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A Comparison of Two Approaches Used Within a Multi-tiered System of Supports That Enhance Students' Academic Achievement
Available from: Bethel University - Institutional Repository
Abstract/Notes: While students are receiving a high-quality education within the classroom, some students face difficulty performing adequately on assessments. These students typically receive intervention support to assist in increasing their skill deficits. However, many schools are unaware of the different approaches they can implement within a Multi-Tiered System of Supports framework. While utilizing a standard protocol has been the preferred method, many schools are currently implementing the problem-solving approach because it targets one skill the student is struggling with. Little research has been conducted comparing or combining the two approaches leading schools to be clueless about which one will provide more positive results. A synthesis of articles implementing one or both approaches was conducted to determine which approach would work best in a Montessori school. Results showed an individualized approach might assist students more based on higher effect sizes. However, some researchers who compared the two approaches indicate both approaches are comparable in yielding positive results. To implement interventions effectively, educators must use an evidence-based intervention that’s explicit and structured, screen and monitor progress to make informed decisions, and implement the intervention with fidelity.
Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2023
A utilização do Método Montessori como ferramenta para contribuição do desenvolvimento socioemocional na primeira infância / The use of the Montessori Method as a tool to contribute to early childhood socio-emotional development
Available from: European Publications
Publication: Cuadernos de Educación y Desarrollo, vol. 15, no. 9
Abstract/Notes: When intrapersonal conflicts are observed in the resolution of everyday setbacks in most children who are experiencing early childhood (2 to 6 (two to six years)), there was a need to elaborate this research in order to find ways that can contribute to the processes of building socio-emotional knowledge. Therefore, we want to analyze whether and how the Montessori Method can contribute to this development of the subject when it needs to resolve conflicts. In view of this, the application of the Montessori method may be a methodology capable of helping to alleviate, or even to resolve, the problem. This method seeks to make children more independent as to the mastery of their emotional and social stability. The general objective of this article is to analyze the contribution of the Montessori Method to the independence of children, in the area of their socio-emotional aspects. The specific objectives are: to clarify what intrapersonal conflicts are and to exemplify situations; to understand the Montessori Method when it comes to autonomy and independence in childhood and to ratify the contribution of the method to socio-emotional development. The sequence of discussion sessions of the article deals with subjects that can clarify the aforementioned objectives, which are called: Intra-personal conflicts and example of situations; Montessori method - autonomy and independence of children and contribution of the Montessori method to socioemotional development in early childhood. The methodology used for this research is qualitative and bibliographic, since concepts and reflections that already exist on the theme will be analyzed. The expectation of the authors is that adults who read this article can promote actions and behaviors that contribute to the independence and autonomy of children, mainly in relation to the domain of emotional stability, so that children learn to deal with their intrapersonal conflicts in a natural, reflective, calm and direct way; demonstrating the possible contribution of the method in the maturation of this domain. / Ao serem observados conflitos intrapessoais na resolução de contratempos cotidianos em grande parte das crianças que estão vivenciando a primeira infância (2 a 6 (dois a seis anos)), houve a necessidade de elaborar esta pesquisa a fim de encontrar maneiras que possam contribuir para os processos de construção de conhecimentos socioemocionais. Portanto deseja-se analisar se, e como, o Método Montessori pode contribuir para este desenvolvimento do sujeito quando este necessita resolver conflitos. Em vista disso, a aplicação do Método Montessori pode ser uma metodologia capaz de contribuir para amenizar, ou até mesmo, para uma possível resolução da problemática. Este método procura tornar as crianças mais independentes quanto ao domínio de suas estabilidades emocionais e sociais. O objetivo geral deste artigo consiste em analisar a contribuição do Método Montessori para a independência das crianças, quanto ao domínio dos seus aspectos socioemocionais. Quanto aos objetivos específicos destaca-se: esclarecer o que são os conflitos intrapessoais e exemplificar situações; compreender o Método Montessori quando se trata de autonomia e independência na infância e ratificar a contribuição do método para o desenvolvimento socioemocional. A sequência de sessões de discussão do artigo trata de assuntos que possam esclarecer os objetivos supracitados, os quais são denominados: Conflitos intrapessoais e exemplo de situações; Método Montessori – autonomia e independência infantil e contribuição do Método Montessori para o desenvolvimento socioemocional na primeira infância. A metodologia utilizada para esta pesquisa é qualitativa e bibliográfica, pois serão analisados conceitos e reflexões que já existem a respeito do tema. A expectativa das autoras é que os adultos que lerem este artigo possam promover ações e condutas que contribuam para a independência e autonomia das crianças, principalmente, com relação ao domínio da estabilidade emocional, para que as crianças aprendam a lidar com seus conflitos intrapessoais de maneira natural, reflexiva, calma e direta; demonstrando a possível contribuição do método na maturação deste domínio.
