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Master's Thesis

Montessori and Religious Education in Western Cape Preschools

Available from: University of Cape Town

Africa, Catholic schools, Comparative education, Jewish religious schools, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Religious education, South Africa, Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The debate about whether or not religious education should be included in early childhood education is a longstanding one. Even those who believe that Religious education should be included in early childhood programs cannot agree about the content or method for including it. The phenomenon of religious education in Montessori pre-primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa is explored in this study, using a qualitative research approach. More specifically, the study explored the goals of their religious education; the level of awareness of Montessori's approach to religious education and finally looked at how they were implementing religion in their schools. A sample of 4 pre-schools were selected from the 90 Montessori pre-schools in the Western Cape. These included a Non-Denominational, Muslim, Christian and a Jewish School. The Muslim and Non-Denominational schools are full Montessori schools, while the Christian and Jewish schools have incorporated Montessori alongside other curriculums, namely the Jubilee Excellence School Curriculum and Reggio-Emilia approach, respectively. A collective case study approach was adopted and data was collected through observations and interviews. While the findings cannot easily be generalized, it is significant in providing a starting point to understanding the phenomenon of religious education in Montessori pre-schools in the Western Cape. The study highlighted Dr Montessori's personal and professional struggle with religion and found that the struggles Dr Montessori faced in terms of Religion have still not been resolved today. The schools in the Western Cape still grappled with the essence of Montessori's struggle, i.e. where to place religion and how to integrate it in the Montessori method and philosophy. Dr Montessori's beliefs about the importance of spirituality in the early years were found to be consistent with the contemporary views of scholars around the world. The religious schools followed guidelines of their own religions when deciding on which values to focus on. At the Jewish school, the focus was on the community, while at the Muslim school the focus was on the individual and selfetiquette. The focus of the Christian school was on discipline and obedience. The schools had various commitments to spiritual and ethical development of the children. Finally, the study found that the Montessori method was ideal for teaching the practices of religion, but when schools delved into issues of faith or love of God, they switched to other modes of teaching (e.g. preaching). This disjuncture between teaching faith and practices was ultimately Dr Montessori's reason for abolishing religious education from her method.

Language: English

Published: Cape Town, South Africa, 2017

Article

Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Preschool Children: Comparison Between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

Available from: BioMed Central

Publication: The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: Article 2

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-2

ISSN: 1479-5868

Bachelor's Thesis

Perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak Prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori [Differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools]

