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Article

A Comparative Analysis Between Montessori and Al-Ghazali’s Perspectives on Child Education [Analisis Komparatif Terhadap Prinsip-Prinsip Al-Ghazali dan Montessori Dalam Pendidikan Kanak-Kanak]

Available from: International Islamic University Malaysia - Institutional Repository

Publication: Journal of Islam in Asia, vol. 15, no. 2

Pages: 453-476

Asia, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Ghazzālī - Philosophy, Malaysia, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Childhood education goes with a lot of innocence, searching and exploring the environment that surrounds the young learners. The amount of energy and inquisitiveness displayed by children at this tender age is a marble to many parents and teachers alike. This small-scale research represents a sincere attempt to contrastively analyze Montessori and Al-Ghazali’s ideas on child education. The ideas of the two scholars, one from the West and the other from the East, till these days have great significance to their respective communities. In a way, this study should be seen as an initiative undertaken in the absence of a study discussing the differences and commonalities found in the ideas of the two scholars pertaining to child education. By employing the textual analysis method and using Montessori’s principles of child education as the framework, the researchers conducted a comparative analysis. In the course of analyzing the data, the researchers had identified six emerging themes in the ideas of Montessori and Al-Ghazali. The findings have also indicated that the principles of these two prominent scholars either intersect with each other or stand in total isolation. ********************************************************* Pendidikan kanak-kanak berlakumalalui proses pencariandan penerokaanterhadap persekitaran mereka. Keceriaan dan sifat ingin tahu yang dipamerkan oleh kanak-kanak dalam proses tersebut amatlah penting bagi para ibubapa dan guru Pandangan-pandangan Montessori dan Al-Ghazali tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak telah meninggalkan kesan yang amat penting dalam komuniti Barat dan Timur hingga ke hari ini. Kajian ini dilakukanuntuk membandingkan pandangan kedua-dua cendekiawan ini tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak. Secara tidak langsung, ia boleh dilihat sebagai usaha untuk mengisi kekurangan dalam bidang kajian. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah analisa tekstual dan prinsip pendidikan kanak-kanak Montessori sebagai rangka kajian. Daripada kajian ini, terdapat enam tema yang boleh digarapkan daripadapandangan kedua-dua cendekiawanyang didapati secara bersilang atau terpisah di antara satu sama lain.

Language: English

DOI: 10.31436/jia.v15i2.759

ISSN: 2289-8077

Doctoral Dissertation

The Developmental Psychology of Maria Montessori (Italy)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. In contemporary terms her "psychopedagogy" would be considered an action psychology, which basically precludes it from academic "respectibility". Her theory contains both strengths and weaknesses in light of present-day thinking; however, on balance, Montessori's theory is quite contemporary and remarkably ahead of most of the psychological thinking of her time.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Thesis

Autism in Early Childhood Education Montessori Environments: Parents' and Teachers' Perspectives

Available from: Auckland University of Technology - Institutional Repository

Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, Autism, Special education, Children with disabilities, Montessori method of education, New Zealand, Oceania, Parent and child, Parent-teacher relationships, Special education, Teacher-student relationships

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Abstract/Notes: There is very little research about children with Autism in Montessori early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand. This study examined parents’ and teachers’ perspectives of children with Autism attending Montessori early childhood education environments. This thesis documents literature that explores and critiques Montessori philosophy and the teaching of children on the Autism spectrum. The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the Montessori teaching approach in early childhood education, as a supportive environment for children with Autism in the early years. However, I discovered that the Montessori environment is less than ideal if the teachers do not understand Autism Spectrum Disorder and do not make allowances for the symptoms that present themselves. It was my intention to explore the factors that complemented both Montessori and the support of children with Autism with an approach that is conducive to learning and encourages positive behavioural patterns. The findings revealed three main indicators being identified as important. These were social competence, language and communication, and individual interests and sensory implications. However, not all findings were positive. The parents all agreed that the teachers needed to be flexible and understanding in their approach, and many Montessori teachers are strict in their routine and are not prepared to sway from their teaching method to assist a child with Autism. This study suggests that Montessori early childhood teachers would benefit from professional development in the areas of including children with special needs, particularly Autism Spectrum Disorder, particularly in regards to understanding the unique characteristics of children with Autism and how they can effectively use the Montessori philosophy, equipment and prepared environment to support each child’s learning and development. Suggestions for future professional learning for Montessori teachers include the provision of professional development in including children with “special needs”, particularly Autism Spectrum Disorder for Montessori early childhood teachers. It is not only the Montessori philosophy and the prepared environment that supports the child with Autism, but the teacher’s awareness of the child’s needs and a willingness to be flexible in their approach.

