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Bachelor's Thesis

Perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak Prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori [Differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools]

Available from: CORE

Asia, Australasia, Comparative education, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Kemandirian adalah kemampuan seseorang untuk melakukan segala sesuatunya sendiri sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yang didasari oleh inisiatif, keinginan, kontrol diri dan kepercayaan pada kemampuannya sendiri. Anak perlu dilatih kemandiriannya sejak usia dini supaya tugas perkembangan dapat berkembang secara optimal. Sekolah memiliki peran penting untuk meningkatkan kemandirian anak. Menurut Santrock (2002:242), lingkungan bermain sangat penting dalam optimalisasi perkembangan anak. Salah satu sekolah dengan pendekatan seperti di atas adalah sekolah Montessori. Pendekatan Montessori menerapkan agar anak belajar mandiri dan tidak bertanya kepada guru atau menunggu jawaban (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Anak yang dididik dengan pendekatan Montessori diberi kesempatan untuk bekerja sendiri dengan material-material yang ada di lingkungannya, mengungkapkan keinginannya untuk memilih aktivitas, mengembangkan disiplin, dan anak perlu mengetahui apa yang baik dan buruk. Apabila hal-hal ini telah dipenuhi, maka kemandirian anak akan terbentuk (Modern Montessori International n.d.:40-41). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui secara empiris ada tidaknya perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori. Subjek penelitian (N=28) adalah anak prasekolah berusia 3-4 tahun yang bersekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dan sekolah non Montessori “Y” Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan seluruh populasi playgroup 2. Pengambilan data menggunakan rating scale terhadap kemandirian anak di sekolah Montessori maupun di sekolah non Montessori. Data dianalisis dengan teknik Uji t (t-test). Nilai t = 0.364, dengan p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis penelitian ditolak. Hal ini berarti tidak ada perbedaan signifikan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dengan sekolah non Montessori “Y”. [Independence is a person's ability to do things on their own in accordance with their developmental tasks based on initiative, desire, self-control and belief in their own abilities. Children need to be trained to be independent from an early age so that developmental tasks can develop optimally. Schools have an important role in increasing children's independence. According to Santrock (2002: 242), the play environment is very important in optimizing children's development. One of the schools with such an approach is the Montessori school. The Montessori approach applies so that children learn independently and do not ask the teacher or wait for answers (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Children who are educated with the Montessori approach are given the opportunity to work alone with materials in their environment, express their desire to choose activities, develop discipline, and children need to know what is good and bad. If these things have been fulfilled, then the child's independence will be formed (Modern Montessori International n.d.: 40-41). This study aims to determine empirically whether there are differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools. The research subjects (N=28) were preschoolers aged 3-4 years who attended Montessori schools "X" and non-Montessori schools "Y" The sampling technique used the entire playgroup population 2. Data collection used a rating scale on the independence of children in Montessori schools. as well as in non-Montessori schools. The data were analyzed by using the t-test technique (t-test). The value of t = 0.364, with p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) which means the research hypothesis is rejected. This means that there is no significant difference in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools "X" with non-Montessori schools "Y"]

Language: Indonesian

Published: Surabaya, Indonesia, 2009

Master's Thesis

A Casa das Crianças: Três Modelos de Espaços Escolares Montessori [Children's Space: Three Models of Montessori Schools]

