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Doctoral Dissertation

Montessori in India: A Study of the Application of her Method in a Developing Country

Available from: University of Sydney Libraries

Asia, Ceylon, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia, Sri Lanka, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: In India the Montessori Method has survived in various forms for a continuous period longer than virtually anywhere else in the world. Its adoption coincided with a crucial period in the nation's history when a growing nationalist movement was seeking to rid the country of foreign domination and dependency. Although the Method was foreign, the emphasis on liberty and the development of individuals capable of independent thought and action appealed to elite groups and to elements of the nationalist movement. The Method was believed to be modern and scientific and was greeted with enthusiasm by those who sought modernization and progress in a traditional society. Late in life Maria Montessori, accompanied by her son Mario, visited India, and her presence over a period of almost nine years from 1939-46 and 1947-49 gave a boost to the growing Montessori movement. Whilst in India, Montessori gave full voice to the spiritualism inherent in her work. In the West she was considered eccentric and her Method out of date, but in India, where religion exerted a powerful and pervasive influence, she was consistent with an ancient tradition of religious educators. A sprinkling of Indians had always attended her international training courses abroad, and in India they flocked to hear her message of human regeneration through the child. The Montessori Method was largely patronized by a relatively affluent, Westernized and urbanized elite who could afford the expensive apparatus. Gandhi, however, had urged Montessori to devise materials in accordance with the economic and social conditions prevailing in India's villages. Although she found much time during the years in India to develop her Method further to cover the period from birth to three years and from six to twelve years, she appears to have given little thought to its application among the country's largely illiterate poor who comprised the bulk of the population. However, an "Indianized" Montessori movement emerged in Western India, allied to the Gandhian nationalist movement, which became concerned with "adapting" the Method according to Gandhian principles, and applying it in the villages. The resultant hybrid pre-primary education enjoyed widespread application in post-Independence India and received recognition at the national level by government and non-government agencies. Recently it has been afforded a crucial role in a major human resources development programme designed to alleviate the effects of poverty amongst women and young children. The present study has drawn on a wide range of primary and secondary sources including archival material, newspapers, journals, published and unpublished correspondence, and personal interviews to trace the history of the Montessori movement in India from the time of early interest in the Method in 1912. The early chapters provide an introduction to Montessori's life and work and an historical background to the adoption of the Method. The application of the Method and the expansion of the Montessori movement is explored in subsequent chapters and, finally, in chapters six and seven, the study discusses directions in the movement after the departure of Madame Montessori and her son in 1949.

Language: English

Published: Sydney, Australia, 1987

Article

Integral Education in Ancient India from Vedas and Upanishads to Vedanta

Available from: Zenodo

Publication: International Journal of Research - Granthaalayah, vol. 6, no. 6

Pages: 281-295

Asia, India, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Western scholarship usually ignores the contributions from other civilizations, India for instance. At the same time, contemporary India seems to have forgotten to some extent the deepest achievements of its own tradition. Moreover, modern culture has often produced some kind of despise against ancient traditions as opposed to the freedom and emancipation of the modern world. This paper tries to unveil all the depth and beauty of Indian philosophy of education, especially through major traditions such as Vedas, Upanishads and Vedanta. It also tries to show that the pedagogic message of the sages of modern India revives all the depth of the ancient tradition. This long history of holistic education in India through 35 centuries may enrich the Western insights with figures such as Steiner, Montessori or Dewey, aware that intercultural dialogue will be one of the major challenges of the XXIst century. It becomes crystal clear through this paper that the vision of integral education in Indian culture was inseparable from the spiritual/ mystical dimension, or to put in reverse terms, the spiritual domain constituted the very foundation of the educational process in Indian philosophy of education, a fundamental point that would be again emphasized by Indian modern philosophers such as Vivekananda, Aurobindo and even Krishnamurti.

Language: English

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1308951

Article

Dr. Montessori in India (The First All-India Montessori Conference, Pilani, Rajputana)

Publication: The Punjab Educational Journal, vol. 40, no. 11

Pages: 545-549

All-India Montessori Conference (1st, Pilani, India, 27-29 December 1945), Asia, Conferences, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, South Asia

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Language: English

Article

Early childhood care and education in india [Accueil et education de la petite enfance en inde / Cuidado temprano en la niñez y educación en india]

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 2, no. 2

Pages: 31-42

Asia, India, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: A brief history of the development of Early Childhood Care and Education in pre and post Independent India has been given first. The current situation of ECCE, teacher training and research has been described and the Research — Policy — Program interface has been delineated. Among the myriad issues confronting ECCE in the country a few have been selected for discussion. [Un bref historique du développement de l'accueil et de 1'éducation de la petite enfance de la période pré — et post Indepnédance est donné pour débuter. La situation actuelle ,1a formation des enseignants et la recherche ont été décrites et la Recherche — Politique — Programme envisagé ont été délimités. Parmi les myriades de sujets auxquels l'Accueil et l'Education de la Petite Enfance ont été confrontées quelques‐uns ont été sélectionnés pour la discussion. / Primero ha sido descrita una breve historia acerca del desarrollo del Cuidado Temprano de la Niñez y Educacion en la India pre y post independiente. Se ha descrito la situación presente de ECCE, el entrenamiento del profesorado e investigatión y la Investigación — la Política — el Programa común ha sido delineado. Dentro de los muchos miríados temas que confronta la ECCE en el país unos pocos han sido seleccionados para discusión.]

