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This bibliography is an extensive collection of Montessori sources that have been built on a solid foundation of bibliographies previously compiled by numerous individuals and organizations. We are simply improving upon this work by updating and adding more source content and providing links to digitized source material, when available.

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the global Montessori movement


Personal Characteristics of Child Development According to Maria Montessori’s Interpretation (Based on Her Diaries) / Bolaning Rivojlanishida Shaxsiy Xususiyatlari Mariya Montessori Talqinida (Kundaliklari Asosida)

Available from: Zenodo

Publication: Results of National Scientific Research International Journal, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 191-203

Maria Montessori – Biographic sources, Maria Montessori – Philosophy, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: This article describes the life and research, experiences and conclusions of Dr. Maria Montessori from Italy, Montessori collected her daily memories in a pamphlet called “Overcoming” and we used this pamphlet.

Language: English, Uzbek

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10702584

ISSN: 2181-3639


Experiences of Montessori Guides and Administrators Supporting Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities: Evaluating the Impact of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires Training on Montessori Guides and Administrators Supporting Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities

Available from: Montessori 4 Inclusion (MMPI)

Children with disabilities, Developmentally disabled children, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education – Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Over the past several years, with support from key Association Montessori International – USA (AMI-USA) leaders, many Montessori schools have adopted the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) as a tool to screen young children for developmental disabilities or delays, to have key conversations with parents, and to ensure children receive the support they may need. While research supports many positive benefits of using such a screener, it is less understood how Montessori guides and administrators of Montessori children perceive potential benefits or challenges of using such a tool. As such, the aims of the present evaluation study are threefold: (1) To investigate the current realities and needs of Montessori community partners in supporting students with developmental disabilities or delays. (2) To assess Montessori guide and administrator attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, skills, confidence, and self-efficacy around using universal screeners to support students with developmental disabilities or delays as well as the extent to which they believe they have requisite the tools and resources they need before and after completing an ASQ training. (3) To highlight associated benefits or challenges of implementing the ASQ training and tool as an aid for Montessori guides and administrators in supporting students with developmental disabilities or delays.

Language: English

Published: Woodsboro, Maryland, June 30, 2023


Methodology of Primary Education and Its Current Status

Available from: GRN Journals Inc.

Publication: American Journal of Science on Integration and Human Development, vol. 2, no. 2

Pages: 87-89

Comparative education, Montessori method of education – Criticism, interpretation, etc., Primary education

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Abstract/Notes: Primary education serves as the cornerstone for lifelong learning and development, laying the foundation for academic achievement, socialization, and critical thinking skills. Over the years, primary education methodologies have evolved in response to changing educational philosophies, cultural shifts, technological advancements, and research findings on effective teaching practices. This article provides a comprehensive review of the evolution of primary education methodologies, examining key approaches, their theoretical underpinnings, current status, and future trends. Traditional teacher-centered approaches, progressive child-centered methodologies, Montessori methods, constructivism, technology-integrated learning, and inquiry-based learning are explored in depth, highlighting their respective contributions to enhancing student engagement, fostering critical thinking skills, and promoting personalized learning experiences. Drawing on a synthesis of literature from educational psychology, pedagogy, and curriculum development, this article offers insights into the complex landscape of primary education methodologies and provides valuable considerations for educators, policymakers, and researchers striving to optimize teaching and learning outcomes in primary education settings.

Language: English

ISSN: 2993-2750


On Montessori’s Thought on Mixed Age Game Education

Available from: International Journal of Social Science and Education Research

Publication: International Journal of Social Science and Education Research, vol. 7, no. 2

Pages: 259-262

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Abstract/Notes: In the mid‐19th and 20th centuries, the Italian bourgeois industrial revolution took place, and new technologies were widely used, requiring a large amount of labor in society. The bourgeoisie recognizes that changes in the field of education are an important force in promoting social development. So there is an increasing emphasis on improving the quality of education. At that time, compulsory education had already begun to be popularized in Germany. More and more education reformers are also beginning to oppose the medieval view of “little adults” that extinguished children’s nature. A new education movement that respects children’s subjectivity has emerged in Europe. Montessori was one of them‐an outstanding representative advocating for the establishment of “science education”. Advocate for education that is closely related to children’s lives.

Language: English

DOI: 10.6918/IJOSSER.202402_7(2).0035

ISSN: 2637-6067


✓ Peer Reviewed

Integration between the Western and Islamic Parenting Models: Content Analysis in A Literature Review

Available from: University Muhammadiyah Magelang (Indonesia)

Publication: Jurnal Tarbiyatuna, vol. 14, no. 2

Pages: 192-214

Montessori method of education – Criticism, interpretation, etc., Parent and child, Parenting