Available from: Universidade do Porto - Repositório Aberto

Europe, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Portugal, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: A escola é um local de conexão do ser humano com o que o rodeia e, por isso é mais do que um espaço para educar. É o abrigo que acolhe e promove um processo educativo e de crescimento. A relação entre arquitetura e pedagogia, entende-se na medida em que o desenho do espaço é um instrumento pedagógico e, essa conexão entre as duas áreas é intensifcada pelas transformações na sociedade, que por sua vez têm infuenciado o desenho do espaço de ensino. A partir do século XIX e XX a introdução de novos métodos de ensino refetiu-se numa nova forma de olhar para as crianças e numa crescente preocupação com a pedagogia. Estes modelos inovadores distanciam-se da rigidez dos modelos tradicionais e, são ainda hoje pouco reconhecidos. As escolas Montessori representam essa nova forma de olhar para a educação e respondem às questões pedagógicas desenvolvidas por Maria Montessori, nas quais as crianças são seres independentes e são o centro de todo o processo educativo. Carateriza-se por ser uma pedagogia, que tal como o espaço a ela destinado, é complexa e pensada ao detalhe para satisfazer as necessidades de seres autónomos. Ao mesmo tempo, a principal caraterística da nova educação é a liberdade, que por sua vez se vê refetida no espaço arquitetónico, em espacialidades fexíveis e que permitem maior variedade de ocupação. Além disso, a pedagogia Montessori requer um ambiente de ensino estimulante à aprendizagem, que confere à criança a independência necessária na sociedade atual. Com isto, a presente Dissertação de Mestrado, "A casa das Crianças: Três Modelos de Espaços Escolares Montessori", pretende perceber de que forma a arquitetura responde ao próprio método Montessori, através de vários casos de estudo como por exemplo: A Casa das Crianças Viena (1922) de Franz Schuster, a Escola Montessori de Delft (1960/66) de Herman Hertzberguer e o Fuji Kindergarten projetado pelos Tezuka Architects (2007). A análise destes casos em detalhe, permitiu entender o espaço escolar Montessori através de temas comuns como: a relação ente a Escola e Cidade, o espaço de distribuição da escola, a sala Montessori e todos os espaços que a compõe, e o espaço exterior. / School is a connection place between humans and their surroundings, it is more than a place to teach. It is the shelter that welcomes and promotes both an educational and a growth process. The relation between architecture and pedagogy is understood as a pedagogical instrument and this relation is intensifed by changes in society, which in turn have infuenced the design of the teaching space. From the 19th and 20th century, the introduction of new teaching methods resulted in new ways of looking at children and in a growing concern with pedagogy. This happened as a reflection of introducing new teaching methods. These innovative models block the rigidity of traditional models and nowadays, they're not so recognized. Montessori schools represent this new way of looking at education created by Maria Montessori, where children are independent beings and are the center of the educational process. This pedagogy is known by being complex and designed to detail to satisfy the need of autonomous beings. Just like the space for them. At the same time, the main characteristic of the new education is freedom, that is refected in the architectural space too, with fexible spaces that allow childrens appropriation. Montessori Pedagogy requires a teaching environment that encourages learning, giving the child the independence needed in today's society. So, this master's thesis, Children's Space: Three Models of Montessori Schools, shows how architecture to the Montesssori Method principles, throught various study cases like: Children's House in Viena (1922) by Franz Schuster, a primary Montessori School in Delft (1960/66) by Herman Hertzberguer and the Fuji Kindergarten designed by Tezuka Architects (2007). The study of these and more cases, revealed the Montessori Spaces through themes like: The School and the City, The School distribution, The Montessory Classroom and The Outdoor Space.

Language: Portuguese

Published: Porto, Portugal, 2021

Report

The Possibility of Public Montessori Schools: Examining the Montessori philosophy and its prospect in American public schools

Available from: Vanderbilt University Institutional Repository

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: In an effort to explore the ways in which Montessori curriculum and public schools are cooperative or mutually exclusive, I will examine the principles of the Montessori philosophy as set forth by Dr. Maria Montessori in the areas of learners and learning, the learning environment, the curriculum and instructional strategies, and student assessment. After examining these sectors of the Montessori method, I will discuss theoretical possibilities in adapting the Montessori method to the American public school system in the early 21st century. For the purpose of this paper, I will refer to the author of the Montessori method, as "Dr. Montessori" and call the general method or portions thereof as "Montessori."

