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A Comparison of Two Approaches Used Within a Multi-tiered System of Supports That Enhance Students' Academic Achievement
Available from: Bethel University - Institutional Repository
Abstract/Notes: While students are receiving a high-quality education within the classroom, some students face difficulty performing adequately on assessments. These students typically receive intervention support to assist in increasing their skill deficits. However, many schools are unaware of the different approaches they can implement within a Multi-Tiered System of Supports framework. While utilizing a standard protocol has been the preferred method, many schools are currently implementing the problem-solving approach because it targets one skill the student is struggling with. Little research has been conducted comparing or combining the two approaches leading schools to be clueless about which one will provide more positive results. A synthesis of articles implementing one or both approaches was conducted to determine which approach would work best in a Montessori school. Results showed an individualized approach might assist students more based on higher effect sizes. However, some researchers who compared the two approaches indicate both approaches are comparable in yielding positive results. To implement interventions effectively, educators must use an evidence-based intervention that’s explicit and structured, screen and monitor progress to make informed decisions, and implement the intervention with fidelity.
Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2023
A utilização do Método Montessori como ferramenta para contribuição do desenvolvimento socioemocional na primeira infância / The use of the Montessori Method as a tool to contribute to early childhood socio-emotional development
Available from: European Publications
Publication: Cuadernos de Educación y Desarrollo, vol. 15, no. 9
Abstract/Notes: When intrapersonal conflicts are observed in the resolution of everyday setbacks in most children who are experiencing early childhood (2 to 6 (two to six years)), there was a need to elaborate this research in order to find ways that can contribute to the processes of building socio-emotional knowledge. Therefore, we want to analyze whether and how the Montessori Method can contribute to this development of the subject when it needs to resolve conflicts. In view of this, the application of the Montessori method may be a methodology capable of helping to alleviate, or even to resolve, the problem. This method seeks to make children more independent as to the mastery of their emotional and social stability. The general objective of this article is to analyze the contribution of the Montessori Method to the independence of children, in the area of their socio-emotional aspects. The specific objectives are: to clarify what intrapersonal conflicts are and to exemplify situations; to understand the Montessori Method when it comes to autonomy and independence in childhood and to ratify the contribution of the method to socio-emotional development. The sequence of discussion sessions of the article deals with subjects that can clarify the aforementioned objectives, which are called: Intra-personal conflicts and example of situations; Montessori method - autonomy and independence of children and contribution of the Montessori method to socioemotional development in early childhood. The methodology used for this research is qualitative and bibliographic, since concepts and reflections that already exist on the theme will be analyzed. The expectation of the authors is that adults who read this article can promote actions and behaviors that contribute to the independence and autonomy of children, mainly in relation to the domain of emotional stability, so that children learn to deal with their intrapersonal conflicts in a natural, reflective, calm and direct way; demonstrating the possible contribution of the method in the maturation of this domain. / Ao serem observados conflitos intrapessoais na resolução de contratempos cotidianos em grande parte das crianças que estão vivenciando a primeira infância (2 a 6 (dois a seis anos)), houve a necessidade de elaborar esta pesquisa a fim de encontrar maneiras que possam contribuir para os processos de construção de conhecimentos socioemocionais. Portanto deseja-se analisar se, e como, o Método Montessori pode contribuir para este desenvolvimento do sujeito quando este necessita resolver conflitos. Em vista disso, a aplicação do Método Montessori pode ser uma metodologia capaz de contribuir para amenizar, ou até mesmo, para uma possível resolução da problemática. Este método procura tornar as crianças mais independentes quanto ao domínio de suas estabilidades emocionais e sociais. O objetivo geral deste artigo consiste em analisar a contribuição do Método Montessori para a independência das crianças, quanto ao domínio dos seus aspectos socioemocionais. Quanto aos objetivos específicos destaca-se: esclarecer o que são os conflitos intrapessoais e exemplificar situações; compreender o Método Montessori quando se trata de autonomia e independência na infância e ratificar a contribuição do método para o desenvolvimento socioemocional. A sequência de sessões de discussão do artigo trata de assuntos que possam esclarecer os objetivos supracitados, os quais são denominados: Conflitos intrapessoais e exemplo de situações; Método Montessori – autonomia e independência infantil e contribuição do Método Montessori para o desenvolvimento socioemocional na primeira infância. A metodologia utilizada para esta pesquisa é qualitativa e bibliográfica, pois serão analisados conceitos e reflexões que já existem a respeito do tema. A expectativa das autoras é que os adultos que lerem este artigo possam promover ações e condutas que contribuam para a independência e autonomia das crianças, principalmente, com relação ao domínio da estabilidade emocional, para que as crianças aprendam a lidar com seus conflitos intrapessoais de maneira natural, reflexiva, calma e direta; demonstrando a possível contribuição do método na maturação deste domínio.