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0966976940020103

ISSN: 0966-9760

Report

Alternative Paths to Primary Education in Rural India: Five Case Studies of GAA-Assisted Educational Projects

Available from: xasia Repository

Asia, India, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This study analyses five educational projects in India that are supported by German Agro Action (GAA) and the European Union (EU) and are executed on the ground by Indian NGOs. Located in different geographical parts of India, the projects follow different ideological and pedagogical approaches. The study does not claim, especially given the size and diversity of Indian society, to represent the Indian educational situation as a whole. Rather, it intends to elucidate some alternative approaches adopted by the specific projects to overcome the existing shortcomings of the Indian primary educational system. Using a range of qualitative indicators pertaining to the educational philosophy of the organisations, their curriculum, pedagogy, relationship with the state, relevance, effectiveness etc. the study critically reflects on each of the project, each of which works in areas where educational facilities are not easily accessible. The study thus helps further understanding about how the deficiencies of primary education in India, with regard to the underprivileged sections of the Indian society in particular, can be innovatively addressed. It should be noted that all findings and interpretations are those of the study team and do not necessarily represent those of GAA.

Language: English

Article

Activities of the AMI (India) [First All-India Montessori Conference, December, 1945]

Publication: The Montessori Magazine: A Quarterly Journal for Teachers, Parents and Social Workers (India), vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 76-78

Asia, Conferences, India, South Asia

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Language: English

Book

New Schools for Young India: A Survey of Educational, Economic and Social Conditions in India with Special Reference to More Effective Education

Available from: Internet Archive

Asia, Comparative education, Educational change, India, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Specifically see section related to the work of Tagore and his school at Santiniketan which incorporates a Montessori-like method of education. Also published under the title, "Developing a Project Curriculum for Village Schools in India: A Suggestive Method of Procedure."

Language: English

Published: Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina press, 1930

Book Section

Maria Montessori e l'India [Maria Montessori and India]

Book Title: Maria Montessori cittadina del mondo [Maria Montessori, citizen of the world]

Pages: 278-279

Asia, Conferences, India, International Montessori Congress (8th, San Remo, Italy, 22-29 August 1949), South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Dal volume degli Atti dell'VIII Congresso Internazionale Montessori, svoltosi a S. Remo dal 22 al 29 agosto 1949 sul tema: "La formazione dell'uomo nella ricostruzione mondiale", edizione "Opera Montessori", Roma 1950, riportiamo il saluto augurale dell'Addetto culturale all'Ambasciata indiana di Roma, Madanjeet Singh. [From the volume of the Proceedings of the VIII Montessori International Congress, held in San Remo from 22 to 29 August 1949 on the theme: "The formation of man in world reconstruction", "Opera Montessori" edition, Rome 1950, we report the greeting of Cultural Attaché at the Indian Embassy in Rome, Madanjeet Singh.]

Language: Italian

Published: Roma: Comitato italiano dell'OMEP, 1967

Article

Il Periodo Indiano di Maria Montessori [The Indian Period of Maria Montessori]

Available from: Università Degli Studi Firenze

Publication: Studi sulla Formazione [Open Journal of Education], vol. 13, no. 1

Pages: 95-98

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: On Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian educator of the twentieth century the most successful in the world, there is, also a growing if belated, interest in more recent times also in Italy. So to confine ourselves to two thousand years, studies have appeared on his life and works of great interest, finally showing that its value is recognized beyond resistance of the idealistic and Catholic area survived for a long time. The author investigates these new frontiers of research on the Montessori starting from a new biography dedicated to her which gives attention also to the Indian period.

Language: Italian

DOI: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-10057

ISSN: 2036-6981

Book Section

Maria Montessori in India: I Rapporti con la Teosofia e la Società Teosofica [Maria Montessori in India: Relations with Theosophy and the Theosophical Society]

Book Title: La Cura dell'Anima in Maria Montessori: l'Educazione Morale, Spirituale e Religiosa dell'Infanzia [Care of the Soul in Maria Montessori: Moral, Spiritual and Religious Education of Childhood]

Pages: 108-129

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History, South Asia, Spirituality, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Language: Italian

Published: Rome, Italy: Fefè Editore, 2011

ISBN: 978-88-95988-34-4

Series: Psicopedagogica , 15

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Montessori in India
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