method of education is designed not only to focus on academic skills of the students but also it gives importance for the development of the student's social and behavioral skills. Hence the present study aimed to assess the self-esteem and academic anxiety of students with Montessori and traditional method of education. It was hypothesized that the students of Montessori Method of education have higher self-esteem and lower academic anxiety compared to traditional method of education. In order to verify the above hypothesis a sample of 124 students were selected from the schools which offer education with Montessori (N=60) and traditional method (N=64). Tools used for the study were the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Academic Anxiety Scale for Children developed by Singh and Sen Gupta. The collected data were subjected to `t` analysis and the major findings of the study revealed that the students of Montessori Method of education has significantly higher self-esteem and significantly lower academic anxiety compared to traditional school students.

Language: English

ISSN: 2321-3698

Article

Back to the Future? Children Living in Poverty, Early Childhood Centres and Mathematics Education

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: ZDM (Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik), vol. 46, no. 7

Pages: 999-1011

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Abstract/Notes: The present call for structured mathematics programmes in preschools continues a trend from the nineteenth century, in which young children’s lack of mathematical knowledge was considered to have a detrimental effect on their individual futures and those of the wider society. In this paper, an investigation of the philosophies behind several early childhood programmes shows that there is a long-standing acceptance that those not living in poverty should make decisions about the education, including the mathematics education, that children who are living in poverty should engage in. Consequently, the philosophies behind these programmes, and with them the advocated mathematics education, contribute to a homogenised view of the child. This fails to recognise the attributes that children and their communities have and situates those living in poverty as being deviant. The strong promotion in this century of structured mathematics education programmes is solidifying this homogenising process in a manner not seen in previous early childhood programmes.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s11858-014-0578-y

ISSN: 1863-9704

Article

Pedagogical Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics in Montessori Schools

Available from: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

Publication: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 16, no. 3

Pages: Article em0646

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Abstract/Notes: Teacher knowledge needed for teaching is widely studied to characterize its key categories. We report findings from a study on teachers’ knowledge for mathematics in the Montessori schools. In Montessori accredited schools, teachers learn to teach mathematics in ways different from the teachers themselves experienced in non-Montessori schools. We ask: What knowledge do teachers learn? and how do they continue to refine this knowledge in teaching in classrooms? We draw from a teacher knowledge framework based on cross-national studies to interpret mixed data from a case study. We aim to inform research on teacher characteristics needed for consistent implementation of instructional reform. Major findings from this study are that for K-6 Montessori teachers to thrive in teaching mathematics in Montessori classrooms, they need teacher knowledge on Montessori materials, on lesson and the presentation of content according to Montessori’s philosophy and pedagogy; as well as on the process of independently understanding concepts to be presented. The findings contribute to further theorizing on teacher knowledge which has implications is designed to teacher training opportunities in three subcategories; namely teaching, learning, and professional competence knowledge.

Language: English

DOI: 10.29333/iejme/11005

ISSN: 1306-3030

Article

Communication Board as a Montessori Apparatus in Teaching Mathematics to Autism Students

Available from: Ukrainian Journal of Educational Studies and Information Technology

Publication: Ukrainian Journal of Educational Studies and Information Technology, vol. 7, no. 3

Pages: 25-31

Asia, Australasia, Autism in children, Europe, Indonesia, Mathematics education, Montessori materials, People with disabilities, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: The research of mathematics teachers and instructors is still focused on normal students. Students with special needs are often ruled out. In fact, they also need to learn mathematics. Mathematics is a very basic subject and must be mastered by everyone, including students with special needs. This research is intended to apply mathematics learning to autism students by using communication boards as a Montessori apparatus. Communication is chosen because autistic students have a visual learning style. Furthermore, the learning method is done with Montessori because it takes the concept of learning with the environment, in accordance with the main purpose of learning for autism students to be able to live independently and be empowered in the community. The study used the descriptive qualitative method. According to the research results several Montessori apparatuses have been chosen used including visual schedules, visuals to structure the environment, visual scripts, a visual rule reminder, the visual task analysis, and a choice board.

Language: English

DOI: 10.32919/uesit.2019.03.03

ISSN: 2521-1234

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Mathematical Literacy: The Effects of Mathematics Journals on Student Understanding of Fractions in a Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Upper elementary