Available from: CORE

Asia, Australasia, Comparative education, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Kemandirian adalah kemampuan seseorang untuk melakukan segala sesuatunya sendiri sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yang didasari oleh inisiatif, keinginan, kontrol diri dan kepercayaan pada kemampuannya sendiri. Anak perlu dilatih kemandiriannya sejak usia dini supaya tugas perkembangan dapat berkembang secara optimal. Sekolah memiliki peran penting untuk meningkatkan kemandirian anak. Menurut Santrock (2002:242), lingkungan bermain sangat penting dalam optimalisasi perkembangan anak. Salah satu sekolah dengan pendekatan seperti di atas adalah sekolah Montessori. Pendekatan Montessori menerapkan agar anak belajar mandiri dan tidak bertanya kepada guru atau menunggu jawaban (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Anak yang dididik dengan pendekatan Montessori diberi kesempatan untuk bekerja sendiri dengan material-material yang ada di lingkungannya, mengungkapkan keinginannya untuk memilih aktivitas, mengembangkan disiplin, dan anak perlu mengetahui apa yang baik dan buruk. Apabila hal-hal ini telah dipenuhi, maka kemandirian anak akan terbentuk (Modern Montessori International n.d.:40-41). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui secara empiris ada tidaknya perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori. Subjek penelitian (N=28) adalah anak prasekolah berusia 3-4 tahun yang bersekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dan sekolah non Montessori “Y” Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan seluruh populasi playgroup 2. Pengambilan data menggunakan rating scale terhadap kemandirian anak di sekolah Montessori maupun di sekolah non Montessori. Data dianalisis dengan teknik Uji t (t-test). Nilai t = 0.364, dengan p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis penelitian ditolak. Hal ini berarti tidak ada perbedaan signifikan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dengan sekolah non Montessori “Y”. [Independence is a person's ability to do things on their own in accordance with their developmental tasks based on initiative, desire, self-control and belief in their own abilities. Children need to be trained to be independent from an early age so that developmental tasks can develop optimally. Schools have an important role in increasing children's independence. According to Santrock (2002: 242), the play environment is very important in optimizing children's development. One of the schools with such an approach is the Montessori school. The Montessori approach applies so that children learn independently and do not ask the teacher or wait for answers (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Children who are educated with the Montessori approach are given the opportunity to work alone with materials in their environment, express their desire to choose activities, develop discipline, and children need to know what is good and bad. If these things have been fulfilled, then the child's independence will be formed (Modern Montessori International n.d.: 40-41). This study aims to determine empirically whether there are differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools. The research subjects (N=28) were preschoolers aged 3-4 years who attended Montessori schools "X" and non-Montessori schools "Y" The sampling technique used the entire playgroup population 2. Data collection used a rating scale on the independence of children in Montessori schools. as well as in non-Montessori schools. The data were analyzed by using the t-test technique (t-test). The value of t = 0.364, with p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) which means the research hypothesis is rejected. This means that there is no significant difference in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools "X" with non-Montessori schools "Y"]

Language: Indonesian

Published: Surabaya, Indonesia, 2009

Article

Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 14-27

African American community, African Americans, Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, Public Montessori, School discipline, Teacher-student relationships, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002). Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011). Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v1i1.4941

ISSN: 2378-3923

Doctoral Dissertation

Charter Schools: A Descriptive Study of Empowerment within the Operation of Charter Schools

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to describe the variables that contributed to the establishment of a charter school in an urban Arizona district and rural California district noting the similarities and dissimilarities, and to disclose the factors used to justify the implementation of the Montessori theory of education. Another purpose of the study was to describe the guidelines for maintaining a charter school, and the evaluation methods and factors used in the school's unique experience with staffing and funding. This research was descriptive and employed a case study approach. Descriptive research methodology was used to identify the same factors found in the Arizona study replicated by the researcher. Nonprobability, purposive sampling technique was the sampling used in the study. The instrument used for the study was interviews. Findings. The NFL/YET Academy in Arizona and Discovery Charter School in California experienced many similarities when the same variables were applied to both schools. As a result, the stakeholders of both schools used the principles of the organizational theory of empowerment to implement choices in curriculum. This process allowed the stakeholders an opportunity to meet the educational needs of students in the community. The following conclusions were made: (1) community empowerment plays a vital role in educating children; (2) the charter school movement allows parents, teachers, administrators, and community leaders to be involved in the creation of school governance and curriculum; and (3) charter schools allow all stakeholders to become involved in the decision-making process. The following are recommendations for further study: (1) This study should be conducted using a greater number of charter schools, and (2) This study should be conducted using administrator's leadership style in the organizational theory area of structure/roles.

Language: English

Published: La Verne, California, 2003

Article

Implementing Assessment Methods in Primary State Schools [Implementacija dokimoloških rješenja u primarnom obrazovanju državnih škola]

Available from: University of Zagreb

Publication: Croatian Journal of Education [Hrvatski časopis za odgoj i obrazovanje], vol. 21, no. 4

