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Conference Paper

Exploring the Social Logic of Preschool Environments Structured with Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia: A Semantic and Syntactic Study on Preschool Environments

Available from: ResearchGate

Space Syntax Symposium (13th, 20-24 June 2022)

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Abstract/Notes: Kindergartens are socio-spatial organizations with their social and cultural as well as their spatial structures which prepare children to be responsible members of the society. In the ear ly years of the twentieth century, the issue of how to raise new generations was one of the primary research areas of many educational scientists, especially in Europe, and therefore different progressive pedagogical methods were generated. Among these views, the Waldorf pedagogical approach developed by Rudolf Steiner, Montessori pedagogical approach developed by Maria Montessori, and Reggio Emilia pedagogical approach developed by Loris Malaguzzi became prominent. Although these three pedagogical approaches have a common view that the child should be accepted as an individual with his/her rights, each of them involved different physical environment requirements in the context of their educational philosophies. The projects obtained in an architectural design studio course constitute the focus of this paper and it aims to decipher the semantic and syntactic characteristics based on twelve student projects. The semantic dimension of the study was revealed by coding the related themes through students' project reports while the syntactic dimension of the study demonstrated the prioritized social interaction area through isovist area and variance values. Considering the semantic results, it was revealed that the students not only comprehended the spatial requirements of a specific educational pedagogy but also grasped the transformative power of the methods, in terms of physical, social, and natural characteristics. Considering the syntactic results, the fact that the mean isovist area value was higher in Reggio Emilia schools showed that the piazza dominates the physical setting. The fact that the school cluster with the highest variance value emerged in Montessori draws attention to the changeability of isovist perimeter value within the interiors to orientate the individuals to the classroom units.

Language: English

Published: Bergen, Norway: Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, 2022

Pages: 25 p.

Article

Montessori and Waldorf Education: Common and Different Traits in Two Educational Philosophies

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1988, no. 4

Pages: 9–21

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Trends in Personal Belief Exemption Rates Among Alternative Private Schools: Waldorf, Montessori, and Holistic Kindergartens in California, 2000–2014

Available from: American Public Health Association

Publication: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 107, no. 1

Pages: 108-112

Americas, Holistic schools, Montessori schools, North America, Private schools, United States of America, Waldorf schools

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Abstract/Notes: Objectives. To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. Methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Results. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Conclusions. Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303498

ISSN: 0090-0036, 1541-0048

Book

Fejezetek az alternatív nevelés gyakorlatából Módszerek közelről a Rogers, a Waldorf, a Lauder, a Freinet, a Gyermekek Háza, a Montessori és a Burattino iskola életéből

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Language: Hungarian

Published: Budapest, Hungary: Budapesti Tanítóképző Főiskola Neveléstudományi Tanszék, 1997

Article

Waldorf and Montessori

Publication: Public School Montessorian, vol. 14, no. 1

Pages: 1, 22-23

Public Montessori

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Language: English

ISSN: 1071-6246

Master's Thesis

Barn i behov av särskilt stöd?: en jämförande studie av det pedagogiska arbetet mellan Montessori-, Reggio Emilia-, Waldorf- och den traditionella förskolan

Available from: DiVA Portal

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Abstract/Notes: Studien syftar till att undersöka hur pedagoger i förskolor med olika pedagogiska inriktningar definierar barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Vi vill också ta reda på vilka faktorer som påverkar deras v ...

Language: Swedish

Published: Trollhättan, Sweden, 2008

Master's Thesis

Türkiye'deki Montessori, Waldorf ve Reggio Emilia yaklaşımlarını benimseyen okul öncesi özel kuruluşlar örneğinde görsel sanatlar eğitimi durumunun betimlenmesi / Description of the condition of visual art education status in preschool period in the examples of private instutitions in Turkey that apply Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia approaches

Available from: Ulusal Tez Merkezi / National Thesis Center (Turkey)

Art education, Asia, Creative ability in children, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Middle East, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Preschool children, Preschool education, Private schools, Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education) - Evaluation, Turkey