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Abstract/Notes: Parenting as a child care practice has become the main focus in both Western psychology and Islam psychology. Each perspective is founded on different values and contributes to the development of the parenting concept. The concept of parenting from the Western psychology includes Montessori parenting, positive parenting, and religious parenting. Meanwhile, from the perspective of Islam psychology, the concept of parenting involves prophetic parenting, Islamic parenting, Qur’anic parenting, and fathanah parenting. The researcher conducted a literature review on these concepts by collecting papers using search engines, including Google, Publish or Perish, and Open Knowledge Map and collected scientific journal articles that are nationally and internationally accredited. A total of 58 journal articles published between 2013 and 2023 were found. Data sampling is adjusted to the research topic, namely the concept of parenting and early childhood parenting. Next, the researcher will interpret the meaning of each journal article using content analysis to identify the basic argument of the research. The findings show that the development of the parenting concept in the Western psychology perspective stems from phenomena in parenting, especially the religion phenomenon in parenting culture in the 21st century. On the other hand, the development of the parenting concept in the Islam psychology perspective is merely a conceptual reinterpretation that is centered in the values of al-Qur’an and hadith. Nevertheless, the researcher found two patterns in the development of the parenting concept in Islam: first, the development of the parenting conceptual framework that is integrated with interpretation method on al-Qur’an texts to explain the notion of parenting, and second, the theoretical integration between the parenting concept that is in accordance with al-Qur’an and hadith and the Western psychology’s notion on parenting. Based on the literature review, the integration between the parenting concept in Western psychology perspective and that in Islam results in the SMART parenting model which prioritizes joy, education, moral and religion, and health for the children’s growth.

Language: English

DOI: 10.31603/tarbiyatuna.v14i2.10584

ISSN: 2579-4981, 2086-0889

Master’s Thesis (M.A. In Education)

The Development and Preliminary Validation of an Early Childhood Normalisation Observation Schedule (ECNOS) for Early Childhood Montessori Settings

Available from: University of Western Australia – Institutional Repository

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Abstract/Notes: Maria Montessori (1870-1952) proposed four planes or stages in children’s development, within which were sensitive periods. Normalisation, a transformative process, typically occurs during the first plane of development (birth to six years) and is the essence of Montessori education philosophy. It is a time when children exercise self-discipline and concentration. No direct observation protocols exist to assess normalisation. This research developed the Early Childhood Normalisation Observation Schedule, through three sequentially linked phases. A systematic review of the literature, referral to expert panels and cognitive interviews, and two separate observation studies demonstrated rates of children’s normalisation behaviours in authentic Montessori classes.

Language: English

Published: Perth, Australia, 2023


✓ Peer Reviewed

Pengaruh Penggunaan Metode Montessori Terhadap Kemampuan Membaca Permulaan Siswa Kelas I SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli Kabupaten Pangkep [The Effect of Using the Montessori Method on the Beginning Reading Ability of Class I Students of SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli, Pangkep Regency]

Available from:

Publication: J-CEKI : Jurnal Cendekia Ilmiah, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 611-618

Asia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education – Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reading – Instruction and study, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan metode montessori terhadap kemampuan membaca permulaan siswa kelas I SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli Kabupaten Pangkep. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen (Pre-experimental design). Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kuantitatif dengan desain penelitian Onegroup Pretest-Posttest Design. Prosedur penelitian meliputi tahap persiapan, pelaksanaan, dan penyelesaian. Teknik pengumpulan data berupa tes dan observasi. Teknik analisis data berupa analisis statistik deskriptif dan inferensial uji-t (t-test). Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas I SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli Kabupaten Pangkep sebanyak 28 orang yang terdiri dari 12 laki-laki dan 16 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan metode Montessori berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan membaca permulaan siswa kelas I SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli Kabupaten Pangkep. Terbukti dengan hasil analisis statistik deskriptif yang menunjukkan hasil belajar siswa dengan menggunakan metode Montessori mengalami perubahan yang lebih baik daripada sebelum diterapkannya metode Montessori. Hasil analisis statistik inferensial menggunakan rumus uji t (t-test), diketahui bahwa nilai t Hitung yang diperoleh adalah 26,77 dengan frekuensi db = 28 – 1 = 27, pada taraf signifikansi 0,05 (5%) diperoleh t 0,05 = 2,05183. Jadi, t Hitung > t Tabel atau Hipotesis nol (H0) ditolak dan Hipotesis Alternatif (H1) diterima. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa ada pengaruh dalam penggunaan metode Montessori terhadap kemampuan membaca permulaan siswa kelas 1 SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli Kabupaten Pangkep. [This research aims to determine the effect of using the Montessori method on the beginning reading abilities of class I students at SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli, Pangkep Regency. This type of research is experimental research (Pre-experimental design). The approach used in this research is a quantitative approach with a Onegroup Pretest-Posttest Design research design. Research procedures include preparation, implementation and completion stages. Data collection techniques include tests and observations. The data analysis technique is in the form of descriptive statistical analysis and inferential t-test (t-test). The sample in this study was 28 class I students of SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli, Pangkep Regency, consisting of 12 men and 16 women. The results of the study showed that the use of the Montessori method had an effect on the beginning reading ability of class I students at SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli, Pangkep Regency. This is proven by the results of descriptive statistical analysis which shows that student learning outcomes using the Montessori method have changed for the better than before the implementation of the Montessori method. The results of inferential statistical analysis using the t test formula (t-test), it is known that the calculated t value obtained is 26.77 with a frequency of db = 28 – 1 = 27, at a significance level of 0.05 (5%) obtained t 0.05 = 2.05183. So, t Count > t Table or Null Hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the Alternative Hypothesis (H1) is accepted. This proves that there is an influence in using the Montessori method on the beginning reading abilities of grade 1 students at SD Negeri 51 Toli-Toli, Pangkep Regency.]

