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Master's Thesis

A Study of Curriculum Development and Implementation in Kindergarten Using Montessori and Waldorf Approaches / การศึกษาการพัฒนาและการใช้หลักสูตรของโรงเรียนอนุบาลที่ใช้แนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบมอนเตสซอรี่และวอลดอร์ฟ ในกรุงเทพมหานคร

Asia, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia, Thailand, Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this research was to study the curriculum development and implementation in kindergartens using Montessori and Waldorf approaches. The case studies were 3 kindergartens; one Montessori kindergarten and two Waldorf kindergartens. The data collection methods were participant observation, interview and documentation. The findings were: 1. Kindergarten using Montessori Approach The administrator played an important role in curriculum development and implementation. In curriculum development, the content of curriculum was adjusted to Thai contexts in sub-content of three main Montessori's contents for creating its material. In curriculum implementation, larning activities consisted of the set of Montessori activities and group activities which were a part of three main Montessori's contents, i.e., practical life or motor skill, sensory and academy. The group activities are also divided into 2 parts: one was content matter, and the other was a practice. 2. Kindergartens using Waldorf Approach The administrators played an important role in curriculum development and implementation. In curriculum development, the content of Waldorf curriculum was adjusted to Thai context by considering needs of children as well as the children cultural backgrounds. In curriculum implementation, learning activities comprised a play, a main activities, a circle and a story telling. A process of each kindergarten activity was different according to administrator's understanding, experiences and interpretation of Waldorf approach. / การวิจัยครั้งนี้มีวัตถุประสงค์เพื่อศึกษาการพัฒนาและการใช้หลักสูตรในโรงเรียนอนุบาลที่ใช้แนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบมอนเตสซอรี่ และวอลดอร์ฟ กรณีศึกษา คือ โรงเรียนที่อนุบาลใช้แนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบมอนเตสซอรี่ 1 แห่ง โรงเรียนอนุบาลที่ใช้แนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบวอลดอร์ฟ 2 แห่ง เก็บข้อมูลโดยใช้เทคนิคการสังเกตอย่างมีส่วนร่วม การสัมภาษณ์ และการศึกษาเอกสาร ผลการวิจัยพบว่า 1. โรงเรียนอนุบาลที่ใช้แนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบมอนเตสซอรี่ ผู้บริหารมีบทบาทสำคัญในการพัฒนาและการใช้หลักสูตร สำหรับการพัฒนาหลักสูตรผู้บริหารจะมีการปรับเนื้อหาให้สอดคล้องกับบริบทสังคมไทย ในส่วนเนื้อหาย่อยของกลุ่มเนื้อหาหลัก(3 กลุ่ม) ซึ่งเป็นแนวทางในการจัดทำชุดอุปกรณ์มอนเตอซอรี่ ในการใช้หลักสูตร มีการจัดกิจกรรมใน 2 ลักษณะ ได้แก่ กิจกรรมมอนเตอซอรี่ มีการจัดการเรียนการสอนตามหลักการแนวคิดมอนเตสซอรี่และกิจกรรมกลุ่มเป็นกิจกรรมที่จัดขึ้นโดยพิจารณาจากเนื้อหาหลัก (3 กลุ่ม) ซึ่งได้แก่ ประสบการณ์ชีวิต หรือทักษะกลไก ประสาทสัมผัส และวิชาการ มีการแบ่งการจัดการเรียนการสอนออกเป็น2 ส่วน คือ ภาคทฤษฎี มีครูเป็นผู้บรรยายความรู้ และภาคปฏิบัติ โดยเน้นให้เด็กลงมือปฏิบัติงานตามที่ได้รับมอบหมาย 2. โรงเรียนอนุบาลที่ใช้แนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบวอลดอร์ฟ ผู้บริหารมีบทบาทสำคัญในการพัฒนาและการใช้หลักสูตร ในการพัฒนาหลักสูตรผู้บริหารจะมีการปรับเนื้อหาให้สอดคล้องกับบริบทสังคมไทย โดยพิจารณาจากความต้องการของเด็กและสภาพแวดล้อมรอบตัวเด็กเป็นสำคัญ จากนั้นจึงนำข้อมูลมาจัดเป็นเนื้อหากิจกรรมตามหลักการของแนวคิดทางการศึกษาแบบวอลดอร์ฟ ในการใช้หลักสูตร จะมีการจัดกิจกรรมการเรียนการสอนโดยผ่านกิจกรรมการเล่น กิจกรรมประจำวัน กิจกรรมวงกลม และการเล่านิทาน ซึ่งขั้นตอนในการจัดกิจกรรมแต่ละกิจกรรมของโรงเรียน จะแตกต่างกันไปตามความเข้าใจ ประสบการณ์ และการตีความหมายของผู้บริหารที่มีต่อแนวคิดทางการศึกษา