Language: English

Published: Auckland, New Zealand, 2015

Article

Montessori Education at a Distance, Part 1: A Survey of Montessori Educators’ Response to a Global Pandemic

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 7, no. 1

Pages: 1-29

Americas, COVID-19 Pandemic, Montessori method of education, North America, Remote learning, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The transition to distance learning in the spring of 2020 caused by COVID-19 was particularly challenging for Montessori educators and students because key elements of the Method were not directly transferable to this new and hastily designed format. Hands-on learning with Montessori materials and learning in a community, as well as careful teacher observation, could not be easily replicated when children were learning from home. To understand how educators applied Montessori principles to serve children and families in these highly unusual circumstances, we surveyed Early Childhood and Elementary Montessori teachers about how they translated core elements of Montessori education to a distance-learning environment. The overall results suggest that Montessori distance-learning arrangements balanced live videoconference experiences for children with offline hands-on activities, while also relying on parents’ and caregivers’ involvement. Teachers reported that they largely designed learning experiences themselves, without significant support or guidance from school leaders. Still, teachers reported that they were able to uphold Montessori principles to only a moderate degree under the circumstances. While teachers understandably hunger for support, professional connections, and a return to the classroom experiences that drew them to the field of Montessori education, this study highlights factors that may affect the transition back to school for teachers, parents and caregivers, and students when face-to-face instruction resumes for all children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v7i1.15122

ISSN: 2378-3923

Book Section

Maria Montessori e l'educazione nuova [Maria Montessori and the New Education]

Book Title: Maria Montessori e il pensiero pedagogico contemporaneo [Maria Montessori and contemporary pedagogical thought]

Pages: 27-48

Conferences, International Montessori Congress (11th, Rome, Italy, 26-28 September 1957), Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, New Education Movement

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Abstract/Notes: This speech was delivered on September 26, 1957 at the 11th International Montessori Congress (Rome, Italy).

Language: Italian

Published: Roma: Vita dell'infanzia, 1959

Article

Giuliana Sorge, Luigia Tincani e la diffusione del metodo Montessori / Giuliana Sorge, Luigia Tincani and Dissemination of Montessori Method

Available from: Rivista di Storia dell’Educazione

Publication: Rivista di Storia dell’Educazione, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 83-95

Aldo Agazzi - Biographic sources, Europe, Giuliana Sorge - Biographic sources, Italy, Luigia Tincani - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Giuliana Sorge (1903-1987) was one of Maria Montessori’s closest disciples. Many parts of her life are linked to the alternating vicissitudes of the spread of the Method in Italy. She is personally involved at the time of the breakdown of the relation between Maria Montessori and fascism. We find her in the immediate postwar period engaged in the reconstruction of the Montessori National Institution and in the dissemination of the Method in Italy. To do this, she weaves a network of relations with exponents of the political and ecclesiastical world assisted by the friendship of Luigia Tincani, a Catholic, Montessori’s friend, founder of what will become the Free University Maria SS. Assunta and a religious congregation. This emerges from an unpublished correspondence between these two women, which also contains interesting news relating to the hostility of prof. Aldo Agazzi towards the spread of the Montessori Method.

Language: Italian

DOI: 10.36253/rse-10374

ISSN: 2532-2818

Article

The Effect of Montessori Approach-based STEM Education on Pre-service Pre-school Teachers’ Self-directed Learning / Montessori Yaklaşımı Temelli STEM Eğitimlerinin Okul Öncesi Öğretmen Adaylarının Öz Yönetimli Öğrenmeleri Üzerindeki Etkisi

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: e-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi / e-International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 13, no. 2

