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Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

“The Ayn Rand School for Tots”: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and Objectivist Educational Philosophy during the Postwar Years

Available from: Historical Studies in Education (Canada)

Publication: Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'histoire de l'éducation, vol. 25, no. 1

John Dewey - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Objectivism (Philosophy) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Progressive education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Objectivism, the libertarian philosophy established by Ayn Rand during the postwar years, has attracted a great deal of attention from philosophers, political scientists, economists, and English professors alike in recent years, but it hasn’t received much notice from historians with an interest in education. This article will address that problem by discussing how Rand and her followers established a philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s that was based, in part, on vilifying the so-called collectivist ideas of John Dewey and lionizing the so-called individualist ideas of Maria Montessori. Unfortunately, the narrative that emerged during this time seriously misrepresented the ideas of both Dewey and Montessori, resulting in a somewhat distorted view of both educators.

Language: English

DOI: 10.32316/hse/rhe.v25i1.4285

ISSN: 0843-5057, 1911-9674

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

A Study Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori and Its Relevance in Present Educational Scenario

Available from: Sabhavna Research Journal

Publication: Sadbhavna: Research Journal of Human Development, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: 100-107

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori system its impact can easily be seen in the field of pre-primary education in the European countries, U.S.A., India, China, Japan, African countries, Latin American countries and all through the world, This system has encouraged lovers of education to discover new methods of teaching young children. This system emphasized the necessity of study of children in order to educate them properly. As a result, education became child-centered. The construction of curriculum became oriented to the actual needs of life. It was considered necessary to provide a good environment in the school. The aims of education became oriented to individual development of each child. Hence emphasis was laid on the development of personality of each child. Proper training of teachers was considered necessary.

Language: English

ISSN: 2277-7377

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Experimental Psychology

Available from: The University of Chicago Press Journals

Publication: HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 240-268

Maria Montessori - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a model of the teacher-scientist in a specially prepared environment, who can engage in sustained and impassioned observation of “normalized” children. Drawing from a variety of texts and recently published lectures, this article lays out Montessori’s philosophy of experimental psychology and briefly discusses its relevance today.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1086/682395

ISSN: 2152-5188

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Montessori Philosophy is a Good Foundation to Education of New Generation

Available from: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

Publication: ILIRIA International Review, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 227-238

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the paper is to present the philosophy of reform of education in Albania during the post-communist transition. Reforming education is a priority, but has been neglected by governments over the last 25 years. Over the last five years, the new curriculum and the new textbook system are being implemented according to the European standards. The core of reform is "have human beings learnt" (E. Ultarur, 2012). The constructivist philosophy of learning is a sure foundation that guarantees the new quality of the educational process. The Montessori's philosophy guarantees high quality and safety for the future because: First, this philosophy serves as a theoretical basis and serves as a method. Montessori has discovered the stages of natural development of the thinking human beings from childhood to adolescence, basing on scientific evidence, from childhood to adolescence. Secondly, Montessori’s constructivism moved the knowledge from the product into the process. Montessori illuminates the way of building human values during educational teaching process at school and in the community by the falling down of the classic wall that separates school from the community (public). Our research is based on the study of curricular experiences and on data from consultations with students, parents and specialists. The search method is holistic. By the holistic education the children need not only to develop academically, but to develop the ability as well in order to survive in the real world. The real world in our era is in front of the virtual world. In this contexts, we must teach children to learn not what?, but how? (How does it work/learn?). The teacher must learn his/her students how they construct the values by their immediate relationships with their friends and family as well as social development, health, and intellectual development.

Language: English

ISSN: 2365-8592, 2192-7081

Article

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Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori: A Coordination Between the Teacher and Child

Available from: International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research

Publication: International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, vol. 4, no. 11

Pages: 11-22

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Abstract/Notes: Dr. Maria Montessori is the founder of the Montessori Method of education. She was the first woman in Italy to receive a Doctor of Medicine degree. Maria Montessori approached education from a scientific standpoint because she was a doctor. Education, she believed, should prepare a person for all parts of life. She created resources and approaches to encourage child' natural learning growth. They're found in every Montessori classroom. Working with these materials and procedures establishes a pattern those youngsters naturally take over to reading, writing, and math. Each talent is designed to work in collaboration with the others. Maria Montessori was the first woman to enter the world of education as a result of his close involvement with the education and development of mentally challenged children. Her contribution to early childhood education, particularly for mentally challenged children, has transformed the educational world. In fact, practically every civilized country feels the impact of her unique style of teaching young children in some way. The world was taken aback by the apparently unbelievable actions of slum youngsters in Rome's first Casa dei Bambini (children's home). Her efforts and dedication in transforming mentally challenged children into normal children by teaching the 3 R’s using didactic equipment have earned her indelible fame in the history of education. It was seen at the time of her demise when tributes to her life-long labour on behalf of appeared in the press from every part of the world. In fact, her selfless sacrifice and dedication has developed hope and courage in the life of mentally challenged children, which made her to be ranked among the forerunners of great educators. Today. Montessori Method flashes like a comet across the educational horizon. Montessori learning environments, also known as prepared environments, provide children the freedom to pick their own work and design their own learning. Because the child is in the centre and the teacher's tasks differ from those of typical school teachers, the direction of communication and coordination between the child and the teacher is defined accordingly. The purpose of this research is to look into Montessori teachers' coordination and teamwork with children.