Exploring New Approaches to Youth Sports Programs: Montessori Motor Development
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, vol. 94, no. 7
Abstract/Notes: Children are being introduced to organized sports programs at younger ages today. The first experience sets the stage for how they may view their physical competency and acceptance within a group. In these experiences, frequently, the coach is a well-intended parent who may not have any background in coaching or physical education training. Dr. Maria Montessori is widely known for her contributions to experiential learning for young children. Although Montessori addressed motor development through her pedagogical approach, it is rarely associated with physical education or sports. This article aims to provide some insight to educators, physical education teachers, coaches, and parents with an alternative approach to sport introduction through a Montessori theoretical lens which may allow children to develop a love for physical activity and/or future athletes.
Montessori Educational Thought and Its Implications for Family Education
Available from: Clausius Scientific Press
Publication: Applied & Educational Psychology, vol. 4, no. 8
Abstract/Notes: The aim of this paper is to study and analyze Montessori's educational ideas and their implications for family education. Through the study of representative works such as The Complete Montessori Book of Early Education, The Montessori Handbook of Sensitive Periods for Children, The Montessori Family Program, The Montessori Method of Early Education, The Secret of Childhood and The Absorbent Mind, we have come to the following conclusions. Firstly, Montessori's educational philosophy emphasizes the creation of a home environment that matches the child. This includes providing an orderly, quiet, warm and inspiring environment, and parents should be supporters and observers of children's development, respecting their individual interests and needs. Secondly, Montessori emphasized grasping the child's sensitive periods. She observed that children are more sensitive to certain experiences and skills at certain ages and learn best during this period. Finally, Montessori's educational ideas provide theoretical and practical implications for preschool education. She emphasizes the development of children's self-discipline, self-confidence, independent thinking and problem-solving skills. Encouraging children to actively participate in daily life activities, developing good social skills and emotional development, and providing appropriate learning experiences lay a solid foundation for children's preschool education. In summary, Montessori's educational ideas give important insights in the area of family education. Creating a family environment adapted to children, grasping sensitive periods, and developing various abilities are insights that provide theoretical and practical implications for preschool education.
Investigating the Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on the Memory Improvement of Patients With Alzheimer
Available from: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Iran)
Publication: Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, vol. 21, no. 2
Date: Jun 2023
Abstract/Notes: Objectives: Alzheimer's is the most prevalent cognitive disturbance, with a high spread among the elderly. The current research aims to investigate the impact of cognitive rehabilitation on the memory improvement of Alzheimer's disease patients. | Methods: The current research used a semi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test designs. The statistical population in Baghdad in 2021 included 60 patients with Alzheimer's illness, all considered a statistical sample and separated into two experimental and control groups (30 people in each group). The patient's cognitive abilities were assessed prior to the intervention (pre-test), straightly after the intervention (post-test), and two months later (follow-up). The experimental group had twenty-eight 45-minute sessions of training based on the Montessori Method (two sessions per week). The data were analyzed in SPSS version 19 using the independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results have a P-value of less than 0.05. | Results: The findings of the independent t-test demonstrated that there is no significant differ between the scores of the both groups during the pre-test stage (P>0.05) but that this difference is significant during the post-test and follow-up stages (P<0.001). In addition, the findings of repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant differ between the both groups' mean scores in post-test and follow-up (P<0.001). | Conclusion: Cognitive rehabilitation can help patients with memory disorders and positively affect their memory performance.
