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Book

Options in Public Education: A Source Document

Educational change

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Abstract/Notes: In this booklet, options (alternatives) for education in the Chicago Public Schools are discussed. Options described are of four types, all focusing on the learning of basic skills: (1) instruction-based, such as Montessori and open schools; (2) curriculum-based, such as magnet schools, academies, environmental schools and multicultural schools; (3) administrative-based, such as mini-schools; and (4) facility and resource based, such as academic interest centers and career development centers. Planning, development and implementation stages are outlined. Suggestions are made about financing and administrating alternatives and relating them to neighborhood schools, desegregation and permissive transfer. The new directions in educational options, the development of process models for options and leadership roles necessary to options development as implemented in the Chicago Public Schools are outlined. Appendices include policy statements on options planning, funding approval, methods of teacher self-assessment, and a glossary defining important terms in alternative education programs. (WI)

Language: English

Published: Chicago, Illinois: National Clearinghouse for Options in Public Education, Chicago Public Schools, 1977

Conference Paper

Culturally Relevant Education and the Montessori Approach: Perspectives from Hawaiian Educators

Available from: ERIC

Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, Apr 8, 2006)

Americas, Culturally relevant pedagogy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, Apr 8, 2006). The purpose of this study was to investigate why some Hawaiian language and culture-based (HLCB) educators perceived the Montessori approach to be congruent with their goals and values and to determine the salient features of the Montessori approach used by HLCB teachers who received Montessori training. The sociocultural perspective on learning provided the theoretical foundations and grounded theory methodology guided the research process. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 40 HLCB participants, including 15 key informants who had at least 180 hours of Montessori training. Data also included classroom and school visits and analyses of school documents. Data analysis revealed six themes and two linkages that related the themes and their elements. Four themes were related to why HLCB educators have perceived the Montessori approach to be congruent with their values and goals. These were (a) similar views regarding their work as a lifestyle, (b) common pedagogical practices, (c) shared values and beliefs as educators, and (d) an overlapping world-view. One theme described the distinctions between the approaches. The final theme included challenges to implementing and maintaining HLCB programs. The findings suggest that researchers and teacher educators interested in culturally congruent education should take into account the underlying world-view of both the research paradigm and the participants involved, and that school reform should be comprehensive, culturally congruent, and generated from within communities and other stakeholders. They also indicate that culturally congruent, place-based education may enhance academic self-efficacy and could serve as a bridge between seemingly disparate educational approaches.

Language: English

Article

Shunned and Admired: Montessori, Self-Determination, and a Case for Radical School Reform

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Educational Psychology Review, vol. 31

Pages: 939-965

Americas, Autonomy in children, Comparative education, Educational change, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, Self-determination, Self-determination theory, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: School reform is an important national and international concern. The Montessori alternative school system is unique in that it is well-aligned with the science of healthy development and learning, has strong social–emotional and academic outcomes, is virtually unchanged in over a century, can be applied across all the school years, and still attracts considerable attention and allegiance—yet it remains Bon the margins^ (Whitescarver and Cossentino Teachers College Record, 110, 2571–2600, 2008) of the bulwark educational system, as often shunned as admired. Why does Montessori persist (and increasingly in the public sector) and why does it elicit such sharply contrasting reactions? This article reviews several reasons why it is admired, such as evidence of Montessori’s effectiveness, its alignment with educational psychology research, and its broad scope. The points of research alignment are presented as natural corollaries of Montessori’s central premise: independence, or self-determination. After discussing these extrinsic and intrinsic reasons why Montessori is admired, the article concludes with speculation as to why it is also shunned—namely its incommensurability with conventional education culture and what might be a consequence: frequent poor implementation. The incommensurability of evidence-based alternatives with the conventional system is also posed as a reason for radical school reform.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s10648-019-09483-3

ISSN: 1040-726X, 1573-336X

Report

Two Kinds of Kindergarten After Four Types of Head Start

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: Results are reported at the end of the second year of a 3-year comparison of four prekindergarten programs: Bereiter-Engelmann, DARCEE, Montessori and Traditional. A number of classes in each program style were used with 246 four-year-olds in Head Start. Children were tested early in the year, at the end of the year, and at the end of kindergarten on a battery of tests and rating scales, including Stanford-Binet, Preschool Inventory, Curiosity Box, Replacement Puzzle, Dog & Bone, Behavior Inventory and Embedded Figures. The kindergarten experience was systematically varied. One replication of the original experiment entered a Follow Through kindergarten, the remainder of the experimental children entered Regular Kindergarten, a non-academic program. A video-tape monitoring procedure developed previously was used to analyze differences among kindergarten programs. Data were examined from several aspects. (1) Did Follow Through and regular kindergarten classes differ in expected dimensions? (2) Did Follow Through produce greater gains than regular kindergarten? (3) Were there interactions between type of Head Start and type of kindergarten? (4) To what extent were Head Start gains maintained irrespective of type of kindergarten? (5) Were there sex effects or sex interactions? Results are discussed in terms of need for finer analysis of program dimensions as related to specific effects. (Author/AJ)

Language: English

Published: Louisville, Kentucky, 1971

Report

Experimental Variation of Head Start Curricula: A Comparison of Current Approaches. Annual Report, June 12, 1968-June 11, 1969