Exploring New Approaches to Youth Sports Programs: Montessori Motor Development
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, vol. 94, no. 7
Abstract/Notes: Children are being introduced to organized sports programs at younger ages today. The first experience sets the stage for how they may view their physical competency and acceptance within a group. In these experiences, frequently, the coach is a well-intended parent who may not have any background in coaching or physical education training. Dr. Maria Montessori is widely known for her contributions to experiential learning for young children. Although Montessori addressed motor development through her pedagogical approach, it is rarely associated with physical education or sports. This article aims to provide some insight to educators, physical education teachers, coaches, and parents with an alternative approach to sport introduction through a Montessori theoretical lens which may allow children to develop a love for physical activity and/or future athletes.
Montessori Educational Thought and Its Implications for Family Education
Available from: Clausius Scientific Press
Publication: Applied & Educational Psychology, vol. 4, no. 8
Abstract/Notes: The aim of this paper is to study and analyze Montessori's educational ideas and their implications for family education. Through the study of representative works such as The Complete Montessori Book of Early Education, The Montessori Handbook of Sensitive Periods for Children, The Montessori Family Program, The Montessori Method of Early Education, The Secret of Childhood and The Absorbent Mind, we have come to the following conclusions. Firstly, Montessori's educational philosophy emphasizes the creation of a home environment that matches the child. This includes providing an orderly, quiet, warm and inspiring environment, and parents should be supporters and observers of children's development, respecting their individual interests and needs. Secondly, Montessori emphasized grasping the child's sensitive periods. She observed that children are more sensitive to certain experiences and skills at certain ages and learn best during this period. Finally, Montessori's educational ideas provide theoretical and practical implications for preschool education. She emphasizes the development of children's self-discipline, self-confidence, independent thinking and problem-solving skills. Encouraging children to actively participate in daily life activities, developing good social skills and emotional development, and providing appropriate learning experiences lay a solid foundation for children's preschool education. In summary, Montessori's educational ideas give important insights in the area of family education. Creating a family environment adapted to children, grasping sensitive periods, and developing various abilities are insights that provide theoretical and practical implications for preschool education.
Investigating the Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on the Memory Improvement of Patients With Alzheimer
Available from: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Iran)
Publication: Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, vol. 21, no. 2
Date: Jun 2023
Abstract/Notes: Objectives: Alzheimer's is the most prevalent cognitive disturbance, with a high spread among the elderly. The current research aims to investigate the impact of cognitive rehabilitation on the memory improvement of Alzheimer's disease patients. | Methods: The current research used a semi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test designs. The statistical population in Baghdad in 2021 included 60 patients with Alzheimer's illness, all considered a statistical sample and separated into two experimental and control groups (30 people in each group). The patient's cognitive abilities were assessed prior to the intervention (pre-test), straightly after the intervention (post-test), and two months later (follow-up). The experimental group had twenty-eight 45-minute sessions of training based on the Montessori Method (two sessions per week). The data were analyzed in SPSS version 19 using the independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results have a P-value of less than 0.05. | Results: The findings of the independent t-test demonstrated that there is no significant differ between the scores of the both groups during the pre-test stage (P>0.05) but that this difference is significant during the post-test and follow-up stages (P<0.001). In addition, the findings of repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant differ between the both groups' mean scores in post-test and follow-up (P<0.001). | Conclusion: Cognitive rehabilitation can help patients with memory disorders and positively affect their memory performance.