ISSN: 1735-3602, 1735-3610
Learning by Heart or with Heart: Brain Asymmetry Reflects Pedagogical Practices
Available from: MDPI
Publication: Brain Sciences, vol. 13, no. 9
Abstract/Notes: Brain hemispheres develop rather symmetrically, except in the case of pathology or intense training. As school experience is a form of training, the current study tested the influence of pedagogy on morphological development through the cortical thickness (CTh) asymmetry index (AI). First, we compared the CTh AI of 111 students aged 4 to 18 with 77 adults aged > 20. Second, we investigated the CTh AI of the students as a function of schooling background (Montessori or traditional). At the whole-brain level, CTh AI was not different between the adult and student groups, even when controlling for age. However, pedagogical experience was found to impact CTh AI in the temporal lobe, within the parahippocampal (PHC) region. The PHC region has a functional lateralization, with the right PHC region having a stronger involvement in spatiotemporal context encoding, while the left PHC region is involved in semantic encoding. We observed CTh asymmetry toward the left PHC region for participants enrolled in Montessori schools and toward the right for participants enrolled in traditional schools. As these participants were matched on age, intelligence, home-life and socioeconomic conditions, we interpret this effect found in memory-related brain regions to reflect differences in learning strategies. Pedagogy modulates how new concepts are encoded, with possible long-term effects on knowledge transfer.
"Follow Your Heart": Heart-to-Brain-Driven Interplay Relates to Self-Congruency
Available from: Research Square
Abstract/Notes: When emotions, thoughts, and actions align, this is referred to as “self-congruency”. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how temporal covariance of the heart and brain signals were related to self-congruency. Thirty-eight healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to obtain neural markers of variability, whereas heart rate variability (HRV) was measured using photoplethysmography. Participants were also asked to report their level of self-congruency with a graphic rating scale. A cross-covariance analysis (CCA) was performed to assess the temporal covariance of signals arising from both organs, which was then correlated with self-congruency scores. Overall, the CCA results revealed brain-to-heart-driven interplay in brain regions involved in the neurovisceral integration model (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and in emotion regulation (e.g., anterior cingulate). However, higher self-congruency scores were related to heart-to-brain-driven interplay in brain regions involved in emotion regulation and empathy. Together, the present findings suggest that, while global brain-to-heart-driven interplay occurs on average, it is heart-to-brain-driven interplay that reflects higher self-congruency. Given the impact of heart-brain interplay and self-congruency on mental health, further investigations on each concept could be interesting in developing tools for early intervention.
Published: Aug 30, 2023
The Effects of Mild but Chronic Stress at School on Brain Development: A Comparative Morphometric Study Between Traditionally and Montessori-schooled Children
Available from: Research Square
Abstract/Notes: While many children suffer from stress due to school-related factors, some alternative schooling systems, such as the Montessori pedagogy, emphasize stress-free learning environments (e.g., no grades, no tests, peer-peer learning). This study compared brain markers of stress, i.e., hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) volumes, as a function of school experience. A cross-sectional comparative morphometric study was run between 45 traditionally schooled children and 44 Montessori-schooled children (3-12 years). While both groups were comparable in terms of cognitive abilities, socio-economic environment, and anxiety levels, volumetric values within their hippocampus and their mPFC differed. While there was hippocampal growth across development for all participants, there was a higher gain for Montessori-schooled children. Furthermore, female traditionally schooled children showed a loss in hippocampal and mPFC volume across age, while female Montessori-schooled children showed a gain. It seems that traditional pedagogical approaches induce mild but chronic stress, affecting underlying brain structures.
Published: Jun 22, 2023
Archival Material Or Collection
Grace Gallatin Seton-Thompson papers
Abstract/Notes: The collection includes biographical articles and clippings, correspondence, published writings and typescripts, memorabilia, notes, photographs, and organization files. Correspondence (1903-40) pertains to her travels, publications, and involvement in feminist and social organizations. Organizational files include minutes, agendas and reports relating to the International Council of Women (1915-26),the National Council of Women, and the Montessori Education Association of New York. Her work for the International Writers Conclave (Chicago, 1933) brought occasional correspondence from women authors around the world. Typescripts of articles and addresses including an essay on Chinese medicine and information on Dr. Mary Stone, medical missionary, China (n.d.). Material related to her world travels includes writings, correspondence, travel literature, maps and notes. Individuals represented include May Wright Sewall, Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman, Lena Madesin Phillips, and Kate Douglas Smith Wiggin.