Assessment, Croatia, Europe, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of the research was to compare the assessment methods of state schools andthose of some alternative schools and examine the opinions and estimates of teacherson the possibility and need to implement assessment methods from some alternativeschools into state schools. The purpose of the paper is to enhance existing assessmentmethods in state schools. The longitudinal research was carried out in five alternativeschools and in state schools in the city of Zagreb. Triangulation methodology wasapplied. Seventeen participants were included in the qualitative phase of the researchcarried out in 2011 while the sample in the quantitative phase of the research in 2018comprised 159 participants. The first phase collected data using the case study andinterview, while a questionnaire - Assessment models and methods - was developedfor the second phase. The research did not show significant differences in opinionsbetween teachers regarding the same assessment methods seven years later. The resultsshow that teachers in alternative schools give a more positive estimate of the possibilityand need for implementation. The existing manner of assessment and evaluation instate schools should be modernized with alternative methods such as the yearly report,portfolio and Montessori materials.Keywords: alternative schools; assessment and evaluation; primary education, specificassessment methods; state schools. [SažetakCilj istraživanja bio je usporediti dokimološka rješenja u državnim i nekimalternativnim školama te ispitati mišljenja i procjene učitelja o mogućnosti i potrebiimplementacije dokimoloških rješenja iz nekih alternativnih škola u državne škole.Svrha rada jest unaprjeđenje postojećih dokimoloških rješenja u državnim školama.Istraživanje je longitudinalno i provedeno je u pet alternativnih i u državnimškolama u gradu Zagrebu. Korištena je metodološka triangulacija. U kvalitativnojfazi istraživanja iz 2011. godine, sudjelovalo je 17 ispitanika, a u kvantitativnoj faziistraživanja 2018. godine, 159 ispitanika. U prvoj fazi za prikupljanje podatakakorištena je studija slučaja i intervju, a za drugu je konstruiran anketni upitnik- Dokimološki modeli i rješenja. Ispitivanje nije pokazalo značajnije razlike umišljenjima učiteljica i učitelja o istim dokimološkim rješenjima 7 godina kasnije.Rezultati pokazuju kako učitelji alternativnih škola pozitivnije procjenjuju mogućnosti potrebu implementacije, a postojeće načine praćenja i ocjenjivanja u državnojškoli treba osuvremeniti alternativnim dokimološkim rješenjima poput godišnjegaizvještaja, portfolija i Montessori materijala.Ključne riječi: alternativne škole; državne škole; praćenje i ocjenjivanje; primarnoobrazovanje; specifična dokimološka rješenja.]

Language: English

DOI: 10.15516/cje.v21i4.3421

ISSN: 1848-5197

Article

Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison Between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: Journal of School Health, vol. 84, no. 11

Pages: 716-721

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, Physical education, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School), and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 minute/hour), MVPA (7.7 versus 6.5 minute/hour), and total PA (15.4 versus 13.0 minute/hour) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 versus 6.2 minute/hour) and All Day (8.5 versus 7.6 minute/hour), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 versus 7.0 minute/hour; 8.1 versus 6.7 minute/hour; 16.1 versus 13.6 minute/hour, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1111/josh.12207

ISSN: 1746-1561

Article

Implementing Assessment Methods in Primary State Schools / Implementacija dokimoloških rješenja u primarnom obrazovanju državnih škola

Available from: Hrčak - Portal of Croatian scientific and professional journals

Publication: Croatian Journal of Education / Hrvatski časopis za odgoj i obrazovanje, vol. 21, no. 4