ISSN: 1735-3602, 1735-3610
Learning by Heart or with Heart: Brain Asymmetry Reflects Pedagogical Practices
Available from: MDPI
Publication: Brain Sciences, vol. 13, no. 9
Abstract/Notes: Brain hemispheres develop rather symmetrically, except in the case of pathology or intense training. As school experience is a form of training, the current study tested the influence of pedagogy on morphological development through the cortical thickness (CTh) asymmetry index (AI). First, we compared the CTh AI of 111 students aged 4 to 18 with 77 adults aged > 20. Second, we investigated the CTh AI of the students as a function of schooling background (Montessori or traditional). At the whole-brain level, CTh AI was not different between the adult and student groups, even when controlling for age. However, pedagogical experience was found to impact CTh AI in the temporal lobe, within the parahippocampal (PHC) region. The PHC region has a functional lateralization, with the right PHC region having a stronger involvement in spatiotemporal context encoding, while the left PHC region is involved in semantic encoding. We observed CTh asymmetry toward the left PHC region for participants enrolled in Montessori schools and toward the right for participants enrolled in traditional schools. As these participants were matched on age, intelligence, home-life and socioeconomic conditions, we interpret this effect found in memory-related brain regions to reflect differences in learning strategies. Pedagogy modulates how new concepts are encoded, with possible long-term effects on knowledge transfer.
"Follow Your Heart": Heart-to-Brain-Driven Interplay Relates to Self-Congruency
Available from: Research Square
Abstract/Notes: When emotions, thoughts, and actions align, this is referred to as “self-congruency”. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how temporal covariance of the heart and brain signals were related to self-congruency. Thirty-eight healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to obtain neural markers of variability, whereas heart rate variability (HRV) was measured using photoplethysmography. Participants were also asked to report their level of self-congruency with a graphic rating scale. A cross-covariance analysis (CCA) was performed to assess the temporal covariance of signals arising from both organs, which was then correlated with self-congruency scores. Overall, the CCA results revealed brain-to-heart-driven interplay in brain regions involved in the neurovisceral integration model (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and in emotion regulation (e.g., anterior cingulate). However, higher self-congruency scores were related to heart-to-brain-driven interplay in brain regions involved in emotion regulation and empathy. Together, the present findings suggest that, while global brain-to-heart-driven interplay occurs on average, it is heart-to-brain-driven interplay that reflects higher self-congruency. Given the impact of heart-brain interplay and self-congruency on mental health, further investigations on each concept could be interesting in developing tools for early intervention.
Published: Aug 30, 2023
The Effects of Mild but Chronic Stress at School on Brain Development: A Comparative Morphometric Study Between Traditionally and Montessori-schooled Children
Available from: Research Square
Abstract/Notes: While many children suffer from stress due to school-related factors, some alternative schooling systems, such as the Montessori pedagogy, emphasize stress-free learning environments (e.g., no grades, no tests, peer-peer learning). This study compared brain markers of stress, i.e., hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) volumes, as a function of school experience. A cross-sectional comparative morphometric study was run between 45 traditionally schooled children and 44 Montessori-schooled children (3-12 years). While both groups were comparable in terms of cognitive abilities, socio-economic environment, and anxiety levels, volumetric values within their hippocampus and their mPFC differed. While there was hippocampal growth across development for all participants, there was a higher gain for Montessori-schooled children. Furthermore, female traditionally schooled children showed a loss in hippocampal and mPFC volume across age, while female Montessori-schooled children showed a gain. It seems that traditional pedagogical approaches induce mild but chronic stress, affecting underlying brain structures.
Published: Jun 22, 2023
Archival Material Or Collection
Grace Gallatin Seton-Thompson papers
Abstract/Notes: The collection includes biographical articles and clippings, correspondence, published writings and typescripts, memorabilia, notes, photographs, and organization files. Correspondence (1903-40) pertains to her travels, publications, and involvement in feminist and social organizations. Organizational files include minutes, agendas and reports relating to the International Council of Women (1915-26),the National Council of Women, and the Montessori Education Association of New York. Her work for the International Writers Conclave (Chicago, 1933) brought occasional correspondence from women authors around the world. Typescripts of articles and addresses including an essay on Chinese medicine and information on Dr. Mary Stone, medical missionary, China (n.d.). Material related to her world travels includes writings, correspondence, travel literature, maps and notes. Individuals represented include May Wright Sewall, Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman, Lena Madesin Phillips, and Kate Douglas Smith Wiggin.
The Urgent Need for an Early Years Workforce Strategy
Available from: MAG Online Library
Publication: Early Years Educator, vol. 24, no. 3
Date: Oct 2023
Abstract/Notes: Statistics published by the DfE in July show the proportion of staff working in the the early years sector with a relevant early years qualification has fallen since 2020. Dr Nathan Archer, director of the International Montessori Institute, outlines his thoughts on how the government could tackle the recruitment and retention crisis and the need for a workforce strategy.
