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The Role of Ritual in Preschool Settings
Available from: Springer Link
Publication: Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 27, no. 3
Abstract/Notes: Ritual is a fact of school life and is enacted by teachers in their everyday classroom activities. This paper explores the various forms of ritual as they are played out in preschool settings. A key finding is that rituals have both variant and invariant qualities. The invariant order of ritual provides the stable framework that has become part of the school system, whereas rituals with high levels of variance are responsible for a more personalized and flexible approach to teaching. Classroom rituals have the potential to act as a tool through which teachers structure a particular form of practice that carries a rational pedagogical purpose for teachers.
ISSN: 1082-3301, 1573-1707
Comparative Analysis of Customer Service Culture at Hooray International Preschool and Kindy Garden Montessori
Publication: International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Studies, vol. 2, no. 6
Abstract/Notes: This study was conducted in order to better analyze the customer service culture of two international preschools Hooray and Kindy Garden Montessori. In order to be able to compare and point out the differences between these two preschools and make recommendations, suggestions and some solutions to develop a customer service culture for the two preschools.
Okul Öncesi Öğretmen Adaylarının Montessori ve Reggio Emilia Yaklaşımları ile İlgili Görüşleri / The views of pre-service preschool teachers regarding Montessori and Reggio Emilia approaches
Available from: DergiPark Akademik
Publication: İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi / Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, vol. 15, no. 3
Asia, Middle East, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Teachers - Attitudes, Turkey, Western Asia
Abstract/Notes: This study aims to describe views of pre-service preschool teachers about Montessori and Reggio Emilia Approaches. Participants of the study were 30 pre-service preschool teachers who attended “Modern Approaches to Early Childhood Education” course. Data of the study was collected through reflection papers written by participants. At the end of data analysis process, three main themes were determined for each approach: positive aspects, negative aspects and applicability in Turkey. According to findings, the pre-service teachers have stated that use of Montessori materials and real life materials, promoting children’s self-discipline skills, child-centeredness and keeping classroom in order were positive aspects of Montessori approach; however, the increased responsibility of the teachers, limited group activities and use of real life materials were the negative aspects of the approach. In addition, according to half of the pre-service teachers, the Montessori Method was not available; and the other half has stated that use of this method was too hard but not impossible. The cooperation with parents, supporting creativity of children, using documentation technique for assessment and child-centeredness were mentioned as positive aspects of the Reggio Emilia Approach. On the other hand, focusing on art and creativity, and using emergent curriculum were emphasized as negative aspects. Lastly, all pre-service preschool teachers have agreed that the Reggio Emilia Approach could not be used in Turkey. / Bu çalışma, okul öncesi öğretmen adaylarının Montessori yaklaşımı ve Reggio Emilia yaklaşımı ile ilgili görüşlerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmanın katılımcılarını "Okul Öncesi Eğitiminde Çağdaş Yaklaşımlar" dersine kayıtlı 30 öğretmen adayı oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın verisi, yansıtma raporları (reflection paper) ile toplanmıştır. Veri analizleri sonucunda her bir yaklaşım için 3 ana tema belirlenmiştir: (1) Olumlu yönler, (2) olumsuz yönler ve (3) Türkiye'de uygulanabilirlik. Bulgulara göre; öğretmen adayları sınıfta Montessori materyallerinin ve gerçek materyallerin kullanılması, çocuğa özdenetim becerisi kazandırılması, sınıf ortamının düzenli olması gibi durumları bu metodun olumlu yönleri olarak dile getirirken, öğretmenin sorumluluğunun artırması, büyük grup etkinliklerinin sınırlı olması ve sınıfta gerçek materyallerin kullanılması gibi noktaları da olumsuzluk olarak dile getirmişlerdir. Ayrıca çalışmaya katılan adayların yarısına göre bu metodun Türkiye’de uygulanması mümkün değilken, yarısına yakınına göre ise kullanılabilmesi çok zordur ama imkânsız değildir. Reggio Emilia yaklaşımı ile ilgili olarak ise, yöntemin aile ile işbirliğini kullanması, yaratıcılığı desteklemesi ve değerlendirme için dokümantasyon yöntemini kullanması gibi durumlar olumlu görülürken, sanat ve yaratıcılığın ön planda olması ve anlık hazırlanan program kullanılması gibi noktalar olumsuzluklar olarak ifade edilmiştir. Ayrıca çalışmaya katılan öğretmen adaylarının tamamı, bu yaklaşımın Türkiye’de kullanımının mümkün olmayacağı konusunda hemfikirdir.
Preschoolers’ Attitudes, School Motivation, and Executive Functions in the Context of Various Types of Kindergarten
Available from: Frontiers in Psychology
Publication: Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 13
Date: Mar 3, 2022
Pages: Article 823980
Abstract/Notes: European policy has seen a number of changes and innovations in the field of early childhood preschool education over the last decade, which have been reflected in various forms in the policies of individual EU countries. Within the Czech preschool policy, certain innovations and approaches have been implemented in the field of early children education, such as the introduction of compulsory preschool education before entering primary school from 2017, emphasis on inclusive education, equal conditions in education and enabling state-supported diversity in the education concepts of kindergartens. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of various preschool education systems in the Czech Republic in the context of psychological variables reflecting selected children’s outcomes which may contribute to future school achievement. The monitored variables were the attitudes, motivations and executive functions of children in the last year of preschool education. A comparison was made between the traditional preschool education program and the so-called alternative types of preschool education, such as Montessori, Waldorf and religious schools. The total sample was divided into four subgroups, namely a group of children attending traditional kindergartens (731, 84.9%), religious (65, 7.5%), Montessori (35, 4.1%), and Waldorf (30, 3.5%) kindergartens. To determine empirical data, the following research methods were used: Attitude Questionnaire, School Performance Motivation Scale, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The results of our survey show the fact that the type of kindergarten attended has a significant effect on the child’s level of school performance motivation, attitudes toward school as well as executive functions. Significant differences were found between the different types of kindergartens attended in the monitored variables.
