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Article

Esensi Metode Montessori Dalam Pembelajaran Anak Usia Dini [The Essence of the Montessori Method in Early Childhood Learning]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Publication: Bunayya: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak [Journal of Children's Education], vol. 3, no. 1

Pages: 59-73

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Artikel ini mengkaji tentang sejarah munculnya metode montessori dan esensi metode montessori dalam pembelajaran anak usia dini. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa munculnya metode montessori bermula dari ketertarikan Montessori pada anak-anak idiot menjadikannya akrab dengan metode pendidikan khusus yang dirancang bagi anak-anak kecil. Selanjutnya metode khusus tersebut diterapkan kepada anak-anak normal. Adapun esensi metode montessori dalam pembelajaran anak usia dini adalah the absorbent mind, the conscious mind, the sensitive periods (sensitivity to order, sensitivity to language, sensitivity to walking, sensitivity to the social aspects of life, sensitivity to small objects, sensitivity learning through the senses), children want to learn, learning through play, stages of development, and encouraging independence. [This article examines the history of the emergence and essence of Montessori method Montessori methods in early childhood learning. The results showed that the appearance stems from the Montessori Method interest in children idiot making familiar with special education methods designed for small children. Furthermore, the specific methods applied to normal children. The essence of the method Montessori in early childhood learning is the absorbent mind, the conscious mind, the sensitive periods (sensitivity to order, sensitivity to language, sensitivity to walking, sensitivity to the social aspects of life, sensitivity to small objects, sensitivity learning through the senses), children want to learn, learning through play, stages of development, and encouraging independence.]

Language: Indonesian

ISSN: 2549-3329

Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

Article

Yanzheng haishi zhiyi: Meiguo jiaoyu xuejie dui meng tai suo li jiaoyu de pipan / 验证还是质疑:美国教育学界对蒙台梭利教育的批判 [Verification or Questioning: American Educational Circles’ Criticism on Montessori Education]

Publication: Xueqian jiaoyu yanjiu / 学前教育研究 [Studies in Preschool Education], vol. 2019, no. 10

Pages: 24-31

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: At the beginning of the 20th century, Montessori’s educational thought and practice disseminated to the United States in a short and concentrated way. This process was always accompanied by the questioning and criticism of Montessori education in the American educational circles. The in-depth analysis and inspiration of the questioning and criticisms are currently lacking in domestic and foreign research. Most of the educational psychologists, progressive education scholars, and Froebelians who dominated the American educational community were critical of Montessori education. American education scholars criticized Montessori education on two levels: fundamentals of philosophy and psychology, curriculum system. They believed that Montessori's education theory lagged behind the times, and the curriculum system ignored young children’s sociality, imagination and freedom. These criticisms reflected the cautious attitude of the American educational scholars who didn’t blindly follow the imported theory, and promoted the Americanization of Montessori education. At present, China’s educational academics are keen to interpret and verify when introducing western educational theories. This situation is not conducive to the creation of original educational theories. In order to change this situation, the Chinese educational scholars should first establish cultural self-confidence, treating western educational theories with an equal mindset and perspective; second discriminate and absorb the foreign educational theories on the basis of reflective criticism; third, root in China’s educational practice. In this way can the scholars better absorb western educational theories’ essence and promote the creation of original educational theories.

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 1007-8169

Book

Montessoris pedagogiska imperium: Kulturkritik och politik i mellankrigstidens Montessorirörelse [Montessori's educational empire: Cultural criticism and politics in the Montessori movement of the interwar period]

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: Under 1900-talets första decennier vann den italienska läkaren Maria Montessori berömmelse som pedagogisk förnyare. Den frihetliga andan och mönstergilla disciplinen i hennes förskolor och skolor slog omvärlden med häpnad. Men Montessori skulle inte bara lansera en ny pedagogik. Under mellankrigstiden, när hennes metod fick stort genomslag internationellt, påtog hon sig rollen som kulturkritisk rörelseledare. Med paroller om barnets frigörelse och samhällets rekonstruktion värvade rörelsen många entusiastiska anhängare. I dåtida press talades det om montessorism i liknande ordalag som man talade om feminism, freudianism och marxism. Förväntningarna på vad montessorismen skulle kunna åstadkomma också utanför skolportarna var höga. I Montessoris pedagogiska imperium belyser Christine Quarfood, utifrån ett omfattande historiskt källmaterial, Montessorirörelsen som kulturkritisk och opinionsbildande strömning. Boken lyfter fram det mångfasetterade i rörelsens budskap, utöver den psykopedagogiska tematiken också den politiskt och socialt laddade problematik kring makt- och auktoritetsfrågor, krig och fred som adresseras i rörelsens skrifter. Huvudfokus ligger på mottagandet i de länder där rörelsen fick störst genomslag, USA vid tiden kring första världskriget, England under 1920-talet, samt Mussolinis Italien, där Montessorirörelsen fick fascistregimens stöd från 1926 till 1934. / During the first decades of the 20th century, the Italian physician Maria Montessori gained fame as an educational innovator. The liberal spirit and exemplary discipline of her preschools and schools amazed the outside world. But Montessori would not just launch a new pedagogy. During the interwar period, when her method had a major impact internationally, she took on the role of culturally critical movement leader. With slogans about the child's liberation and the reconstruction of society, the movement recruited many enthusiastic supporters. In the press of that time, Montessori was spoken of in similar terms as feminism, Freudianism, and Marxism. Expectations of what Montessori could achieve outside the school gates were high. In Montessori's educational empire, Christine Quarfood, based on extensive historical source material, highlights the Montessori movement as a culturally critical and opinion-forming current. The book highlights the multifaceted in the movement's message, in addition to the psychopedagogical theme also the politically and socially charged issues around power and authority issues, war and peace that are addressed in the movement's writings. The main focus is on reception in the countries where the movement had the greatest impact, the United States during the First World War, England in the 1920s, and Mussolini's Italy, where the Montessori movement received the support of the fascist regime from 1926 to 1934.