ISSN: 1465-931X, 2052-4617
Montessori, Waldorf, and Reggio Emilia: A Comparative Analysis of Alternative Models of Early Childhood Education
Available from: Springer Link
Publication: International Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 52, no. 3
Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Abstract/Notes: Montessori, Waldorf, and Reggio Emilia education remain three of the most popular models for alternative early childhood education. Each of these approaches has developed globally, with a rich history of supporting children’s educational freedom. This narrative analysis provides a means for early childhood educators and scholars to understand the aims, philosophical and theoretical frameworks, historical development, benefits, and challenges in these models and their methods of practice. As early childhood education evolves with technology and as re-conceptualizations about early education occur, an understanding of these alternatives to traditional education models is important. While adaptive options of these models may emerge in education systems across national contexts, this review allows educators to consider their applications and cultural appropriateness in specific local and community contexts.
ISSN: 0020-7187, 1878-4658
Math Achievement Outcomes Associated with Montessori Education
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: Early Child Development and Care, vol. 191, no. 7/8 (Early Childhood Theorists and Pioneers)
Abstract/Notes: The math curriculum of the Montessori system of education for children ages 3–12 is distinctive, incorporating multiple manipulatives and educational practices which have theoretical and empirical support in research. However, studies investigating the math achievement and learning of Montessori students and alumni have not consistently found Montessori programmes to be more effective than conventional or other programmes. Through a detailed review of such studies, we find that a Montessori advantage in math is more likely when programmes adhere to important principles of Montessori education, when students have had longer immersion in Montessori programmes, and when assessments are more conceptual in nature. We suggest that future research should take into account programme fidelity and enrolment duration, and outline other directions for future research. Part of a special issue titled: Early Childhood Theorists and Pioneers
ISSN: 0300-4430, 1476-8275
Les idées de la Doctoresse Montessori sur l'enseignement secondaire: conditions de mise en oeuvre [The ideas of Doctor Montessori on secondary education: conditions of implementation]
Available from: Université Caen Normandie
Publication: Pour l'ère nouvelle: revue internationale d'èducation nouvelle, vol. 14, no. 112
Date: Nov 1935
Montessori-Pädagogik und Gehirnforschung [Montessori education and brain research]
Book Title: Das Lernen in die eigene Hand nehmen: Mut zur Freiheit in der Montessori-Pädagogik [Taking learning into your own hands: Courage for freedom in Montessori pedagogy]
Published: Münster, Germany: LIT, 2008
Series: Impulse der Reformpädagogik , 19
Włoskie koncepcje wychowania i edukacji dziecka w wieku przedszkolnym. Metoda Marii Montessori i podejście Reggio Emilia / Italian Approaches to Early Childhood Education: The Montessori Method and the Reggio Emilia Approach
Available from: Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow
Publication: Edukacja Elementarna w Teorii i Praktyce / Elementary Education in Theory and Practice, vol. 13, no. 1 (whole no. 47)
Comparative education, Europe, Italy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southern Europe
Abstract/Notes: The paper presents two Italian approaches to early childhood education: the Montessori method and the Reggio Emilia approach. Although they emerged in different historical periods and socio-political realities, these two approaches have a lot in common with regard to values like love and respect for children and their developmental rights. Moreover, they share a belief in the potential and boundless resources of the child as well as shifting the emphasis from a teacher’s activity to that of the child. In comparison to the Montessori method, the Reggio Emilia approach strongly highlights the importance of relations and interactions in the children’s learning process. Group work, which has been one of the fundamentals of the Reggio Emilia approach from the very beginning, is the main difference between these two approaches. The article presents the background of each pedagogical idea (the Montessori method – the beginning of 20th century, Reggio Emilia – the 1950s). The description of the ideas is based on such aspects as the image of a child, the image of a teacher and the role of environment in education. In the article, the authors refer mainly to the thoughts of Montessori, the creator of her own method, and Loris Malaguzzi, who