Language: Thai

Published: Bangkok, Thailand, 1999

Article

Waldorf and Montessori

Publication: Public School Montessorian, vol. 14, no. 1

Pages: 1, 22-23

Public Montessori

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Language: English

ISSN: 1071-6246

Article

Waldorf and Montessori Combined: A New Impulse in Education

Publication: Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice, vol. 23, no. 3

Pages: 21-27

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Abstract/Notes: A personal narrative is presented which explores the author's experience of blending both the Montessori and Waldorf teaching approaches in a self-contained classroom in the U.S.

Language: English

ISSN: 1094-3838, 2158-8414

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Um estudo sobre escolas com pedagogias diferenciadas: a pedagogia Waldorf, a pedagogia Montessori e a escola da ponte em foco

Available from: Interfaces da Educação

Publication: Interfaces da Educação, vol. 8, no. 23

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Abstract/Notes: O presente estudo discorre sobre três pedagogias que apresentam projetos de ensino diferentes ao padrão escolar: Pedagogia Waldorf, Pedagogia Montessori e o projeto Fazer a Ponte. Alicerçados no referencial teórico da pedagogia diferenciada e concomitantemente, com uma educação que promova uma cultura científica básica a seus estudantes, este estudo de caráter teórico se faz sob o contexto do ensino de química estabelecido nestas instituições. Como base para essa abordagem tem-se uma pesquisa documental em sites de escolas que seguem as pedagogias investigadas, livros e artigos que discutem sobre as mesmas, bem como observação de três escolas - uma que segue a Pedagogia Waldorf, uma que segue a Pedagogia Montessori, ambas no Brasil, e ainda a observação na Escola da Ponte, localizada em Portugal. Este trabalho tornou-se significativo, na medida que trouxe discussões sobre temáticas ainda pouco familiares ao contexto das pesquisas educacionais e do próprio cotidiano dos professores em geral. Ademais abordou inspirações e discussões que possibilitaram uma reflexão acerca do ensino que se constitui atualmente nas escolas e como algumas mudanças de ideais, organizacionais e comportamentais podem modificar um espaço escolar.

Language: Portuguese

DOI: 10.26514/inter.v8i23.2009

ISSN: 2177-7691

Article

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Duch, który cierpi: O roli cierpienia i rytuału w przeżywaniu kryzysów na przykładzie szkoły waldorfskiej [The Spirit That Suffers: About the role of suffering and ritual in experiencing crises on the example of the Waldorf school]

Available from: University of Lodz

Publication: Nauki o Wychowaniu: Studia Interdyscyplinarne [Educational Sciences: Interdisciplinary Studies], vol. 12, no. 1

Pages: 110-131

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Abstract/Notes: The text is devoted to the role of ritual and art in overcoming individual suffering and social crises. Although unpopular in the contemporary culture of analgesics, focused on achieving quick results, the ritual process (as Maria Mendel and Tomasz Szkudlarek show after Turner) is essentially identical to the experience of crisis. Therefore, going through rituals has the potential of transgression, and solving difficult situations for individuals and societies. I discuss this with examples of the changes in birth narratives and also showing the ways of dealing with trauma of Martin Miller, son of the famous psychotherapist Alice Miller. Another feature of contemporary culture is the rejection of the sacrum, as illustrated by the removal of theosophical threads from Maria Montessori’s biography and the marginalization of Rudolf Steiner's Waldorf schools, which stem from the crisis of Western rationality. Reproduced and mediated by art, rituals are used in Waldorf schools for educational and developmental purposes, and, according to the theories above, they may have the potential to overcome adolescence crises.

Language: Polish

DOI: 10.18778/2450-4491.12.08

ISSN: 2450-4491

Article

Montessori Movement in U. S. is Described: Value of Methods Cited in Annual Report of Commissioner of Education

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: Washington Evening Star (Washington, D.C.)