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Abstract/Notes: Preschool is a period where a child, who is full of curiosity and excitement, is most enthusiastic to learn everything about the world, as well as has the extraordinary learning power and strength to achieve this learning. Scientific research shows that the fastest cognitive development occurs in the pre-school period, compared to the development throughout the whole human life. In addition to the development, the importance of pre-school education is also of great importance if it is thought that the education in this period is more permanent and the basis of the child's personality is laid. It can be claimed that the ideas about the education of children date quite early. However, understanding the importance of formal education and the related studies in this area can be considered as fairly new. Since the opening of Friedrich Froebel's School in 1837, named Children's Garden, which can be considered as the first kindergarten, significant progress has been made in preschool education. Various methods and approaches have been developed for preschool education. It can be said that Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia are among the most important and proven approaches that have been applied worldwide for many years. Moreover, these three approaches, notably Montessori, are the most adopted ones in Turkey. In this thesis, how the private pre-school educational institutions in Turkey adopting these three approaches plan their visual arts education, their physical conditions and the content of art activities are analyzed. The research sample consists of schools which are thought to be the best in the application of the approach they have adopted and also agree to interviews and observation. While choosing these schools, expert opinions were collected and at the same time, the schools that claim to successfully implement the approach they adopted as stated in their own social media addresses and internet sites, were preferred. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that the schools have been consistent largely with the approach they adopted, in terms of the internalization of the philosophy as well as their physical characteristics and their art education have been shaped accordingly. In the two schools adopting the Waldorf Approach, the emphasis was on the spiritual and therapeutic aspects of art. In the three schools adopting the Montessori Approach, the importance of visual arts in the preparation of the child to primary school and the development of the child's manipulative skills have been emphasized. It was determined that in two of these three schools, there were branch lessons designated for visual arts education apart from the Montessori standards and moreover in one of them it was mandatory to attend branch lessons. In the two schools inspired by Reggio Emilia, it was determined that art was an important expression of the child and as a result there were projects initiated in line with the child's interests thus helped the child to express himself/herself using various art forms. / Okul öncesi, merak ve heyecan dolu çocuğun dünyaya dair her şeyi öğrenmeye en hevesli ve bu öğrenmeyi gerçekleştirecek olağanüstü yeti ve güce sahip olduğu bir dönemdir. Bilimsel araştırmalar, insanın tüm yaşamındaki gelişimi ile kıyaslandığında en hızlı bilişsel gelişimin okul öncesi dönemde gerçekleştiğini göstermektedir. Okul öncesi dönemdeki öğrenimlerin daha kalıcı olduğu ve bu dönemde çocuğun kişiliğinin temelleri atıldığı düşünülürse, söz konusu dönemde verilecek eğitimin önemi de bir hayli önem kazanmaktadır. Çocuk eğitimine ilişkin düşünceler oldukça erken tarihe dayansa da örgün eğitimin öneminin anlaşılmasının ve bu yönde yapılan çalışmaların oldukça yeni olduğu söylenebilir. Friedrich Froebel'in 1837'de ilk anaokulu niteliğindeki Çocuk Bahçesi adlı okulu açmasından bu yana, okul öncesi eğitiminde önemli gelişmeler gerçekleşmiştir. Okul öncesi eğitime yönelik çeşitli metotlar ve yaklaşımlar geliştirilmiştir. Bu yaklaşımlardan Montessori, Waldorf ve Reggio Emilia'nın uzun yıllar dünya çapında uygulanan, başarısı kanıtlanmış önemli yaklaşımlardan olduğu söylenebilir. Ayrıca bu üç yaklaşım, Montessori başta olmak üzere Türkiye'de en çok benimsenen yaklaşımlardır. Bu tezde, söz konusu üç yaklaşımı benimseyen Türkiye'deki özel okul öncesi eğitim kuruluşlarının görsel sanatlar eğitimini ne şekilde planladıkları, sanat etkinlikleri için tasarladıkları fiziki koşullar ve etkinliklerin içeriği incelenmiştir. Bunun sonucunda inceleme alanını oluşturan okulların sanatı ve sanat etkinlerini konumlandırma biçimlerinin, benimsemiş oldukları söz konusu yaklaşımlarla ne derece tutarlı olduğu anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi, benimsediği yaklaşımı en iyi şekilde uyguladığı düşünülen, görüşme ve gözlem yapılmasını kabul etmiş okullardan oluşmaktadır. Bu okullar belirlenirken uzman görüşleri alınmış ve aynı zamanda okulların kendilerine ait sosyal medya adreslerinde ve internet sitelerinde benimsemiş oldukları yaklaşımı başarılı bir şekilde uyguladıklarını iddia eden okullar tercih edilmiştir. Bu inceleme sonucunda söz konusu okulların benimsedikleri yaklaşımlarla, gerek fiziksel özellikler bakımından gerekse felsefesinin içselleştirilmesi açısından, büyük oranda tutarlı oldukları ve sanat eğitimini de bu yaklaşıma uygun olarak biçimlendirdikleri söylenebilir. Waldorf Yaklaşımı'nı benimseyen iki okulda sanatın tinsel ve terapötik yönüne vurgu yapılmıştır. Montessori Yaklaşımı'nı benimseyen üç okulda da görsel sanatların çocuğu ilkokula hazırlama, çocuğun el becerilerini geliştirme yönündeki önemi vurgulanmıştır. Bu üç okulun ikisinde Montessori standartların dışında görsel sanatlar eğitimine yönelik branş derslerinin olduğu belirlenmiş, iki okulun birinde ise branş derslerine katılım zorunlu kılınmıştır. İncelenen Reggio Emilia ilhamlı iki okulda ise sanatın, çocuğun önemli bir ifade aracı olduğu ve bu nedenle de merakları doğrultusunda başlatılan projelerde çocuğun çeşitli sanat türlerini kullanarak kendisini ifade etmesini destekledikleri saptanmıştır.