Language: English

ISSN: 2581-4281

Article

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The Moral Philosophy of Maria Montessori

Available from: Cambridge University Press

Publication: Journal of the American Philosophical Association, vol. 7, no. 2

Pages: 133-154

Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Moral education

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Abstract/Notes: This paper lays out the moral theory of philosopher and educator Maria Montessori (1870–1952). Based on a moral epistemology wherein moral concepts are grounded in a well-cultivated moral sense, Montessori develops a threefold account of moral life. She starts with an account of character as an ideal of individual self-perfection through concentrated attention on effortful work. She shows how respect for others grows from and supplements individual character, and she further develops a notion of social solidarity that goes beyond cooperation toward shared agency. Partly because she attends to children's ethical lives, Montessori highlights how character, respect, and solidarity all appear first as prereflective, embodied orientations of agency. Full moral virtue takes up prereflective orientations reflectively and extends them through moral concepts. Overall, Montessori's ethic improves on features similar to some in Nietzschean, Kantian, Hegelian, or Aristotelian ethical theories while situating these within a developmental and perfectionist ethics.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1017/apa.2019.41

ISSN: 2053-4477, 2053-4485

Article

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On Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s Philosophy of Education

Available from: Universitetsbiblioteket OsloMet

Publication: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 65-78

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Ki Hajar Dewantara - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia, Taman Siswa

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Abstract/Notes: This comparative education article explores the purpose of education in the Indonesian context. My aim is to see if there are any differences between the purpose of education during the colonial era and present-day Indonesia. In order to do that, I draw mostly on the philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara, who is regarded as the father of Indonesian education. This article is particularly relevant because the Indonesian government has recently started to critically re-examine two of the educational concepts proposed by Dewantara, which are "pendidikan karakter" (character education) and "merdeka belajar" (independent learning). In conceptualising education, Dewantara, who was influenced by Tagore, Montessori, and Fröbel, saw the importance of imparting local wisdom and values ignored by the colonial schools. Therefore, in this article, I will compare his educational views with the Dutch view of schooling during the colonial era. I will then look at Indonesia's current approach to education to find the similarities and differences of purpose relative to Dewantara's views of education. In this article, I argue that Dewantara's philosophy is still very much relevant today. I conclude that the Indonesian government should refer back to its history when defining education for its next generation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.7577/njcie.4156

ISSN: 2535-4051

Article

The Lonely Prophet: The Origins and Develeopment of Maria Montessori's Peace Philosophy

Publication: M: The Magazine for Montessori Families, vol. 1, no. 1

Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - History, Peace education

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Language: English

Article

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Possible Connections Between the Montessori Method and Philosophy for Children

Available from: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Publication: Childhood and Philosophy, vol. 16, no. 36

Pages: 01-22

Comparative education, Montessori method of education, Philosophy for Children

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Abstract/Notes: This paper aims to focus on certain aspects of two education methods: one initiated in the first half of the twentieth century by Maria Montessori, and the other in the second half of that century by Matthew Lipman. The aim – neither comparative nor analytical – is to shed light on the connections and, more specifically, the elements of the Montessori Method that reflect on Lipman’s proposal. The question this paper aims to answer is: can P4C find fertile ground in schools applying the Montessori Method? The paper will focus, among other elements: on the importance to give space to thinking experience from childhood and on the recognition of the value of childhood. Both Lipman and Montessori have systematically observed children of different ages – the former in the first half, the latter in the second half of the twentieth century. Both characterized, gave value, and focused their scientific contributions on children’s ability to think and express their thoughts through languages (purposely in the plural form). As educational researchers and professionals know, children have the ability to think, but such ability has not always been (still isn’t) considered to exist. Even when it is evoked in words, educational choices and proposals seem – still today – to express mistrust towards children’s thought. The two mentioned authors have repeatedly highlighted the importance of an essential right: the right to think and to be given a space – even as children – to exercise thinking with others. In particular, both authors – though envisaging different educational paths – identified the same categories functional to exercising thinking. Their interconnection may guide the actions of teachers, educators, and learning process experts. In fact, P4C might play a role in educational contexts in which the class is already considered a community of inquiry, in which the teacher is assigned the same role as a facilitator

Language: English

DOI: 10.12957/childphilo.2020.46784

ISSN: 1984-5987

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Beginning to Implement the Reggio Philosophy

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: Young Children, vol. 53, no. 5

Pages: 20-25

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Language: English

ISSN: 0044-0728

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