was the leader of the educational experience in Reggio Emilia. / Szkic ten przybliża dwie włoskie koncepcje wychowania i edukacji dziecka w wieku przedszkolnym: metodę Montessori i podejście Reggio Emilia. Choć powstawały one w odrębnych okresach historycznych i realiach polityczno-społecznych, w odniesieniu do wartości, takich jak miłość i szacunek do dziecka czy respektowanie jego praw rozwojowych, obydwie koncepcje mają wiele wspólnego. Tym, co je łączy, jest wiara w potencjał i nieograniczone zasoby dziecka, a także przeniesienie akcentu z aktywności nauczyciela w stronę aktywności dziecka. W odniesieniu do metody Montessori, w podejściu Reggio Emilia silniej uwypuklony jest aspekt relacji i interakcji w dziecięcym procesie uczenia. Wspólnotowy wymiar, będący od początku istnienia przedszkoli Reggio Emilia podstawą ich funkcjonowania, jest jedną z najistotniejszych różnic pomiędzy zaprezentowanymi podejściami, i w związku z tym odmiennymi rozwiązaniami edukacyjnymi. W artykule przedstawiono podłoże powstania koncepcji M. Montessori (początek XX w.) i podejścia Reggio Emilia (lata 50. XX w.). W obydwu systemach zaprezentowano wizję dziecka i nauczyciela oraz istotę środowiska wychowawczo-edukacyjnego tworzonego dla dzieci w przestrzeni instytucjonalnej. Założeniem autorek tekstu było przywołanie myśli, rozważań i refleksji twórców oryginalnych włoskich teorii pedagogicznych.
ISSN: 1896-2327, 2353-7787
Post-Conference Symposium on Montessori Education and the Partnership Way [April, 2005]
Publication: Montessori Leadership
Pages: 4, 19, 30
Komparace školního hodnocení v hodinách výchovy k občanství na tradiční a Montessori základní škole / Comparison of students assessment in citizenship education classes at traditional and Montessori basic schools
Available from: Univerzita Karlova Institutional Repository
Abstract/Notes: Tato diplomová práce se zabývá školním hodnocením. Práce je rozdělena na dvě části, a to teoretickou a praktickou. V teoretické části dochází nejprve k vysvětlení Montessori pedagogiky a jejich principů jako jsou svoboda dětí, předem připravené prostředí či principy věkové heterogenity. Dále se zde pojednává o didaktickém materiálu, které tyto typy škol využívají. Poslední částí této kapitoly je postavení učitelů a dospělých ve škole. Poté následuje kapitola o hodnocení. Dochází zde k vymezení jeho definice, jaké funkce hodnocení existují a také typy, které jsou ve školách využívány. V neposlední řadě pak formy hodnocení, tedy klasifikace pomocí známek a slovní hodnocení. Druhou částí této práce je praktická část. Cílem praktické části je najít odlišnosti ve způsobu hodnocení ve dvou typech základních škol, tedy v Montessori základní škole a běžné základní škole a také zjistit, které typy hodnocení, o kterých pojednává teoretická část, jsou v hodinách nejvíce využívány. Pro výzkum byla použita metodu pozorování a hloubkové rozhovory s vyučujícími, u kterých probíhal náslech. Výsledky praktické části ukázaly, že oba typy základních škol využívají jiné formy hodnocení. V běžné základní škole se jedná nejvíce o známky, které jsou i na vysvědčení. V Montessori základní škole se využívá slovní hodnocení a zpětná vazba žákova výkonu. Na konci roku pak žáci dostávají tzv. dopisy, které shrnují jejich výsledky na uplynutý rok. / This diploma thesis deals with a school assessment. It is divided into two parts, the theoretical and the practical one. In the theoretical part, first of all, the Montessori pedagogy and its principles like a freedom of children, beforehand prepaired surroundings or principals of the age heterogeneity are clarified. Further on the didactical material, used in those types of schools, is discussed. The last part of this chapter deals with the position of teachers and adults at school. Next there is a chapter about the assessment. It circumscribes the definition, functions and types of the assessment used in schools. Last, but not least, the forms of the assessment, which means classification by marking or a word evaluation. The second part is the practical one. It is aimed at finding the difference between the way of assessment in two types of primary schools, which means the Montessori primary school and an ordinary primary school and also at finding out, which types of assessment, concerned by the theoretical part, are used the most during lessons. For the research the method of observation and in-depth conversations with the teachers, at whose lessons the sitting in on a classes took place, were used. The outcome of this work was that both types of primary schools use different types of assessment. At the ordinary school it is mostly about the grades, which also occur at the school report. At the Montessori school, the verbal assessment and a feedback to student’s performance is used; at the end of the year the students receive the so called letters, which summarize their results from the last year.