The Urgent Need for an Early Years Workforce Strategy
Available from: MAG Online Library
Publication: Early Years Educator, vol. 24, no. 3
Date: Oct 2023
Abstract/Notes: Statistics published by the DfE in July show the proportion of staff working in the the early years sector with a relevant early years qualification has fallen since 2020. Dr Nathan Archer, director of the International Montessori Institute, outlines his thoughts on how the government could tackle the recruitment and retention crisis and the need for a workforce strategy.
ISSN: 1465-931X, 2052-4617
La Molteplicità Scientifica di Maria Montessori [The Scientific Multiplicity of Maria Montessori]
Book Title: La Cura dell'Anima in Maria Montessori: l'Educazione Morale, Spirituale e Religiosa dell'Infanzia [Care of the Soul in Maria Montessori: Moral, Spiritual and Religious Education of Childhood]
Published: Rome, Italy: Fefè Editore, 2011
Les Recherches Historiques sur Maria Montessori en Italie (2000-2021) [Historical Research on Maria Montessori in Italy (2000-2021)]
Available from: CAIRN
Publication: Les Études Sociales, vol. 175, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: Cette bibliographie sans prétendre être exhaustive montre la densité croissante des recherches historiques sur Maria Montessori réalisées en Italie ces vingt dernières années. Il existe parmi nos collègues transalpins un réseau de chercheurs en la matière où les pionniers : Clara Tornar, Giacomo Cives et Paola Trabalzini, entraînent à leur suite une pléiade de chercheurs comme Fulvio De Giorgi, Renato Foschi, Tiziana Pironi ou Erica Moretti. D’où la variété des travaux qui laissent de moins en moins de zones d’ombre dans l’œuvre de la pédagogue et dans son action. La formation de Maria Montessori imprégnée du positivisme scientifique ambiant, ses liens, parfois contradictoires, avec l’Église catholique, la théosophie et la maçonnerie, son engagement social aux côtés des féministes et des enfants des classes pauvres, ses rapports à la psychanalyse, ses relations ambigües avec le pouvoir y compris fasciste, etc. sont passés au peigne fin. Cependant, tout n’est pas encore exploré concernant Maria Montessori et, surtout, le mouvement qu’elle a fondé. Les enfants qui bénéficièrent de la pédagogie montessorienne et leur devenir scolaire restent sous-étudiés, ainsi que la place du montessorisme dans l’école publique, question sensible pour les Français. Mais le travail de nos collègues italiens a largement ouvert la voie... [This bibliography, without claiming to be exhaustive, shows the increasing density of historical research on Maria Montessori carried out in Italy over the past twenty years. Among our transalpine colleagues there is a network of researchers in the field where the pioneers: Clara Tornar, Giacomo Cives and Paola Trabalzini, lead a host of researchers like Fulvio De Giorgi, Renato Foschi, Tiziana Pironi or Erica Moretti. Hence the variety of work that leaves less and less gray areas in the work of the pedagogue and in his action. Maria Montessori's training, steeped in the prevailing scientific positivism, her links, sometimes contradictory, with the Catholic Church, theosophy and Masonry, her social commitment alongside feminists and children from the poor classes, her relationship to psychoanalysis, her ambiguous relations with power, including fascists, etc. have been combed through. However, not everything has yet been explored concerning Maria Montessori and, above all, the movement she founded. The children who benefited from Montessorian pedagogy and their future at school remain under-studied, as well as the place of Montessorism in public schools, a sensitive issue for the French. But the work of our Italian colleagues has largely paved the way...]
