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Appel aux Réformateurs de notre Education Nationale [Appeal to the Reformers of our National Education]

Available from: Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF) - Gallica

Publication: La Nouvelle Éducation, no. 133

Pages: 39-43

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Language: French

ISSN: 2492-3524

Conference Paper

Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Education: An Early Beginning of Embodied Education

Available from: University Colleges Knowledge database (Denmark)

18th International Network of Philosophers of Education Conference: Pedagogical Forms in Times of Pandemic (Copenhagen, Denmark, 17-20 August 2022)

Comparative education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: For a century Montessori’s philosophy of education has been understood in separation from Dewey’s philosophy of education. According to Thayer-Bacon [1], a plausible explanation is that Kilpatrick, Dewey’s influential student, rejected Montessori’s system of education [2]. His main objection was that her educational system was founded on an outdated psychology. In contrast, this paper suggests, Montessori’s educational systems is founded on a psychology which, like Dewey’s, was markedly ahead of her time by putting purely embodied interactions with the environment as the foundation of human understanding. By comparing Montessori’s psychology [3; 4] to Dewey’s [5; 6] this paper shows their compatibility. The developed pragmatism of Sellars [5;6] and the interactivism of Bickhard [7] further enables us to explain how the prelinguistic human-environment interactions (or transactions), central to Dewey and Montessori, are pure processes [8]. The pure process ontology enables us to see how more complex processes emerge from simpler ones and how learning in the mere causal domain of bodily human-environment interactions can grow into the linguistic and conceptual domain of education. The ambition is to show that a flourishing interaction between Montessori and pragmatism is possible and preferable if we are to understand the proper role of the body in education. [1] Thayer-Bacon, Barbara (2012). Maria Montessori, John Dewey, and William H. Kilpatrick. Education and Culture, 28, 1, 3-20. [2] Kilpatrick, W. H. (1914). The Montessori system examined. Cambridge, Mass.; The Riverside Press [3] Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori method. NY: Frederick A. Stokes Company [4] Montessori. M. (1949). The absorbent mind. Adyar: The Theosophical Publishing House [5] Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. NY: The Macmillan Company [6] Dewey, J. (1925) Experience and nature. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company [7] Sellars, W. (1960). Being and Being Known. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, 34, 28-49. [8] Sellars, W. (1981). Foundations for a metaphysics of pure process: The Carus lectures of Wilfrid Sellars. The Monist 64 (1):3-90. [9] Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The interactivist model. Synthese, 166, 3, 547-591. [10] Seibt, Johanna (2016). How to Naturalize Intentionality and Sensory Consciousness within a Process Monism with Gradient Normativity—A Reading of Sellars. In James O'Shea (ed.), Sellars and His Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 186-222.

Language: English

Published: Copenhagen, Denmark: International Network of Philosophers of Education, 2022


Montessori education for environmental education

Publication: Montessori Voices [Montessori Aotearoa New Zealand], no. 77

Pages: 21

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Language: English

ISSN: 1178-6213, 2744-662X


Special Education: Can Montessori Education Work for All?

Available from: University of Connecticut Libraries - American Montessori Society Records

Publication: Public School Montessorian, vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 8

Public Montessori

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Language: English

ISSN: 1071-6246

Master's Thesis

Montessori eğitim sistemi ve İslam eğitim sisteminin karşılaştırılması / Comparision of Montessori education system with Islamic education system

Available from: Ulusal Tez Merkezi / National Thesis Center (Turkey)

Comparative education, Islamic education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Religious education

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Abstract/Notes: In this study where literature review method is used, Montessori education method that is considered among the alternative education methods and the one that carefully defines what kind of education and learning experiences are suitable and useful for each growing period and Islamic education whose basic aim is to grow "mature human being" has been compared. In the introduction part of the study containing two sections as introduction and another two parts, the problem, aim, importance, hypotheses, methods and limitations of the study are handled. Montessori Education system is examined in the first part, and in the second part it is compared with Islamic education that forms the basis for the study, giving information about Islamic education system. Studies carried out on both Montessori and Islamic education systems were searched thoroughly and then they were carefully evaluated before starting to write. Within this context, all the sources related to the subject in the libraries in Turkey were provided, a very large database of information for foreign sources were scanned and they were obtained through different ways. In the light of the data obtained as a result of the study, the methods and principles that are similar in both approaches were determined and their comparison which forms the base for the study was made through the findings obtained. / Literatür taraması yönteminin kullanıldığı bu araştırmada, her gelişim aşamasına, hangi çeşit eğitim ve öğrenme deneyimlerinin uygun ve yararlı olduğunu özenle belirleyen ve alternatif eğitim modellerinden Montessori eğitim sistemi ve esas hedefi "kamil insan yetiştirmek" olan İslam eğitim sistemi karşılaştırılmaya tabi tutulmuştur. Giriş ve iki bölümden oluşan bu çalışmanın giriş kısmında araştırmanın problemi, amacı ve önemi, hipotezleri ve yöntem ve sınırlılığı ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın birinci bölümünde Montessori eğitim sistemi incelemeye tabi tutulmuş, ikinci bölümde ise araştırmanın temelini oluşturan İslam eğitim sistemi hakkında bilgilere yer verilerek, Montessori ve İslam eğitim sisteminin karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın yazım aşamasına başlamadan önce Montessori ve İslam eğitim sistemiyle ile ilgili çalışmalar taranmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Bu çerçevede Türkiye'deki kütüphanelerdeki konuyla ilgili tüm kaynak eserlerin temini yapılmış, yabancı kaynakların temini için pek çok veritabanlarında taramalar yapılmış ve bu eserler çeşitli şekillerle elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucu ortaya çıkan veriler ışığında her iki yaklaşımın benzerlik gösterdiği metot ve ilkeler tespit edilmiş ve elde edilen bulgularla çalışmanın esasını oluşturan her iki yaklaşımın karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır.