Language: English

Published: Nashville, Tennessee, 2007

Doctoral Dissertation

Measuring Parent Perception and Understanding of Montessori Education in Three Massachusetts Montessori Schools

Available from: University of Pepperdine

Americas, Montessori schools, North America, Parents - Perceptions, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori method is a comprehensive, child-centered, developmentalist philosophy of education developed by Dr. Maria Montessori in Rome, Italy, in the early 1900s. The Montessori method differs from traditional approaches to education, and has had limited exposure in the U.S. until the last 20 years. Despite this growth, little research data exists on the effectiveness of the method or of parent understanding of the method. This research project attempted to determine parent understanding of the Montessori method of education at three Montessori schools in Massachusetts that educate children from toddlers to grade 8. The objective of the research was to design, implement, and analyze a survey that measured parent understanding of the Montessori principles and classroom practices. The survey was developed using the Montessori principles as the foundation. The goal was to determine both the extent of parent understanding of the Montessori principles and parent perception of how these principles are carried out in the Montessori classroom. Parents and guardians were asked a total of 10 questions, 7 of which were five-point Likert scales. The quantitative questions specifically addressed the six Montessori principles and were designed to test parents’ overall understanding of each principle. Responses ranged from a principle being not at all important to very important. The qualitative portion of the survey instrument utilized three open-ended, self-completed questions designed to reveal a range of parent perceptions about Montessori education and classroom practices. The surveys revealed that parent values and thinking do line up with some aspects of the Montessori method and philosophy. The surveys also revealed that parents seem to value classroom practices contrary to the founding principles. What parents value and what parents think about regarding concepts such as goal setting, achievement, competition with peers, and teachers preparing and presenting lessons is in direct contrast with some of the Montessori founding principles and intentions. If Montessori schools wish to remain viable, they will need to reconcile the Montessori principles with conflicting parent values and, further, determine how to better align their principles with parent views and desires for their children.

Language: English

Published: Malibu, California, 2015

Doctoral Dissertation

Pilgrims and Guides: A Phenomenological Study of Montessori Teachers Guiding and Being Guided by Children in Public Montessori Schools

Available from: University of Maryland Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: This study explores the experiences of public school Montessori teachers. Max van Manen’s methodology for hermeneutic phenomenological research provides a framework for the study, and the philosophical writings of Gadamer, Abram, and Levinas guide the textual interpretations. Voices of curriculum theorists, in conversation with Maria Montessori’s words, reveal possibilities for understanding the experiences of Montessori public school teachers in the context of contemporary curriculum discourse. Six public school Montessori teachers engage with the researcher in a series of open-ended conversations. These elementary school teachers work with majority minority student populations in three different urban school districts. They range in age from mid-30s to early 60s, and have between 5 and 33 years of teaching experience in public Montessori schools. Their conversations illuminate the experience of teaching in public Montessori schools in three main themes. The teachers tell of being transformed and drawn-in to a way of life as they take Montessori training. They speak of the goodness of work that calls children to concentrate their energies and grow into active, caring and responsible people. Finally, they reflect on boundaries of difference encountered in the hallways and meeting places of public schools, and the shadows cast by state tests. The study suggests a need for Montessori teachers in public schools to participate in open-hearted conversations with parents, non-Montessori educators and administrators about what they are trying to do in their classrooms. It also reveals that decisions made by school administrators have a powerful effect on the ability of Montessorians to create engaging, child-centered learning environments. Finally, the study suggests a need for teachers, administrators, teacher-educators, and policy makers to embrace the questions and possibilities for creative growth inherent in tensions between the conflicting paradigms of adult-driven technical/scientific educational schema and the Montessori developmentally-based teaching style.