Cognitive Control at Age 3: Evaluating Executive Functions in an Equitable Montessori Preschool
Available from: Frontiers in Education
Publication: Frontiers in Education, vol. 3
Date: Dec 7, 2018
Pages: Article 106
Abstract/Notes: Studies in cognitive neuroscience have shown that education practices can affect the development of executive functions (EF) in young children, although there is very little evidence on young preschool children. The present study aims to provide support for this endeavor, and consists of a quasi-experimental design with one-group pre-test/ post-test measures of cognitive control at age 3 in an urban public Montessori preschool. Three-year-olds (N = 23) in an authentic Montessori public preschool in Washington DC improved signiﬁcantly on core EF measures (inhibitory control and cognitive ﬂexibility) validated by the NIH Toolbox Early Childhood Cognition Battery, and the data revealed large effect sizes. Comparisons against NIH published norms revealed no selection bias. Performance on EF measures did not correlate with age but did correlate with amount of time between testing sessions, suggesting the possibility that experience, more than age, could have contributed to cognitive control growth. A controlled comparison between mixed-age and single-age classes revealed no differences in these EFs, raising the possibility that aspects of the environment other than the age composition are likely to contribute to growth. We propose that a potential contributor to EF growth is Montessori education, and more speciﬁcally, that this growth might be found in the design of interaction of the child with the environment. In particular, we discuss the design element called control of error, and consider why this element might be related to cognitive abilities such as inhibitory control. In current national discussions on the importance of equitable early childhood education, the synthesis of ﬁndings from neurocognitive studies has implications for children’s academic and life success.
How Children Find Something To Do in Preschools
Publication: Genetic Psychology Monographs, vol. 90, no. 2
Abstract/Notes: Conducted a 2-year observational study of a total of 81 lower- and middle-class 3-6 year olds to examine the behavior of young children in school settings which program all or part of the day as "free play" time. Results indicate that with age, children became more effective in moving from one activity to another; they spent less time in transition and longer periods in activity. Behaviors exhibited while in transition became less dependent on the immediate surrounding and seemed to indicate more autonomy. Lower-class boys had shorter activity lengths and more transitions than the other groups. A qualitative description of children's transition behavior is presented and possible implications of the findings for developmental and educational research are discussed.
Kindergartners' Play with Preschool- and School-Aged Children within a Mixed-Age Classroom
Available from: JSTOR
Publication: Elementary School Journal, vol. 83, no. 5
ISSN: 1554-8279, 0013-5984
Private Speech in Two Preschools: Significance of Open-Ended Activities and Make-Believe Play for Verbal Self-Regulation
Available from: ScienceDirect
Publication: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 4
Abstract/Notes: Contextual influences on private speech were examined in two preschools differing in the learning environments they provide for children. Observations of 3- to 5-year-olds were made during free-choice periods in a Montessori and a traditional (play-oriented) program. Consistent with Vygotsky's theory that make-believe play serves as a vital context for the development of self-regulation, the incidence of private speech was much higher during open-ended activities, especially fantasy play, that require children to determine the goal of the task, than during closed-ended tasks with predetermined goals. In line with previous research, the more direct involvement, or external regulation, teachers displayed, the lower the rate of children's private speech. In addition, transitions (as opposed to involvement in activities) were linked to reduced private speech, whereas engagement with peers, in the form of associative play, predicted greater self-directed language. Diminished make-believe play, greater teacher direct involvement, and heightened time spent in transitions largely accounted for the lower incidence of private speech in the Montessori compared with the traditional preschool. Contextual factors also contributed to a drop in private speech at age 5. Implications for fostering children's verbal self-regulation during early childhood are considered.
ISSN: 0885-2006, 1873-7706
Chinese and US Preschool Teachers’ Beliefs About Children’s Cooperative Problem-Solving During Play
Available from: Springer Link
Publication: Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 49, no. 3
Abstract/Notes: Many researchers have investigated the cooperative problem solving (CPS) of children during play; however, there is a lack of studies focused on teachers’ beliefs about how to support the development of children’s CPS in classrooms. This study aims to investigate the pedagogical beliefs of Chinese (n = 3) and US (n = 3) teachers about the CPS of children during play and their decision-making capabilities in supporting children to advance this skill in classrooms. A semi-structured interview was conducted with the integration of video-stimulated recall approach in order to achieve this aim. Results confirm that the Chinese and US teachers believe that children are competent and have the autonomy to decide how to solve problems with their peers. The beliefs are similar across the teachers, whereas their execution of these beliefs varies, which reflects their cultural uniqueness in scaffolding and creating classroom environments.
ISSN: 1082-3301, 1573-1707
The Sense of Patterns and Patterns in the Senses: An Approach to the Sensory Area of a Montessori Preschool Classroom
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: Education 3-13, vol. 51, no. 6
Abstract/Notes: This article presents and analyses a didactic proposal based on manipulative material (Knobless Cylinders) used in a Montessori classroom of 3-6-year-old pre-schoolers. Choosing this material is justified in relation to the competencies/strategies/skills used during the development of mathematical patterning. Numerous studies emphasise the importance of patterns in mathematics and experimental sciences instruction from early childhood onward. However, there are several educational factors that have not yet been clarified, such as meaningful learning, the overuse of abstract visual patterns that are distant from the student’s previous life experience, etc. This article discusses the sequence of proposed activities and certain critical issues.
ISSN: 0300-4279, 1475-7575