Pages: 142-162

Asia, Middle East, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: The aim in the research was to investigate the effect of Montessori-based STEM education on the self-directed learning skills of pre-service pre-school teachers. A mixed method was employed in the research. The sample of the research consisted of 53 pre-service teachers enrolled in the Pre-school Teacher Education Programme at a mid-sized state university in northeast Turkey. During the research, Montessori-based STEM education was given to the pre-service teachers for two hours per week over 14 weeks. The Self-directed Learning Skills scale was applied to obtain the quantitative data and the Semi-structured Interview Form was used for the qualitative data in the research. After coding the data in content analysis, the themes of the coded data were written down. In order to contribute to the validity of the research, direct quotations from the participant group were included in the findings section and participant confirmation was carried out. In order to contribute to the reliability of the data analysis, the consistency of the results with each other was checked by five experts during the data analysis. The aim was to contribute to the reliability of the study by explaining the data collection and analysis sections in detail. At the end of the research, it was observed that there was a significant difference between the self-directed learning skills pre-test and post-test scores and that the qualitative analysis results supported this difference in direction with the development. These developments were determined from the statements by the pre-service teachers in their interviews stating that the training contributed greatly to their personal and social development and helped them gain learning and teaching skills about a subject. In line with the results obtained, it can be concluded that pre-school teacher candidates' self-directed learning skills such as self-confidence, perseverance, self-planned learning, and self-assessment were developed by Montessori approach-based STEM education. / Araştırmada Montessori yaklaşımı temelli STEM eğitimlerinin; okul öncesi öğretmen adaylarının öz yönetimli öğrenme becerileri üzerindeki etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmada karma yöntem kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini Doğu Anadolu’ nun orta ölçekli bir ilindeki devlet üniversitesinin Eğitim Fakültesi Okul Öncesi Öğretmenliği Bölümünde öğrenim gören 53 öğretmen adayı oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada öğretmen adaylarının öz yönetimli öğrenme becerilerindeki değişimi belirlemek amacıyla tek grup öntest sontest deseni oluşturulmuştur. Araştırmada nicel verilerin elde edilmesinde “Öz Yönetimli Öğrenme Becerileri” ölçeği ve nitel veriler için de “Yarı Yapılandırılmış Mülakat Formu” kullanılmıştır. Araştırma süresince toplamda 14 hafta boyunca haftada 2 ders saati olmak üzere adaylara Montessori yaklaşım temelli STEM eğitimleri verilmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen nicel verilerin analizi ilişkili örneklem t testi ile nitel verilerin analizi ise içerik analizi ile yapılmıştır. İçerik analizinde verilerin kodlaması yapıldıktan sonra, kodlama yapılan verilerin temaları yazılmıştır. Araştırmanın geçerliliğine katkı sağlamak için, bulgular bölümünde katılımcı grubun doğrudan alıntılarına yer verilmiş ayrıca katılımcı teyidi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veri analizinin güvenirliğine katkı sunmak için, veri analizi esnasında beş uzman tarafından sonuçların birbiri ile tutarlılığı kontrol edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda öz yönetimli öğrenme becerilerinin öntest ve sontest puanları arasında, anlamlı bir farklılık olduğu ve yapılan nitel analiz sonuçlarının da bu farkı gelişim yönünde desteklediği gözlenmiştir. Bu gelişimler öğretmen adaylarının mülakatlarında eğitimlerin kişisel ve sosyal gelişimlerine oldukça katkı sağladıklarını, bir konu hakkında öğrenme ve öğretme becerisi kazanma konusunda yardımcı olduğunu belirten ifadelerinden tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar doğrultusunda Montessori yaklaşımı temelli STEM eğitimlerinin okul öncesi öğretmen adaylarının özgüven, sebat gösterme, kendi kendine planlı öğrenme, öz değerlendirme yapabilme gibi öz yönetimli öğrenme becerilerinin geliştiği yorumu yapılabilir.

Language: English

DOI: 10.19160/e-ijer.1038793

ISSN: 1309-6265

Master's Thesis

Academic Achievement Outcomes: Montessori and Non-Montessori Public Elementary Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Elementary education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Within the realm of elementary public schools, several pedagogical models of early childhood education are practiced in the United States (Lillard, 2007). The constructivist approach to early childhood education is illustrative of best practices based on current theory. One model of constructivist early childhood education is the Montessori Method founded in the early twentieth century by Maria Montessori, an Italian physician (Montessori, 1912/1964). Though the Montessori Method is aligned with research-based best practices espoused by constructivism, there are relatively few public Montessori schools currently in the United States. A direct comparison is needed between the academic outcomes of public elementary school programs which implement the Montessori Method and those which implement a more traditional approach to early childhood education. The focus of this study is the academic achievement outcomes of Montessori public school students as compared to similar non-Montessori students.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2013

Article

Montessori Eğitiminin Çocukların Gelişimine Etkisinin İncelenmesi / Investigation of the Effects of Montessori Education on Children's Development

Available from: Academia

Publication: Hacettepe University Graduate School of Educational Sciences - The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 32-52