Dr. Maria Montessori: selbsttätige Erziehung im frühen Kindesalter [Dr. Maria Montessori: Independent education in early childhood]
Publication: Kindergarten, vol. 55
Maria Montessori e l'Educazione Nuova [Maria Montessori and New Education]
Publication: Vita dell'Infanzia (Opera Nazionale Montessori), vol. 34, no. 8
De veranderingen in de hoofdwerken van Maria Montessori [Changes in the main works of Maria Montessori]
Book Title: Kind en cultuur in opvoeding en onderwijs [Child and culture in upbringing and education]
Published: Groningen: Gion, 1996
Modernost pedagoške koncepcije Marije Montessori [The contemporariness of Maria Montessori’s pedagogical concept / Modernität der pädagogischen Konzeption von Maria Montessori]
Available from: Hrčak - Portal of Croatian scientific and professional journals
Publication: Pedagogijska istraživanja, vol. 8, no. 2
Abstract/Notes: U zadnjim desetljećima sve veći broj znanstvenika i pedagoga praktičara pokazuje interes za Montessori pedagogiju, provjerava je u praksi i potvrđuje da je riječ o modernoj, vremenu primjerenoj pedagogiji koja odgovara na razvojne potrebe suvremene djece i mladih. Brojna istraživanja pokazuju kako djeca iz Montessori škola, u usporedbi s djecom iz standardnih škola, pokazuju bolju motivaciju za učenje, višestruke interese, samostalnost i pozitivan odnos prema učenju te veću odgovornost prema zajednici. Istraživanja euroznanosti i razvojne psihologije potvrđuju postavke Montessori pedagogije o individualnom planu razvoja, koji prolazi određene stupnjeve (senzibilna razdoblja, prozori učenja) te o potrebi didaktički obliko vanog okruženja kao pomoći u individualnom razvoju. Zahtjev za slobodom, samostalnosti i samoaktivnosti Montessori je, za razliku od emancipatorske pedagogije i sociokonstruktivizma, postavila u okvire razvojne i moralne slobode i jasno defi nirala uvjete slobode i pretpostavke samostalnosti djeteta. Sloboda shvaćena kao izgradnja kompetencija za djelovanje – cilj je, ali i put, koji dijete prolazi u svome razvoju i na kojemu treba sigurnost, zaštićenost, praćenje i pomoć odraslih. Modernost Montessori pedagogije treba tražiti u znanstveno utemeljenoj psihologiji razvoja, u pedagoški oblikovanoj ponudi učenja i u pedagoškom etosu odgajatelja. [In recent decades an increasing number of scholars and pedagogues have been showing interest in the educational approach developed by Maria Montessori, applying it in practice and arguing that it is a modern and timely pedagogy that responds to the developmental needs of contemporary children and youth. Numerous surveys show that children educated in Montessori schools, in comparison to children educated in standard schools, demonstrate a greater motivation to learn, have a multiplicity of interests, display independence and a positive stance towards learning, as well as an increased sense of responsibility towards the community. Research in neuroscience and developmental psychology confi rms the hypotheses laid down by Montessori pedagogy about the individual development plan as evolving through certain stages (sensitive periods, learning windows) and about the need to have a didactically formulated environment that will support individual development. Unlike the emancipatory pedagogy and socio-constructivism, Montessori has placed the requirement for freedom, autonomy and self-activity within the bounds of a developmental and moral freedom and clearly defi ned the conditions of the freedom and the assumptions of the child’s autonomy. Freedom interpreted as a development of competencies for action represents the aim, but also the journey a child goes through during the development period when it needs safety, protection, attention and support from the adults. The contemporariness of Montessori pedagogy is to be found in scientifically-based developmental psychology, in pedagogically formulated teaching and in the pedagogical ethos of the teacher. / In den letzten Jahrzehnten wächst die Zahl von Wissenschaft lern und pädagogischen Praktikern, die sich mit der Montessori-Pädagogik beschäft igen, ihre Th esen in der Praxis überprüfen und die Meinung vertreten, dass es um eine moderne, zeitgemäße Pädagogik handelt, die auf Entwicklungsbedürfnisse der heutigen Kinder und Jugendlichen antwortet. Zahlreiche Untersuchungen bestätigen, dass die Kinder aus den Montessori-Schulen im Vergleich mit den Kindern aus den Standardschulen eine höhere Lernmotivation, vielfältigere Interessen, Selbständigkeit und positives Verhältnis zum Lernen sowie eine größere Verantwortung gegenüber der Gemeinschaft besitzen. Die im Rahmen von Neurowissenschaft en und Entwicklungspsychologie unternommenen Untersuchungen bestätigen die Hypothesen der Montessori-Pädagogik über den individuellen Entwicklungsplan, der bestimmte Stufen durchläuft (sensible Etappen, Lernfenster) sowie die Notwendigkeit einer didaktisch gestalteten Umwelt als individueller Entwicklungshilfe. Die Forderung nach der Freiheit, Selbständigkeit und Selbstaktivität stellte Montessori, im Unterschied zu emanzipatorischer Pädagogik und sozialem Konstruktivismus in den Rahmen der moralischen und Entwicklungsfreiheit und defi nierte klar die Voraussetzungen für die Freiheit und Selbständigkeit des Kindes. Die Freiheit, begriff en als Aufb au von Handlungskompetenzen, stellt das Ziel, aber auch den Weg dar, den das Kind in seiner Entwicklung zurücklegt und auf dem es Sicherheit, Geborgenheit, Hilfe und Aufsicht durch Erwachsene benötigt. Die Modernität der Montessori-Pädagogik ist in der wissenschaft lich begründeten Entwicklungspsychologie, in den pädagogisch aufb ereiteten Lernangeboten und dem pädagogischen Ethos der Erzieher zu suchen.]