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Abstract/Notes: It is a typical Monday morning. As students enter the classroom wearing brightly colored polo shirts embroidered with the school logo, their smiles are equally bright. This Title I public school in the heart of the city where 96% of the students qualify for free or reduced lunch has recently opened a Montessori option. Walking into the classroom, one 5th grade student eagerly asks, “Who’s on the bread committee this week?” Baking bread is a weekly occurrence in the upper elementary (4th – 6th grade) Montessori classroom. During the first week of school, this same student vehemently threw materials to the floor declaring, “I HATE fractions!” In an effort to positively engage students in mathematics, the weekly bread-making tradition was implemented. Through cooking, students experience the importance of fractions in everyday life. Each week, two students work together, read several recipes, select one, and submit a precise written list of needed ingredients. The next day, with the aid of a bread machine bought for $10 at the local thrift store, the students work together to follow directions, read fractions, measure ingredients, and bake bread. Once baked, students divide the bread into equal portions and serve. After several months of this routine, some recipes will need to be doubled or halved, and on it goes… The bread committee provides a “hook” for some resistant students. It is also a practical application of the role of literacy in mathematics. The choice to focus on mathematical literacy and the effect of journaling on student understanding was influenced by research around mathematical vocabulary as well as the instructional practices of noted educators and researchers. The rigor of upper elementary math as defined in the common core requires students to not only perform calculations with accuracy, but to demonstrate strong reading comprehension through the interpretation of real-world word problems, and to articulate an understanding of MATHEMATICAL LITERACY 3 mathematical reasoning through clear and concise writing. Achieving grade level proficiency has practical life implications for students because research showed mathematical knowledge during elementary school as a strong predictor of financial stability in adulthood, and understanding fractions in fifth grade as a predictor of overall achievement in mathematics (Siegler & Lortie-Forgues, 2015).

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Article

What Makes Mathematics Manipulatives Effective? Lessons From Cognitive Science and Montessori Education

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: SAGE Open, vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 1-8

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Abstract/Notes: Manipulatives are ubiquitous in early childhood classrooms; yet, findings regarding their efficacy for learning mathematics concepts are inconsistent. In this article, we present four general principles that have emerged from cognitive science about ways to ensure that manipulatives promote learning when used with young children. We also describe how Montessori instruction offers a concrete example of the application of these principles in practice, which may, in turn, explain the high levels of mathematics achievement among children who attend Montessori programs during early childhood. The general principles and concrete examples presented in this article should help early childhood programs maximize the benefits of using manipulatives for developmentally appropriate mathematics instruction.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1177/2158244015589588

ISSN: 2158-2440

Article

Aspects of Self-Regulated Learning and Their Influence on the Mathematics Achievement of Fifth Graders in the Context of Four Different Proclaimed Curricula

Available from: Frontiers in Psychology

Publication: Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 13, no. 963151

Pages: 1-15

Mathematics - Academic achievement, Mathematics education - Achievement

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Abstract/Notes: Metacognition is a part of the models of self-regulated learning. The consideration of a broader context resonates with a social cognitive perspective approach to learning which dominates the educational academic field with the theory of self-regulated learning. Metacognition is considered a crucial factor influencing mathematics achievement. Furthermore, the affective field including pupils' self-efficacy, interest and motivation are the phenomena involved in mathematical problem-solving. On the other hand, metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulations are not a regular part of mathematics education in the Czech Republic. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relation between pupils' attitude toward mathematics; metacognitive knowledge; self-efficacy and motivation; metacognitive monitoring; and their achievement in solving mathematical problems. All together 1,133 students of Grade 5 from four types of Czech schools participated in the study. There were traditional schools; schools teaching mathematics by genetic constructivism, i.e., Hejný's method; Montessori schools; and Dalton schools were involved. The assessed variables, namely relation to mathematics; metacognitive knowledge; self-efficacy and motivation; metacognitive monitoring; and mathematical achievement were used as an input to regression analysis. Item-response theory was used for assessing the performance of the students and demands of the tasks. The metacognitive monitoring was detected as the most significant predictor of mathematics achievement for higher- and lower-performing students as well as for the item with high and low demands. The study reveals how the different mathematics curricula (un)support the metacognitive processes involved in mathematical problem-solving. The information allows teachers to spend sufficient time with particular types of mathematics problems whose solutions is determined by activation of metacognitive processes. This demonstrates the importance of including the activities for development of metacognitive monitoring in mathematics education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.963151

ISSN: 1664-1078

Doctoral Dissertation (Ed.D.)

The Influence of Montessori-Based Literacy Instruction and Methods on Reading Achievement of Students in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7

Available from: Seton Hall University eRepository

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Abstract/Notes: This study examines the influence of Montessori-based literacy curriculum and instruction on student achievement in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. I studied 71 matched pairs of urban charter school students (n=142) to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in reading achievement, as measured by the Maryland School Assessment (MSA), between students who were instructed by their teachers in Montessori literacy methods and curriculum and students from a nearby charter school who were instructed by their teachers using a basal reading method. T-tests were used to compare the mean scores of the combined grade levels from each cohort on the 2011-2012 Maryland School Assessment (Reading section). The results of this study suggest that there was no significant difference in reading achievement between the two groups of students. There is very limited empirical research available examining reading achievement in Montessori public charter schools. Further research is recommended with similar groups of students from public Montessori school settings, or in this same setting with a different comparison group or a different evaluation tool.

Language: English

Published: South Orange, New Jersey, 2013

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