Language: Turkish

Published: Adana, Turkey, 2018

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Um estudo sobre escolas com pedagogias diferenciadas: a pedagogia Waldorf, a pedagogia Montessori e a escola da ponte em foco

Available from: Interfaces da Educação

Publication: Interfaces da Educação, vol. 8, no. 23

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Abstract/Notes: O presente estudo discorre sobre três pedagogias que apresentam projetos de ensino diferentes ao padrão escolar: Pedagogia Waldorf, Pedagogia Montessori e o projeto Fazer a Ponte. Alicerçados no referencial teórico da pedagogia diferenciada e concomitantemente, com uma educação que promova uma cultura científica básica a seus estudantes, este estudo de caráter teórico se faz sob o contexto do ensino de química estabelecido nestas instituições. Como base para essa abordagem tem-se uma pesquisa documental em sites de escolas que seguem as pedagogias investigadas, livros e artigos que discutem sobre as mesmas, bem como observação de três escolas - uma que segue a Pedagogia Waldorf, uma que segue a Pedagogia Montessori, ambas no Brasil, e ainda a observação na Escola da Ponte, localizada em Portugal. Este trabalho tornou-se significativo, na medida que trouxe discussões sobre temáticas ainda pouco familiares ao contexto das pesquisas educacionais e do próprio cotidiano dos professores em geral. Ademais abordou inspirações e discussões que possibilitaram uma reflexão acerca do ensino que se constitui atualmente nas escolas e como algumas mudanças de ideais, organizacionais e comportamentais podem modificar um espaço escolar.

Language: Portuguese

DOI: 10.26514/inter.v8i23.2009

ISSN: 2177-7691

Book

Handbook of Research on Waldorf Education

Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Waldorf Education: An all-round, balanced approach to education that is equally concerned with intellectual-cognitive and artistic-creative learning. A practice- and experience-based pedagogy. Non-selective and open to all children and young people; offering a stress-free, secure learning environment across 12 grades; embedded in a community of students, teachers, and parents. An alternative education that has been successfully practiced for over a century. The first Waldorf School was founded in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1919. Today, Waldorf Education is practiced in all countries and cultures around the world: in over 1,000 schools, more than 2,000 kindergartens, and numerous centers for special needs education. This makes Waldorf Education the most prevalent alternative approach to teaching. And yet, despite the success and (now empirically validated) recognition that Waldorf schools enjoy, the theory underlying them remains controversial. Within the academic debate, Waldorf Education is seen as ideologic and unscientific. This publication sets out to bring clarity to this debate: Renowned researchers explain and discuss Waldorf Education’s foundations in relation to the current discourse on education and core disciplines such as theory of knowledge, anthropology, developmental psychology, learning theory, and the theory of professions. This scientific inquiry into Waldorf Education is breaking new ground, casting light on its fascinating humanistic ideal and holistic potential.

Language: English

Published: New York, New York: Routledge, 2023

Edition: 1st ed.

ISBN: 978-1-00-318743-1

Book

Montessori oder Waldorf?: ein Orientierungsbuch für Eltern und Pädagogen

Alternative education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Rudolf Steiner - Philosophy, Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Language: German

Published: München, Germany: Kösel, 1997

Edition: 2nd ed.

ISBN: 3-466-30405-9 978-3-466-30405-9

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