Published: Prague, Czechia, 2017
A institucionalização do método Montessori no campo educacional brasileiro (1914-1952) [Institutionalization of the Montessori method in the Brazilian educational field (1914-1952)]
Available from: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Abstract/Notes: Montessori established, in 1907, in Rome, a public school to children at risk, The Casa dei Bambini, which since then preserve the Montessori method characteristics, advocating the integral education based on freedom, action and on the individuality. For approximately four decades, Montessori researched about Children development, whose results were spread abroad, defining practices and innovative educational thoughts grounded on the relationship between teacher, the student and the learning environment advancing peace, self-education, self-correction with autonomy in sight, mutual respect, critic and the scientific spirit. The Objective of this study is the Montessori method establishment in Brazil, on the chronologic aspect along the first five decades from the last century. It?s a biographical research and documentary with a historical focus. The analysis is grounded in Certeau (2014), Chartier(2010) e Magalhães(2004). Objective: Recognize the formulation of the Montessori method in projects of its establishment in Brazil between 1914-1952; To Problematize political conditions, social, economical and cultural to set up the Montessori method in Brazil and its Educational applicability, questioning the reductionist mode relating to its use as specific materials and its adequate child-sized furniture. It has been verified that The First Montessori-based in Brazil served the children?s audience, in São Paulo, in the year of 1915, coming from the American strand, in a private enterprise of Ciridião Buarque e Mary Buarque. Such pedagogy irradiated by the mediation of these appropriation and representations made by teachers of the Escola Normal da Praça. São Paulo possessed, since 1924, laws that indicated the use of Montessori and Froebel?s course-ware, mas in a inarticulate way to the pedagogical principles. In Paraná, the Montessori-based education was established in the child education legislation in 1915 and investments were performed in 1924, when Lysímaco Costa acquired the ?montesorri layettes? to 4 Kindergarden. In Curitiba, in 1927, at the First National Conference of The Brazilian Association of Education (ABE), were presented thesis with Montessori bases. Still in Paraná, at the end of 40s, the method utilization occurred in the public education in the Preschool Program and Primary School and in 1952 was opened in Curitiba The Rural Montessori Experimental School to primary school, by the enterprise of Eny Caldeira.Piper Borges de Lacerda and Eny Caldeira speeches, whom realized in 1950 a course with Montessori in Perugia.In 1927, in Bahia, were realized vacation courses to teachers complementary training which were disseminated by the teacher of the Normal School of Salvador the Montessori concepts and the course-ware new meanings to the child education such as primary education. The matters discussed in these courses were spread by pedagogical magazines. In 1924, Alípio Franca translated The Method of Scientific Pedagogy applied to the Child Education at the Boys? House. In Rio de Janeiro, course-wares and parts of Montessori method were spread to Children education by education law, in 1921 and in 1929. Evidences of the Montessori use in perspective non-restricted to materials were found in children radio shows performed by Mary Buarque, in São Paulo, from 1936, whereupon self-education, the independence, the knowledge of child development phases, the singers freedom movement and the minimal intervention of the adult tutor made part of the proposal. In a mystic perspective, there was a link with the method and the social and theosophic assistance, in the 50 decade, disseminating in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná, by Piper Lacerda Borges and his husband. In the reuse given to the Agostinho da Silva method, also in the 1950, were present in the some universities creations, such as the Federal University of Santa Catarina as well from Paraíba and The University of Brasilia. Concluded that between 1914 and 1952, the establishment process of the Montessori method in Brazil was lead by several different individuals, from different parts of the country, with appropriations and personal representations. / Montessori constituiu, em 1907, em Roma, uma escola pública para crianças em situação de risco, a Casa dei Bambini, embasada numa educação integral alicerçada na liberdade, na atividade e na individualidade. Durante aproximadamente quatro décadas, Montessori realizou pesquisas sobre o desenvolvimento infantil, cujos resultados foram difundidos transnacionalmente, configurando práticas e pensamento educacional