Maria Montessori in Italia e nel mondo [Maria Montessori in Italy and around the world]
Publication: Vita dell'Infanzia (Opera Nazionale Montessori), vol. 35, no. 11-12
Da Ellen Key a Maria Montessori: La Progettazione di Nuovi Spazi Educativi per l’Infanzia [From Ellen Key to Maria Montessori: Planning New Educational Spaces for Childhood]
Available from: Università di Bologna
Publication: Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica / Journal of Theories and Research in Education, vol. 5, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: In questa prima fase della ricerca - ancora in itinere - si compie un’analisi storico-pedagogica del rapporto infanzia/famiglie/istituzioni. L’indagine si focalizza sulle trasformazioni dei modelli familiari, visti nella loro interdipendenza con l’elaborazione di nuove pratiche educative. Al riguardo, l’avvento del’900 si profila come un passaggio importante, che trova un suo esito nel volume di Ellen Key, Il secolo dei fanciulli. Proprio in quest’opera, la scrittrice svedese elabora una nuova idea di “maternità” e di “paternità” che pone al centro i bisogni e le esigenze infantili. La sua prospettiva diventa oggetto di dibattito, agli inizi del secolo scorso, sia in campo pedagogico, sia in campo femminista, soprattutto in merito al dilemma per la donna di coniugare insieme sfera pubblica e sfera privata, maternità e autonomia individuale. Secondo l’ipotesi qui evidenziata è in particolare Maria Montessori a raccogliere la sfida di Ellen Key, con il suo esperimento pedagogico della “Casa dei bambini”, in cui lo spazio domestico, “privato” si trasforma in uno spazio scolastico, “pubblico”, a misura di “bambino” (valenza estetica degli ambienti, cura delle relazioni umane, ecc.). [In the first phase of research it conducts an historical and pedagogical analysis on the relationship between childhoods, families and institutions, identifying family-models changes and their interdependence with the elaboration of new educative practices. At the beginning of twentieth century, Ellen Key wrote the famous book The century of children. Following the introduction of Modernity age, the author defined a new idea of “motherhood” and “fatherhood” which focused on childish subjects’ needs and requirements. Her prospective became item of debate both in pedagogic and in feminist fields, especially in regard to women’s dilemma on how to combine public and private life, motherhood and individual autonomy. In particular, Maria Montessori took up the Ellen Key challenge, in fact she made the pedagogical experiment of Children’s House, where domestic space became institutional space (settings’ aesthetic quality, human relationships’ care).]
Maria Montessori. The Montessori Method, the Montessori Elementary Material and Spontaneous Activity in Education [Book Review]
Publication: The Month (London), vol. 33, no. 1
Date: January 1, 1965
Maria Montessori: The Montessori Method (Introduction by Martin Mayer); Spontaneous Activity in Education (The Advanced Montessori Method, Vol. 1); The Montessori Elementary Material (The Advanced Montessori Method, Vol. 2)
Available from: Springer Link
Publication: International Review of Education, vol. 11, no. 2
ISSN: 1573-0638, 0020-8566