Language: Swedish

Published: Göteborg, Sweden: Daidalos, 2017

ISBN: 978-91-7173-512-6

Doctoral Dissertation

La Problematique de l'Education a la Paix a la Lumiere de Deux Representants de l'Education Nouvelle: Célestin Freinet et Maria Montessori [The Problematic of Education for Peace in the Light of Two Representatives of New Education: Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori]

Available from: Université Lyon 2 Theses

Célestin Freinet - Biographic sources, Célestin Freinet - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, New Education Fellowship, Peace education

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Abstract/Notes: L'étude du thème de l'éducation à la paix en regard des options spécifiques, éducatives et pédagogiques - historiquement ancrées - de Célestin Freinet et Maria Montessori, inscrites dans le mouvement de l'Education nouvelle, imposent avant tout d'interroger le concept de paix à la lumière des approches philosophiques. La notion de conflit, comme lieu - d'espace et de temps, moment différé à la violence - où s'articulent les rapports de tensions entre les contraires mis en présence, apparaît dès lors comme l'élément central à prendre en considération dans ce qui caractérise les relations humaines, afin que ces dernières ne dégénèrent pas en violence aveugle. S'il est indéniable que les deux pédagogues ont été animés par un profond désir de voir la paix s'installer dans le monde après deux catastrophes mondiales, il n'en demeure pas moins que leurs approches en ce domaine révèlent, à l'instar de leur attitude vis à vis des conflits armés, un déni de la notion même de conflit au sein des relations entre les hommes et par voie de conséquence de la valeur qui lui est attachée. L'établissement d'une adéquation entre nature et paix, renforcée en cette époque charnière du début du XXe siècle, amène Célestin Freinet et Maria Montessori à asseoir leurs conceptions, pour l'un comme pour l'autre, sur les bases du naturalisme et du vitalisme en prenant, pour Maria Montessori plus particulièrement, le chemin de la religion. C'est en cela que les conceptions et démarches de ces deux pédagogues, s'inscrivant dans le mouvement plus général de l'Education nouvelle, s'appuient sur la nécessité de l'éradication des conflits. Outre le fait que par la voie du pacifisme, la paix ne saurait advenir, l'éducation à la paix demeure un problème parce qu'elle se doit de considérer la composante conflictuelle tant dans les relations inter-individuelles qu'inter-éthniques et inter-étatiques. Il reste au demeurant que non seulement on peut mais que l'on doit éduquer à la paix, au risque de la violence possible, afin d'assurer aux futures générations l'apprentissage de liberté et de l'autonomie. [The probematics of education for peace in light of two representatives of the New education : Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori The study of education for peace theme from the specific, educational and pedagogical – historically rooted – options of Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori, registered in the New Education movement, imposes first to question the concept of peace in the light of philosophical approaches. The notion of conflict, as unit – of space and time, moment differred to violence – where tension struggles between opposites, appear from that time as the central element to be considered in what caracterizes human relations, so that these relations do not degenerate in blind violence. If it is undeniable that both pedagogues have been incited by a deep desire to see peace spreading over the world after both world catastrophes, the fact remains that their approaches in this domain reveal, in the manner of their attitude towards armed conflicts, a denial of the very notion of conflict in relations between men and consequently of the value hereto attached. The setting-up of an adequacy between nature and peace, reinforced at this hinge time of the beginning of the 20th century, leads Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori to ground their conceptions, for both of them, on the basis of naturalism and vitalism, by taking, especially for Maria Montessori, the way of religion. Conceptions and approaches of these both pedagogues, in the scope of the general New Education movement, lean on the necessity to eradicate conflicts. Besides the fact that by the way of pacifism, peace could not come to pass, education to peace remains a problem because it has to consider the conflict element in inter-individual as well as inter-ethnical and inter-state relations. The fact remains that education to peace not only can be but has to be dispensed, at the risk of possible violence, in order to ensure to future generations learning of freedom and autonomy.]