Pages: 1231-1261

Assessment, Croatia, Europe, ⚠️ Invalid DOI

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of the research was to compare the assessment methods of state schools andthose of some alternative schools and examine the opinions and estimates of teacherson the possibility and need to implement assessment methods from some alternativeschools into state schools. The purpose of the paper is to enhance existing assessmentmethods in state schools. The longitudinal research was carried out in five alternativeschools and in state schools in the city of Zagreb. Triangulation methodology wasapplied. Seventeen participants were included in the qualitative phase of the researchcarried out in 2011 while the sample in the quantitative phase of the research in 2018comprised 159 participants. The first phase collected data using the case study andinterview, while a questionnaire - Assessment models and methods - was developedfor the second phase. The research did not show significant differences in opinionsbetween teachers regarding the same assessment methods seven years later. The resultsshow that teachers in alternative schools give a more positive estimate of the possibilityand need for implementation. The existing manner of assessment and evaluation instate schools should be modernized with alternative methods such as the yearly report,portfolio and Montessori materials.Keywords: alternative schools; assessment and evaluation; primary education, specificassessment methods; state schools.---SažetakCilj istraživanja bio je usporediti dokimološka rješenja u državnim i nekimalternativnim školama te ispitati mišljenja i procjene učitelja o mogućnosti i potrebiimplementacije dokimoloških rješenja iz nekih alternativnih škola u državne škole.Svrha rada jest unaprjeđenje postojećih dokimoloških rješenja u državnim školama.Istraživanje je longitudinalno i provedeno je u pet alternativnih i u državnimškolama u gradu Zagrebu. Korištena je metodološka triangulacija. U kvalitativnojfazi istraživanja iz 2011. godine, sudjelovalo je 17 ispitanika, a u kvantitativnoj faziistraživanja 2018. godine, 159 ispitanika. U prvoj fazi za prikupljanje podatakakorištena je studija slučaja i intervju, a za drugu je konstruiran anketni upitnik- Dokimološki modeli i rješenja. Ispitivanje nije pokazalo značajnije razlike umišljenjima učiteljica i učitelja o istim dokimološkim rješenjima 7 godina kasnije.Rezultati pokazuju kako učitelji alternativnih škola pozitivnije procjenjuju mogućnosti potrebu implementacije, a postojeće načine praćenja i ocjenjivanja u državnojškoli treba osuvremeniti alternativnim dokimološkim rješenjima poput godišnjegaizvještaja, portfolija i Montessori materijala.Ključne riječi: alternativne škole; državne škole; praćenje i ocjenjivanje; primarnoobrazovanje; specifična dokimološka rješenja.

Language: English, Croatian

DOI: 10.15516/cje.v21i4.3421

ISSN: 1848-5189, 1848-5197

Doctoral Dissertation

Skolans Levda Rum och Lärandets Villkor: Meningsskapande i Montessoriskolans Fysiska Miljö [The School's Living Space and the Conditions of Learning: Creating Meaning in the Montessori School's Physical Environment]

Available from: DiVA Portal

Architecture, Design, Environment, Europe, Northern Europe, Scandinavia, Sweden

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Abstract/Notes: This study examines the school’s physical environment as a place of learning, and takes its starting point in the phenomenology movement, inspired both by Merleau-Ponty’s thesis of man’s physical relation to the world and by the existential analysis represented by Heidegger which implies a mutual relationship between man and the world. Such a view rejects a standpoint which describes man as being divided between a material body and a thinking soul. Instead, there emerges an embodied self which engages in meaningful interaction with its surroundings. The choice of this standpoint has implications for the design of the school’s physical environment. Montessori pedagogy is one of the activity-based pedagogies which have designed the physical environment in line with this theory. The purpose of the study is to understand, but further to visualise, the way in which the conditions for learning for children and adolescents are created in schools, from pre-school to lower secondary level, which follow the Montessori pedagogy. The material for the empirical study has been gathered from Europe and the US and from differing social contexts. The reason for this is to discover what distinguishes the prepared environment. The study also discusses the way in which the argument for a form of schooling which is based on activity, from the early 20th century to the present day, has been addressed through the architectural design of schools. The thesis shows that the rich array of didactic material in the schools observed offers pupils the opportunity to perform activities which create meaning. The organisation of the environment provides the pupils with the necessary conditions to concentrate fully on their work and to complete their tasks without interruption. I see the didactic continuity which prevails from pre-school to the lower secondary school in the Montessori schools studied as a prerequisite if the pedagogical activity is to offer meaning and create the conditions for learning in the way demonstrated by the empirical studies.

Language: Swedish

Published: Stockholm, 2012

Article

Schools Helping Schools: Karuna Montessori

Publication: Montessori Matters, no. 1

Pages: 4–6

⛔ No DOI found

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Language: English

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