inovadores fundamentados na relação entre o professor, o aluno e um ambiente de aprendizagem promotor da paz, da autoeducação, da autonomia, do respeito ao outro e do espírito científico e crítico. Com isso, também empreendeu uma didática para professores e a venda em série dos materiais que idealizou. O objeto desta narrativa historiográfica respaldada em Certeau (2014), Chartier (2010) e Magalhães (2004) foi a institucionalização do Método Montessori no Brasil, no âmbito cronológico das cinco primeiras décadas do século passado. Objetivou: reconhecer as formulações teóricas que permitiram identificar a origem do Método Montessori e cotejá-las com os projetos brasileiros desenvolvidos entre 1914-1952 apontando permanências e contribuições à educação brasileira; historicizar o processo de institucionalização da Pedagogia montessoriana no Brasil; problematizar a sua forma de apropriação na Educação Infantil e Ensino Primário, identificando por que o método é relacionado principalmente ao uso de materiais didáticos específicos e de mobiliário adequado ao tamanho das crianças. Foi constatado que a primeira escola montessoriana no Brasil, proveniente da vertente educacional estadunidense, atendeu ao público infantil, em São Paulo, no ano de 1915, num investimento particular de Ciridião Buarque e Mary Buarque. Esta pedagogia se irradiou por intermédio das apropriações realizadas pelos docentes da Escola Normal da Praça, em São Paulo, estado que possuía, desde 1924, legislação que indicava o uso de materiais didáticos de Montessori e de Froebel, mas de forma desarticulada dos princípios pedagógicos. No Paraná, a educação montessoriana foi institucionalizada na legislação educacional da Pré-escola em 1915 e investimentos foram realizados em 1924, quando Lysímaco Costa adquiriu os ?enxovais montessorianos? para quatro Jardins de Infância. Em Curitiba, em 1927, durante a Primeira Conferência Nacional da Associação Brasileira de Educação (ABE) foram apresentadas teses com base montessoriana. Ainda no Paraná, no final da década de 1940, a utilização do método ocorreu no ensino público no Programa da Pré-escola e do Ensino Primário e em 1952 foi inaugurada a Escola Experimental Montessoriana Rural para crianças do Ensino Primário, por iniciativa de Eny Caldeira. Ela e Piper de Lacerda Borges, presidente da Associação Montessori do Brasil, fizeram curso com Montessori, na Itália, em 1951. Já na Bahia, em 1927, efetivaram-se cursos de férias para formação de professores durante os quais foram disseminadas pelos docentes da Escola Normal de Salvador concepções montessorianas e a ressignificação dos materiais, tanto para a Pré-escola como para o Ensino Primário. O teor destes cursos foi divulgado por revistas pedagógicas. No mesmo local, em 1924, Alípio Franca traduziu o Livro Pedagogia Científica. No Rio de Janeiro, materiais e frações do método montessoriano se disseminaram para a Educação Infantil por meio da legislação educacional, em 1921 e em 1929. Evidências da utilização do Método Montessori em perspectiva não restrita ao uso de materiais didáticos foram encontradas nos programas infantis radiofônicos realizados por Mary Buarque, em São Paulo, a partir de 1936; no vínculo do método com a assistência social e teosófica, na década de 1950, disseminado por Piper de Lacerda Borges; no reuso dado ao método pelo lusitano Agostinho da Silva, também nos anos 1950, na criação de algumas universidades. Conclui-se que, entre 1914 e 1952, o processo de institucionalização do método Montessori no Brasil foi capitaneado por diversos sujeitos, em diferentes lugares do país, com apropriações e representações.
Published: Florianópolis, Brazil, 2017
Doctoral Dissertation (Ph.D.)
An Examination of Implementation Practices in Montessori Early Childhood Education
Available from: American Montessori Society
Abstract/Notes: This study examined to what extent Montessori early childhood education programs in one geographical region of the United States could be classified into homogeneous clusters based on teachers’ reported practices associated with Montessori education. Once identified, the characteristics defining each subgroup were described, and factors supporting or hindering the implementation of recommended practices were examined. Of particular interest was whether the teachers were intentionally or inadvertently making changes to the model, and if modifications were being made, whether these were due to situational factors or to viewpoints that differed from Montessori’s perspectives. Teachers’ beliefs about managing and motivating children were also assessed in relation to their interpretation of the Montessori method in order to examine what role, if any these beliefs played in shaping classroom practices.
Published: Berkeley, California, 2004
Mme. Montessori on a New and Modern Education
Publication: The Theosophical Worker, vol. 5, no. 3
Date: Mar 1940