Pages: 16

Americas, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement, North America, United States of America

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Language: English

Book Section

Das Methodische und Pädagogische Vorurteil im Streit der Meinungen un die Montessori-Pädagogik

Book Title: Maria Montessori: Texte und Diskussion

Pages: 129-136

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Previously published in "Mitteilungen der Deutschen Montessori-Gesellschaft" (vol. 4, iss. 3, p. 1-4).

Language: German

Published: Bad Heilbrunn, Germany: Klinkhardt, 1971

Edition: 1st ed.

ISBN: 3-7815-0136-1

Series: Klinkhardts Pädagogische Quellentexte

Article

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A Modern Impression of the Montessori Method

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: Australian Journal of Education, vol. 11, no. 2

Pages: 152-160

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Language: English

DOI: 10.1177/000494416701100207

ISSN: 0004-9441, 2050-5884

Article

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Mari̇a Montessori̇ Eği̇ti̇m Metodu [Montessori Method of Education]

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi / Eurasian Journal of Social and Economic Research, vol. 6, no. 12

Pages: 59-62

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: İtalyan eğitim felsefesi uzmanı Maria Montessori 1970 yılında İtalya Ancora’da dünyaya gelmiştir. Yüzyılı aşkın süredir kullanılan Montessori eğitim sistemi Maria Montessori tarafından geliştirilmiştir. Herhangi bir sınırlamanın bulunmadığı bu eğitim sistemiyle çocuklara özgür bir eğitim sunulur. Günümüzde Montessori eğitimlerini verebilmek amacıyla İngiltere’de bulunan Uluslararası Montessori Derneği tarafından eğitmen yetiştirilmektedir. Bu eğitim anaokulu, ilkokul ve bazı ülkelerde lise seviyesine kadar çıkmaktadır. Maria Montessori 1907 yılında ilk çocukevi “Casa dei Bambini”de engelli olmayan çocuklarla çalışmalarında yaptığı gözlemlerde çocukların nelerden hoşlandıklarını ve nelerden hoşlanmadıklarını saptar. Maria Montessori çocukların: ödüllerden, cezalardan,oyuncaklardan, öğretmen masasından,toplu derslerden hoşlanmadıklarını, özgür seçimden, hatalarını kendilerin denetiminden, sessizlikten, sosyal ilişkilerini kendileri tarafından kurmasından, kitapsız okuma ve yazmadan hoşlandıklarını gözlemledi. Çocukların kendilerini birey olarak görmesinin sağlandığı Montessori eğitiminde aile, öyretmen ve öyrenci iş birliği içerisindedir. Öğrencinin öyrenme hızı doğrultusunda eğitim verilir ve bilgi akılla değil el yordamıyla öğrenilir.Soyut kavramların somut kavramlarla anlaşılması sağlanır. Montessori eğitimi emelde kişiliğin oluşumu üzerinde durmaktadır. Maria Montessori bunu açıkça şu şekilde ifade etmektedir:” Eğitimde metot değil,insan kişiliği göz önüne alınmaktadır.” [Italian pedagogue Maria Montessori was born in 1970 in Ancona, Italy. The Montessori education system, which has been used for over a century, was developed by Maria Montessori. With this education system, where there is no restriction, a free education is offered to children. Today, trainers are trained by the International Montessori Association in England in order to provide Montessori education. This education goes up to kindergarten, primary school and in some countries high school level. Maria Montessori determined what the children liked and disliked in her observations while working with non-disabled children in the first children's home “Casa dei Bambini” in 1907. Maria Montessori observed that children: they do not like rewards, punishments, toys, teacher's desk, group lessons, they like free choice, control over their mistakes, silence, establishing social relations by themselves, reading and writing without books. In Montessori education, where children see themselves as individuals, family, teacher and student are in cooperation. Education is given in line with the student's learning pace and knowledge is learned by groping, not by mind. It is ensured that abstract concepts are understood with concrete concepts. Montessori education primarily focuses on the formation of personality. Maria Montessori expresses this clearly as follows: “In education, not the method, but the human personality is taken into consideration.”]

Language: Turkish

ISSN: 2148-9963

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Montessori Method of Education: An Overview of Research

Available from: InformIT

Publication: Australian Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 5, no. 4

Pages: 20-24

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Language: English

ISSN: 0312-5033

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