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841 results

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Importance of Cursive Handwriting Over Typewriting for Learning in the Classroom: A High-Density EEG Study of 12-Year-Old Children and Young Adults

Available from: Frontiers in Psychology

Publication: Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 11

Pages: Article 1810

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Abstract/Notes: To write by hand, to type, or to draw – which of these strategies is the most efficient for optimal learning in the classroom? As digital devices are increasingly replacing traditional writing by hand, it is crucial to examine the long-term implications of this practice. High-density electroencephalogram (HD EEG) was used in twelve young adults and twelve 12-year-old children to study brain electrical activity as they were writing in cursive by hand, typewriting, or drawing visually presented words that were varying in difficulty. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. For the young adults, we found that when writing by hand using a digital pen on a touchscreen, brain areas in the parietal and central regions showed event-related synchronized activity in the theta range. Existing literature suggests that such oscillatory neuronal activity in these particular brain areas is important for memory and for the encoding of new information and, therefore, provides the brain with optimal conditions for learning. When drawing, we found similar activation patterns in the parietal areas, in addition to event-related desynchronization in the alpha/beta range, suggesting both similarities but also slight differences in activation patterns when drawing and writing by hand. When typewriting on a keyboard, we found event-related desynchronized activity in the theta range and, to a lesser extent, in the alpha range in parietal and central brain regions. However, as this activity was desynchronized and differed from when writing by hand and drawing, its relation to learning remains unclear. For the 12-year-old children, the same activation patterns were found, but to a lesser extent. We suggest that children, from an early age, must be exposed to handwriting and drawing activities in school to establish the neuronal oscillation patterns that are beneficial for learning. We conclude that because of the benefits of sensory-motor integration due to the larger involvement of the senses as well as fine and precisely-controlled hand movements when writing by hand and when drawing, it is vital to maintain both activities in a learning environment to facilitate and optimize learning.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01810

ISSN: 1664-1078

Master's Thesis

Application of Olfactory Stimuli in a Children's House Montessori Classroom

Available from: MINDS@UW River Falls

Classroom environments, Educational environment, Learning environments, Montessori method of education, Olfactory sensors, Sensorial education, Smell, Three-hour work cycle, Work periods

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of olfactory stimuli using aromatherapy in an early childhood Montessori classroom. This study explores the effectiveness of essential oil in a collective setting with younger students. Also, this research seeks to evaluate the usefulness of aromatherapy as a tool of the Prepared Environment or materials for a Montessori classroom. The 26 students between three to six years old from a Children’s House were observed for 45 minutes during morning work cycle and the data was collected in both control condition (non-essential oil) and lemon essential oil condition days. Lemon essential oil was distributed by two diffusers in the classroom during the research periods. The data was collected collectively and independently. Four quantitative and one qualitative instruments were used for data collection. In conclusion, the lemon essential oil condition lowered productivity and stimulated students during the study period. However, this result indicated that aromatherapy intervention impacted the student’s productivity. With further careful consideration, aromatherapy can be an effective tool for the Prepared Environment and positive intervention if it is the right kind of essential oil.

Language: English

Published: River Falls, Wisconsin, 2020

Master's Thesis

Background Music in a Montessori Classroom: Does Music Help Children Focus During the Work Cycle in an Early Childhood Montessori Classroom?

Available from: MINDS@UW River Falls

Classroom environments, Early childhood care and education, Learning environments, Montessori method of education, Music and children, Three-hour work cycle, Work periods

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Abstract/Notes: This action research project was created to study the different behaviors (focused and unfocused) that occurred when different types of music were played in the background of an early childhood Montessori classroom. The study took place at a private Montessori school located in the southeastern part of Wisconsin. There was a total of 26 children in the classroom which consisted of grades 3K through Kindergarten, with ages ranging between two and a half to six-years old. Over a six-week period, three different music conditions were implemented (two weeks at a time) into the background of the classroom environment; no music, classical music and Disney music. Focused and unfocused behaviors were observed and documented during each music condition. Quantitative and qualitative data collections were used and then analyzed to determine if music aids or deters a child’s focus. The results of the study showed that music does aid in helping a child focus during the work cycle of an early childhood Montessori classroom; specifically, the three-year olds showed the most increase in focused behavior when music played in the background. The effects of music on independent versus group work was also considered during this action research project as well as how to determine which music to include or avoid when playing music in the background of an early childhood classroom.

Language: English

Published: River Falls, Wisconsin, 2020

Article

Artistic Expression and the Unfolding Self: Expressive Adults, Expressive Children

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 24, no. 3

Pages: 5-18

North American Montessori Teachers' Association (NAMTA) - Periodicals

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Abstract/Notes: Discusses the role of Montessori education in developing lifelong skills for creativity. Considers self-expression the key to recovering human authenticity and spirit. Urges teachers and parents to develop this inner self in themselves and their children as a barrier against contemporary materialism, hurried life, and alienation caused by high-tech communications, suggesting a new definition of creativity. (JPB)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Happy Holidays: Perfect Holiday Gifts for Your Children

Publication: The National Montessori Reporter, vol. 9, no. 4

Pages: 1

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Language: English

Article

Children and Community Life

Available from: Internet Archive

Publication: The Western Comrade, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 15-19

Americas, Llano del Rio Colony, Montessori method of education, North America, North America, United States of America

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Language: English

Article

Why Montessori for Deaf Children?

Publication: NAMTA Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 28-31

Children with disabilities, Deaf, Deaf children - Education, Deaf students, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, North American Montessori Teachers' Association (NAMTA) - Periodicals

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Language: English

Article

How Do Children Transition from Montessori to Traditional School?

Publication: Montessori Articles (Montessori Australia Foundation)

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Language: English

Article

Holidays + Children + Toys: Make It a Winning Combination

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 4, no. 4

Pages: 12–13

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

An Enriched Mathematical Program for Young Aboriginal Children

Available from: Cambridge University Press

Publication: The Aboriginal Child at School, vol. 20, no. 1

Pages: 15-37

Australasia, Australia, Australia and New Zealand, Indigenous communities, Indigenous peoples, Oceania

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Abstract/Notes: This paper provides some early results on a project designed to improve Aboriginal children's performance in mathematics, starting from their earliest introduction to number work. It explores the use of an enriched mathematics environment that minimally conflicts with traditional Aboriginal learning styles. The study is concerned with evaluating the effectiveness of a program intervention in remote Aboriginal schools, based on the results of pre- and post-interviews given to children at eight different schools in Western Australia at the beginning and end of 1989 and 1990. Comparison data with those for children at other schools are provided in this paper. The data derive from interviews with young children, and provide evidence on their performance in several key areas of early mathematics. Schools were categorized into three groups: White middle class; town Aboriginal and working class; and remote Aboriginal. The White middle class schools had the highest performance, followed by the town Aboriginal and White working class schools and the remote Aboriginal schools. There was a rather consistent gain in mean scores for most schools of around four points over the course of the first year so that existing differences between schools at the beginning of the year were still evident at the end of the year. At this stage it is difficult to conclude whether the intervention program has improved mathematics achievement for this group of remote Aboriginal children. There is at least no evidence of ‘progressive retardation’, which describes the current situation where Aboriginal children fall farther behind as they progress through school.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1017/S0310582200007707

ISSN: 0310-5822

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