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: In this study, investigators made an experimental comparison of four curricula for Head Start classes: (1) the official (or "traditional") Head Start program, emphasizing enrichment of experience, individual differences, a climate of freedom, and learning by doing, (2) the DARCEE program, emphasizing reinforcement of attitudes combined with training in basic skills and intensive work with mothers, (3) the academic drills approach of Bereiter and Engelmann, emphasizing the ability to handle linguistic and numerical symbols, and (4) the Montessori program, characterized by a high degree of structure in respect to the analysis and sequencing of tasks, combined with great flexibility in that each child is expected to pursue his own interests. During the 1968-69 school year 14 classes were conducted--two Montessori classes, and four classes in each of the other program styles. The 4-year-olds in these classes were pre- and posttested with nine instruments, selected to assess gains in cognitive, motivational, social, and perceptual development. A non-preschool control group was also tested. Classes were monitored periodically throughout the year to assess treatment dimensions. All phases of the first year of this study are now complete. Data analysis is in process. Tables and appendices are included. (Author/NH)

Language: English

Published: Louisville, Kentucky, Jun 11, 1969

Article

Evolution of the Primary Program in Six Kentucky Schools

Available from: ERIC

Publication: Notes from the Field: Education Reform in Rural Kentucky, vol. 6, no. 1

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Abstract/Notes: As part of an 8-year study of education reform in rural Kentucky, this report examines the primary program that has evolved in six rural elementary schools as a result of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA), which requires that grades K-3 be replaced by a nongraded program. This change aimed to eliminate failure in the first 2 years of schooling and prepare all children for the fourth grade by allowing them to progress at their own developmental rate. Seven mandates for this primary program included developmentally appropriate practices, multiage and multiability classrooms, continuous progress, authentic assessment, qualitative reporting to parents, professional teamwork, and positive parent involvement. This report discusses the relationship of the primary program to other KERA strands, the study methodology, and findings. Reform implementation was hindered by uneven time lines, lack of guidance from the state department, slow formation and organization of school councils, uncertainties about appropriate instructional practices, and KERA mandates for "critical attributes" of primary classrooms. Primary teachers at all study schools attempted to implement the attributes within the first 2 years upon receiving training and new materials, but program implementation was slowed due to over-emphasis on the critical attributes, legislative adjustments, lack of perceived fit to reforms in grades 4-12, and questions of efficacy. Program development at the local level was influenced by principal's leadership, teacher beliefs, school climate, and local response. Attaining program goals may require reinforcing the intent of the primary program and articulating how teachers can infuse challenging content into the primary program in ways that prepare students to meet state academic expectations. Case studies of four primary schools are included. (SAS)

Language: English

Article

Working with Parents: Building the Spirit Through Collaboration

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 28, no. 2

Pages: 137-140

Child development, Cognitive development, Early childhood education, Elementary education, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Montessori schools, Parent participation, Parent-teacher relationships, Parenting - Study and teaching, Parents, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Offers suggestions for facilitating collaboration between families and schools, based on experience in Montessori education. Advocates gaining trust through regular informal social gatherings of parents and principal, pointing out that trust can help parents deal with anxiety over future academic success. Notes the efficacy of a parent education component for facilitating parent participation. Urges administrators to show sensitivity by speaking in encouraging terms and knowing what not to say.

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

The Natural World as Prepared Environment

Available from: ERIC

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 39, no. 1

Pages: 41-59

Child development, Conservation of natural resources, Early childhood education, Ecology, Montessori method of education, Natural resources, Prepared environment, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Louise Chawla's autobiographical beginning of this article shows the integration of her world-famous science of the environment and its relationship to early and middle childhood development as it finds its roots in Montessori education. Her academic training brought her to Edith Cobb's writing and unveiled the origins of kinship to the natural world in the developing young human. Her own exploration of nature and culture caused her to return to Montessori writings with a fresh understanding of the natural world as a prepared environment. Louise Chawla stresses that children must frequently encounter "the natural world with empathy and delight" and the prepared environment supports them as they become creative citizens of humanity. [This paper was prepared for the NAMTA Conference titled "Deschooling Montessori" January 25, 2002, in Scottsdale, AZ. Reprinted from "The NAMTA Journal" 27.3 (2002, Summer): 131-148 (see EJ661570).]

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Nurturing the Respectful Community through Practical Life

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 101-116

Child development, Cognitive development, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education, Practical life exercises, Self-esteem in children, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Discusses the importance of Montessori's Practical Life exercises for building character and self-esteem, more concern for others, better understanding for academic learning, and a self-nurturing, respectful classroom community. Considers aspects of movement and silence exercises for developing the child's contemplative and reflective nature that brings peacefulness and a state of grace. (JPB)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Maria Montessori's Recommendations for Young Teachers to Develop Children's Little Hand Motorcy

Available from: Zenodo

Publication: Academic Research Journal, vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 44-49

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Motor ability in children

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Abstract/Notes: This article discusses in detail the Maria Montessori system and its peculiarities in the development of fine motor skills in children, the advantages and importance of Montessori pedagogy - a non-traditional method for the development of today's child's personality.

Language: English

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6564410

ISSN: 2094-280X

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