Asia, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Bu araştırmada, Montessori yaklaşımı doğrultusunda gerçekleştirilen öğretmen eğitimi ve eğitim ortamınındüzenlenmesi sonucu üç, dört ve beş yaş (36-72 ay) grubundaki (deney ve kontrol grubu) çocuklara verilen Montessori yaklaşımına dayalı eğitimin çocukların gelişim alanları üzerindeki etkisini saptamakamaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada, Montessori yaklaşımına dayalı eğitimin çocukların gelişim alanlarına olanetkisini belirlemek amacıyla ön test ve son test kontrol gruplu deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. Ankara Üniversitesi Uygulama Anaokulu 1’e devam eden çocuklar deney grubunu, okul yöneticileri ile öğretmengörüşleri doğrultusunda benzer özelliklere sahip olduğu düşünülen bir üniversite anaokuluna devam edençocuklar ise kontrol grubunu oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada demografik verileri toplamak amacıyla “Genel BilgiFormu”, çocukların gelişim alanlarını değerlendirmek için Alpern (2007) tarafından geliştirilen Gelişimsel Profil 3 (GP3) ile Mardell ve Goldenberg (1998) tarafından geliştirilen Öğrenmenin Değerlendirilmesi için Gelişimsel Göstergeler 4 (ÖDGG-4) kullanılmıştır. Montessori yaklaşımına dayalı eğitim öncesinde ilkolarak Montessori eğitim ortamı oluşturulmuş ve gelişimsel değerlendirme labratuvarı hazır halegetirilmiştir. Ardından öğretmenler “Montessori Uygulayıcıların Eğitimi” kapsamında eğitim almışlardır.Çalışma sonucunda öğretmen görüşüne göre ÖDGG-4’den elde edilen bulgular incelendiğinde, deney vekontrol grubundaki çocukların öz bakım becerileri ile sosyal duygusal gelişim alt boyutu puanlarında, ebeveyn görüşlerine göre öz bakım becerileri alt boyutu ile toplam gelişim puanlarında deney grubu lehineanlamlı farklılık olduğu saptanmıştır. GP-3’e ait sonuçlar incelendiğinde de deney ve kontrol grubundakiçocukların öğretmen görüşlerine göre uyumsal davranış boyutunda; ebeveyn görüşlerine göre fizikselgelişim, bilişsel gelişim, iletişim alt boyutları ile toplam gelişim puanlarında deney grubu lehine anlamlıfarklılık olduğu belirlenmiştir. / The present study was aimed at determining the development levels of children aged three, four andfive (36-72 months) attending Ankara University Practice Preschool 1, and the effect of Montessorieducational approach on their areas of development. A pretest, posttest, retention test experimental designwith control group was adopted in the study to determine the effect of Montessori educational approach on children’s areas of development. The experimental group consisted of children attending Ankara University Practice Preschool 1, while the control group consisted of attending a randomly selected university preschool with similar qualifications. The General Information Form was used for data collection purposes,while the Developmental Profile 3 (DP-3) developed by Alpern (2007) and the Developmental Indicators forthe Assessment of Learning 4 (DIAL-4) developed by Mardell and Goldenberg (1998) whose validity and reliability studies were used as assessment tools to evaluate children’s areas of development. Prior to theimplementation of Montessori education, Montessori educational environment was prepared and adevelopmental assessment laboratory was set up. Thereafter, teachers received the MontessoriPractitioner Training. DIAL-4 results according to teachers’ opinions revealed significant differences between the children in experimental and control groups in self-help skills and social emotional development subscale scores, while according to parents’ opinions, there were significant differences in the self-help skills subcale and overall development scores. DP-3 results revealed significant differencesbetween the children in experimental and control groups in the adaptive behavior subscale according to teachers’ opinions, and physical development, cognitive development and communication subscale scores,as well as, overall development scores of the DP-3 according to parents’ opinions.

Language: Turkish

Book Section

Montessori-Pädagogik bei mehrfach und verschiedenartig behinderten Kindern in der Montessori-Sonderschule [Montessori pedagogy for children with multiple and different disabilities in the Montessori special school]

Book Title: Die Montessori-Pädagogik und das behinderte Kind: Referate und Ergebnisse des 18. Internationalen Montessori Kongresses (München, 4-8 Juli 1977) [Montessori Pedagogy and the Handicapped Child: Papers and Results of the 18th International Montessori Congress (Munich, July 4-8, 1977)]

Pages: 330-335

Children with disabilities, Conferences, International Montessori Congress (18th, Munich, Germany, 4-8 July 1977), Special education

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Language: German

Published: München: Kindler, 1978

ISBN: 3-463-00716-9

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