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.56799/jceki.v3i2.3075

ISSN: 2828-5271


✓ Peer Reviewed

Comparative Analysis of the Views of Montessori and Waldorf Teacher Trainers

Available from: ScienceDirect

Publication: Social Sciences & Humanities Open, vol. 9

Pages: Article 100855

Montessori method of education – Teachers, Teacher training, Teachers – Attitudes, Trainings, Waldorf method of education – Teachers

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Abstract/Notes: In our study we investigate the differences between the views of Waldorf and Montessori teacher trainers (NWaldorf = 8, NMontessori = 8) on the basis of structured interviews. The narrower, national relevance of our study is the Hungarian higher education accreditation efforts of the two school models, while the more general relevance is that we empirically test the theoretical distance between the two school concepts on a Hungarian sample. The aim of the study is therefore twofold: to identify the main theoretical differences between the two pedagogical approaches and to empirically test the presence or absence of these differences through the views of teacher trainers. Our results show that the teacher trainers of the two pedagogical approaches have partly moved away from their theoretical background and are divided on certain issues: Montessori teacher trainers are moving towards a focus on the development of large movements, while Waldorf teacher trainers are moving towards a better appreciation of science. As there is no state accreditation of Waldorf and Montessori teacher training courses in Hungary, we are also looking at the scientific attitudes of the teachers involved in teacher training.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssaho.2024.100855

ISSN: 2590-2911


✓ Peer Reviewed

Critique of Montessori’s Method of Early Childhood

Available from: International Surya Publication

Publication: International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Arts, Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 5

Pages: 29-36

Consciousness, Early childhood education, Holistic education, Montessori method of education – Criticism, interpretation, etc., Spirituality, Vedic psychology

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Abstract/Notes: This paper critically examines Maria Montessori’s method of early childhood education through the lens of Vedic psychology. While Montessori’s approach emphasizes child-centered learning and hands-on activities, this study explores its compatibility with Vedic psychology, which includes ancient Indian philosophical and psychological insights. Through an analysis of Montessori’s principles alongside Vedic psychology concepts such as the holistic nature of the self and the importance of spiritual development, potential areas of misalignment or improvement within Montessori’s framework are identified. By offering a nuanced critique, this paper contributes to the discourse surrounding early childhood education, aiming to enrich educational practices by integrating insights from diverse philosophical perspectives.

Language: English

DOI: 10.61778/ijmrast.v1i5.28

ISSN: 2584-0231

Bachelor’s Thesis

Montessori Pedagogy in learning and teaching the English language in Czech lower secondary schools

Available from: Masaryk University (Czechia)

Elementary education, Language acquisition, Language education, Montessori method of education, Primary education, Second language acquisition, Second language education

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of this Bachelor thesis is to deal with a different approach to the teaching and learning of the English language at lower secondary schools by the Montessori Method. The theoretical part investigates the process of learning a foreign language, second language acquisition and introduces the basic principles of Montessori education that can be applied to teaching and learning any foreign language. In addition to this, a brief insight into how such a lesson should be conducted is introduced. The pragmatic component of the thesis focuses on the response of the target question of what the real Montessori lessons look like in reality, and how the Montessori principles are upheld. To conduct the qualitative research and apply the method of case studies, thirty observations in two lower secondary schools and interviews with two teachers were conducted. The observations and interviews took place at the Montessori lower secondary schools Polabiny in Pardubice and Gajdošova in Brno. To confirm the validity of the research, the school curriculum documents were evaluated. The observation demonstrates that the learning and teaching of the English language, using the Montessori system, becomes a challenging option for Montessori teachers. / Cílem této Bakalářské práce je celkový náhled na výuku anglického jazyka na druhém stupni základních škol typu Montessori. Teoretická část se obecně zabývá výukou cizího jazyka, procesem učení cizího jazyka a představí principy Marie Montessori aplikovatelné na výuku jakéhokoliv jazyka. Také krátce představíme jak by měla skutečná Montessori výuka vypadat. Praktická část práce si klade za hlavní cíl odpověď na otázku jak probíhá výuka anglického jazyka dle Marie Montessori ve skutečnosti a jak jsou dodržovány principy Marie Montessori. Metoda případové studie kvalitativního výzkumu byla podpořena třiceti hodinami observací a dvěma rozhovory s učiteli anglického jazyka. Observace se uskutečnily na základních školách Polabiny v Pardubicích, na Gajdošově v Brně. K umocnění výsledku práce jsou hodnoceny vzdělávací dokumenty zkoumaných škol. Observace ukazuje, že výuka anglického jazyka Montessori Metodou je pro vyučujícího náročným úkolem.

Language: English

Published: Brno, Czechia, 2017