Language: French

Published: Lyon, France, 2004

Doctoral Dissertation

Public Perceptions of Montessori Education

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, Montessori method of education - Perceptions, North America, Public perception, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study provides insight into the American public's perceptions of Montessori education one hundred years after its inception. The study is based on responses from an online survey with 1,520 members of an internet panel which was stratified to reflect the U.S. population based on age, ethnicity, gender, region, and income. The study answered research questions regarding how much the general public knows about Montessori education, perceptions of Montessori education and the attitudes and demographic characteristics that are associated with positive perceptions of Montessori education. The study found high awareness of the term "Montessori," but lower knowledge of the specifics of Montessori education. Generally favorable perceptions of Montessori education were also discovered along with less widespread evidence of commonly reported criticisms. Finally, and not surprisingly, familiarity with Montessori education led to more positive opinions of Montessori education as did stronger beliefs that schools should play a role in children's development beyond academics.

Language: English

Published: Lawrence, Kansas, 2008

Doctoral Dissertation

Montessori Education in Aotearoa-New Zealand: A Framework for Peace and Social Justice

Available from: Auckland University of Technology Library

Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, Montessori method of education, New Zealand, Oceania, Peace, Peace education, Social justice

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Abstract/Notes: In the first half of the 20th century, Maria Montessori (1870-1952) created a radical approach to early education that she believed had the potential to aid political and socio-cultural transformation on a global scale. This study utilises critical theory and insights from the reconceptualist early childhood education movement to contextualise the background and examine the currency of Montessori’s vision of social justice for the child and subsequent world peace. The research focuses on the reflections of graduates from the Bachelor of Education (Montessori Early Childhood Teaching), a model of teacher education developed at the Auckland University of Technology. The study utilised socio-biographical inquiry and case study as key research tools. Participants were drawn from graduates in their first, second and third year of early childhood teaching practice. The specialty degree aims to highlight the social advocacy role of Maria Montessori with regard to children’s rights and as teachers qualify and enter the field, the project explores differences and similarities that they meet in the interpretation of Montessori philosophy. Information was also sought on the factors that support or challenge the development and resilience of teachers during their first three years of practice in the field. In particular, the study considers the relationship between the philosophy and practice of Montessori teachers in Aotearoa-New Zealand with reference to Montessori’s vision and explores how a teacher preparation model can be authentically reconciled with a social justice perspective. Case studies in four early childhood centres exemplify how a framework derived from Montessori philosophy supports development of the ‘just community’. This research has yielded information on the development of effective practice in early childhood education using the construct of critically engaged pedagogy. Insights arising from the project may therefore contribute to advancing both the literature and practice of Montessori education and especially in the New Zealand teacher education context.

Language: English

Published: Auckland, New Zealand, 2011

Book Section

Die Montessori-Methode und ihre Anwendung bei geistig behinderten Kindern [The Montessori method and its application in mentally handicapped children]

Book Title: Die Montessori-Pädagogik und das behinderte Kind: Referate und Ergebnisse des 18. Internationalen Montessori Kongresses (München, 4-8 Juli 1977) [Montessori Pedagogy and the Handicapped Child: Papers and Results of the 18th International Montessori Congress (Munich, July 4-8, 1977)]

Pages: 144-155

Children with disabilities, Conferences, International Montessori Congress (18th, Munich, Germany, 4-8 July 1977), Montessori method of education, Special education

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Language: German

Published: München: Kindler, 1978

ISBN: 3-463-00716-9

Article

Pelatihan untuk Mengajar Bahasa dan Matematika Berbasis Metode Montessori di Sekolah Dasar [Training for Teaching Language and Mathematics Based on the Montessori Method in Elementary Schools]

Available from: EJOURNAL (Indonesia)

Publication: Jurnal Pengabdian Pada Masyarakat [Journal of Community Service], vol. 6, no. 1

Pages: 69-77

Asia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education, Trainings, ⚠️ Invalid DOI

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Abstract/Notes: An important aspect that determines learning success is the learning method used by the teacher. Teacher prospective teachers should have broad insights related to learning methods. Prospective teachers and teachers need to vary the learning model. Montessori method is one method that follows the natural tendencies of children and teachers need to prepare learning that follows the stages of child development. Based on these thoughts, community service is carried out to help prospective teachers and teachers' insights about the Montessori method. The sequence of community service activities is the training and mentoring of prospective teachers, the implementation of learning by the Montessori method by prospective teachers, evaluation and reflection on the results of implementation, preparation of training materials for elementary school teachers, and the activity ends with the evaluation and training of Montessori methods for elementary teachers. The result of community service is that prospective teachers are happy to have classroom experience and 100% of students are happy because they are involved in innovative learning activities, the Montessori method. In addition, teachers also get experience training in Montessori methods.

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.30653/002.202161.494

ISSN: 2540-8747

Article

El Método Montessori y la Educación Moderna [Montessori Method and Modern Education]

Publication: Revista de Pedagogía, vol. 1, no. 6

Pages: 201-204

Maria Montessori - Writings, Montessori method of education

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Language: Spanish

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