Language: English

Published: College Park, Maryland, 2007

Article

Standardized Test Proficiency in Public Montessori Schools

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of School Choice, vol. 16, no. 1

Pages: 105-135

Academic achievement, Americas, Angeline Stoll Lillard - Writings, Montessori schools, Montessori schools, North America, Public Montessori, Standardized tests, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Although Montessori is the most common unconventional education model, no multi-state study has compared standardized test proficiency of Montessori schools with districts. Here we report on this for the 10 states/regions with the most public Montessori schools (n = 195). In 3rd grade, Montessori schools were less proficient in math but more proficient in ELA. In 8th grade they were also more proficient on ELA and showed a trend to greater proficiency in math. Black, Hispanic, and economically disadvantaged students at Montessori schools were more proficient on ELA tests, and performed better or similarly on math tests, at both grade levels. Achievement gaps were generally smaller. Difference in percent proficient in 8th grade controlling for 3rd grade was consistently greater at Montessori schools than in districts. Potential reasons for the different performance of Montessori schools are discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/15582159.2021.1958058

ISSN: 1558-2159, 1558-2167

Doctoral Dissertation

How "Montessorian" Are the Montessori Schools? A Study of Selected "Montessori" Schools with Respect to Their Adherence to the Montessori Tradition.

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Language: English

Published: New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1975

Article

Parents’ Reasons for Sending Their Child to Montessori Schools

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 1-13

Americas, Montessori method of education, North America, Parent Attitudes, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Although the Montessori Method of education is more than 100 years old, the number of Montessori schools in the United States has exponentially increased since 1990. Montessori methods and practices can be complex and difficult for parents to understand, even among parents whose child attends Montessori schools. Moreover, it is unclear why parents decide to enroll their child in Montessori schools. This study presents the results of a survey administered to 124 parents whose children were enrolled in 3 Montessori schools in Massachusetts. Findings indicate that 4 reasons motivated parents’ choice of Montessori education: attraction to Montessori principles, perceived fit with the Montessori philosophy or school, anticipated outcomes, and attraction to the Montessori classroom. These findings indicate that, to support parents’ decision-making, Montessori administrators should invest in parental and public awareness about Montessori education and provide prospective families with specific information related to school fit, classroom environment, and long-term student outcomes.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i1.6714

ISSN: 2378-3923

Book

Montessori in Action: Building Resilient Montessori Schools

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Abstract/Notes: Join the Revolution! Build a resilient Montessori school Montessori in Action: Building Resilient Montessori Schools delivers a practical and actionable method to provide a strong Montessori experience for all children, families and educators. The first of its kind, this book offers readers a collection of modern and concrete ways to build an equitable and resilient Montessori program, by discussing topics like: Working within the unique, complex ecosystem of Montessori to build a unified community empowered to serve the mission of the school Sharing ways to create a culture of honest conversation based on the values of growth and clarity Offering ways to build strong and resilient systems that will engage the whole community and yield results Perfect for Montessori educators and administrators of all kinds, Montessori in Action will support educators in taking action! This book provides structures, tools and timetables to strengthen and improve schools. It will also earn a place in the libraries of the parents of Montessori children who desire to create and maintain an equitable environment that benefits all students, regardless of their background.

Language: English

Published: Hoboken, New Jersey: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley and Sons), 2021

ISBN: 978-1-119-76312-3

Article

Racial and Economic Diversity in U.S. Public Montessori Schools

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 2, no. 2

Pages: 15-34

African American community, African Americans, Americas, Mira C. Debs - Writings, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: As public Montessori schools rapidly expand through the United States, the question then arises: What population of students do the schools serve? This study presents a new empirical data set examining the racial and economic diversity of 300 whole-school, public Montessori programs open in 2012–2013, where the entire school uses the Montessori Method. While school-choice scholars are concerned that choice programs like Montessori lead to greater student segregation by race and social class, this study finds a variety of outcomes for public Montessori. Public Montessori as a sector has strengths in student racial and socioeconomic diversity, but it also has diversity challenges, particularly among Montessori charters. The study concludes with recommended strategies for public Montessori schools to enroll a racially and economically diverse student body.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v2i2.5848

ISSN: 2378-3923

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