Language: Turkish

Published: Bursa, Turkey, 2016

Master's Thesis (M.A.)

“All Education but No Schooling”: Education Reform in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Herland

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: When critics consider utopian literature, they often claim that the utopian imagination is limited in its ability to provide practical instruction for societal reform. In Archaeologies of the Future, Fredric Jameson extends this critique by arguing that the utopian imagination only exists “to demonstrate and to dramatize our incapacity to imagine the future” (288-289). By returning to an early twentieth century utopian novel, Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Herland (1915), we can put pressure on Jameson’s ideas about the ultimate function of the utopian imagination. By analyzing the education system in Herland, we are able to see how Gilman integrated the contemporary educational philosophy of John Dewey and methods of Maria Montessori to provide an intellectual and institutional foundation for her utopian education system. Therefore, Gilman provides a set of ‘instructions’ to suggest how we might reform current methods of education to fit within her utopian vision. Gilman’s Herland allows us to see how a highly imaginative utopian text can promote social change to build a ‘better’ future.

Language: English

Published: Carbondale, Illinois, 2016


Annual General Meeting of the Association Montessori Internationale [Agenda, etc.]

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 2000, no. 1

Pages: 16–17

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959


✓ Peer Reviewed

Child Centered Education: Criticisms

Available from: Shanlax Journals

Publication: Shanlax International Journal of Education, vol. 8, no. 1

Pages: 22-37

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Abstract/Notes: There have been quite a lot of concerns and arguments over the appropriateness of CCE for developing countries where the social and cultural values, educational traditions, and available resources are so different from the West. Most of the educationists argue for the teacher centred formalistic approach which is believed to be more suitable for contexts where resources are sufficient and teacher professional capability is very high. Issues related to CCE in developing countries have been the focus of discussion from 1980s and particularly the 1990s. The major intention of the present study to explore the major criticisms related to child centered education. Eleven serious criticisms: danger of centeredness; absenting knowledge; learner centeredness: scientifically validated?; freedom versus discipline; practicality of learner centered teaching; individual and society; the absence of authentic social relationships; teacher's roles; natural Sequence of development; the powerless female teacher and child; and the free and individual child: an illusionary and decontextualized construct have been discussed in the present article.

Language: English

DOI: 10.34293/education.v8i1.1253

ISSN: 2582-1334


✓ Peer Reviewed

Montessori: Origin and reasons for the criticisms of one of the most controversial pedagogues of all time / Montessori: Origen y razones de las críticas a una de las pedagogas más controvertidas de la historia

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: Revista Española de Pedagogia, vol. 81, no. 285

Pages: 251-270

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is one of the most fascinating and controversial pedagogues of all time. On the one hand, the naturalists reproached her for the rigidity and artificiality of her method, as well as her rejection of productive imagination and fantasy. On the other hand, progressive educators reproached the individualist and prescriptive character of her method. The modernists reproached her for her religiosity. Some criticized her for accelerating learning or for not respecting the freedom of the child, others for the contrary. Christians branded her a secularist, positivist, naturalist, and theosophist, while theosophists defined her as Catholic. These paradoxical criticisms are due, among other reasons, to the context of the antimodernist frenzy in which she developed her method, to her network of friends in Freemason circles, to the numerous nuances of her method, to her resistance to fitting in with existing educational currents, to the instrumentalization of her method by third party interests, to her sometimes entangled and not very clear language and to the lack of knowledge of her method in action. / Montessori es una de las pedagogas más fascinantes y controvertidas de la historia. Resulta curioso que todos le reprochasen tantos aspectos tan contradictorios. Los naturalistas, la rigidez y la artificialidad de su método, así como su rechazo a la imaginación productiva y a la fantasía; los progresistas, la individualidad y el carácter coercitivo del método; los modernistas, su religiosidad; algunos la criticaban por adelantar los aprendizajes o por no respetar la libertad del alumno, otros, por lo contrario; los cristianos la tildaron de laicista, naturalista, positivista y teósofa, mientras que los teósofos la definieron como católica. Esas críticas tan paradójicas se deben, entre otras razones, al contexto de persecución antimodernista en el que desarrolló su método, a su red de amistades en los ambientes masones, a los numerosos matices de su método, a su resistencia a encajar en las corrientes educativas existentes, a la instrumentalización de su método por intereses ajenos, a su lenguaje a veces enredado y poco divulgativo y al desconocimiento de su método en acción.

Language: English, Spanish

DOI: 10.22550/REP81-2-2023-01

ISSN: 0034-9461, 2174-0909


The Montessori Method: An Exposition and Criticism

Available from: Internet Archive

Americas, Canada, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America

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Language: English

Published: Toronto, Canada: L. K. Cameron, 1913

Series: Ontario Department of Education Bulletin , 1

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