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Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Development of Italian Educational Philosophy in the 20th Century

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Review of Education, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 313-326

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: In our brief historical outline of educational conditions in Italy, we have seen that by far the greatest efforts over the past fifty years have been devoted to clarifying the theoretical issues of educational problems. We have been examining philosophical Systems that pretended to afford an unshakeable foundation to educational theory and to answer every problem raised by educational practice. They have been scrutinized and found wanting. The new Government Syllabus (1955) for the Italian elementary schools is thoroughly Catholic in spirit, humanistic in content and progressive in method. The author of the present paper feels, however, that too much theorizing is still blinding Italian educators. The canker of Transcendental Idealism is still gnawing at the efforts of all too many, also Catholic, thinkers. The “active schools” need renewed fervour, cogent Stimulation, and enlightened Inspiration from an integral Catholic philosophy of life. We must stop philosophizing and get down to realizing: experimentation and co-operative effort are badly needed, not less than clear ideas. Not words but deeds! Idealism had thought of itself being the all-inclusive answer to every problem. We must repeat Hamlet's word to the die-hard Idealist: “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy”.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF01423725

ISSN: 1573-0638, 0020-8566

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

“The Ayn Rand School for Tots”: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and Objectivist Educational Philosophy during the Postwar Years

Available from: Historical Studies in Education (Canada)

Publication: Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'histoire de l'éducation, vol. 25, no. 1

John Dewey - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Objectivism (Philosophy) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Progressive education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Objectivism, the libertarian philosophy established by Ayn Rand during the postwar years, has attracted a great deal of attention from philosophers, political scientists, economists, and English professors alike in recent years, but it hasn’t received much notice from historians with an interest in education. This article will address that problem by discussing how Rand and her followers established a philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s that was based, in part, on vilifying the so-called collectivist ideas of John Dewey and lionizing the so-called individualist ideas of Maria Montessori. Unfortunately, the narrative that emerged during this time seriously misrepresented the ideas of both Dewey and Montessori, resulting in a somewhat distorted view of both educators.

Language: English

DOI: 10.32316/hse/rhe.v25i1.4285

ISSN: 0843-5057, 1911-9674

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Epistemology Behind the Educational Philosophy of Montessori: Senses, Concepts, and Choice

Available from: Simon Fraser University

Publication: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, vol. 23, no. 2

Pages: 125–140

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Abstract/Notes: This article seeks to re-introduce Dr. Maria Montessori’s educational philosophy, which has been absent from modern philosophy of education literature. It describes and analyzes crucial aspects of her epistemology, as best known through her Method. Discussed are the need for early education, the development of the senses, and the exercise of choice by the students. Concept formation is also shown to be an important part of Montessori’s philosophy of instruction. This article concludes with a brief resolution of the “is–ought” objection as framed by Scheffler that might be waged against Montessori’s approach.

Language: English

ISSN: 2369-8659

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

A Study Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori and Its Relevance in Present Educational Scenario

Available from: Sabhavna Research Journal

Publication: Sadbhavna: Research Journal of Human Development, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: 100-107

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori system its impact can easily be seen in the field of pre-primary education in the European countries, U.S.A., India, China, Japan, African countries, Latin American countries and all through the world, This system has encouraged lovers of education to discover new methods of teaching young children. This system emphasized the necessity of study of children in order to educate them properly. As a result, education became child-centered. The construction of curriculum became oriented to the actual needs of life. It was considered necessary to provide a good environment in the school. The aims of education became oriented to individual development of each child. Hence emphasis was laid on the development of personality of each child. Proper training of teachers was considered necessary.

Language: English

ISSN: 2277-7377

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori: A Coordination Between the Teacher and Child

Available from: International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research

Publication: International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, vol. 4, no. 11

Pages: 11-22

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Dr. Maria Montessori is the founder of the Montessori Method of education. She was the first woman in Italy to receive a Doctor of Medicine degree. Maria Montessori approached education from a scientific standpoint because she was a doctor. Education, she believed, should prepare a person for all parts of life. She created resources and approaches to encourage child' natural learning growth. They're found in every Montessori classroom. Working with these materials and procedures establishes a pattern those youngsters naturally take over to reading, writing, and math. Each talent is designed to work in collaboration with the others. Maria Montessori was the first woman to enter the world of education as a result of his close involvement with the education and development of mentally challenged children. Her contribution to early childhood education, particularly for mentally challenged children, has transformed the educational world. In fact, practically every civilized country feels the impact of her unique style of teaching young children in some way. The world was taken aback by the apparently unbelievable actions of slum youngsters in Rome's first Casa dei Bambini (children's home). Her efforts and dedication in transforming mentally challenged children into normal children by teaching the 3 R’s using didactic equipment have earned her indelible fame in the history of education. It was seen at the time of her demise when tributes to her life-long labour on behalf of appeared in the press from every part of the world. In fact, her selfless sacrifice and dedication has developed hope and courage in the life of mentally challenged children, which made her to be ranked among the forerunners of great educators. Today. Montessori Method flashes like a comet across the educational horizon. Montessori learning environments, also known as prepared environments, provide children the freedom to pick their own work and design their own learning. Because the child is in the centre and the teacher's tasks differ from those of typical school teachers, the direction of communication and coordination between the child and the teacher is defined accordingly. The purpose of this research is to look into Montessori teachers' coordination and teamwork with children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.31426/ijamsr.2021.4.11.4913

ISSN: 2581-4281

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Filsafat Pendidikan Maria Montessori Dengan Teori Belajar Progresivisme Dalam Pendidikan Aud [Maria Montessori Educational Philosophy with Progressivism Learning Theory in Early Childhood Education]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Publication: Bunayya: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak [Journal of Children's Education], vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 64-88

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Tulisan ini berusaha menjelaskan pendidikan Islam dari sudut pandang Maria Montessori, yang merupakan tokoh pendidikan anak yang mencurahkan hampir keseluruhan hidupnya untuk anak-anak. Maria Montessori memiliki prinsip dasar mengenai metode montessori ini, yang sangat memfokuskan anak sebagai childern center dan orang dewasa sebagai pembimbing. Menurutnya, suatu fase kehidupan di awal sangat berpengaruh terhadap faserase kehidupan selanjutnya artinya bahwa pengalaman-pengalaman yang dialami oleh seorang anak di awal kehidupannya sangat berpengaruh terhadap kedewasaannya kelak begitu juga perlakuan yang di dapatkan anak sejak kecil akan sangat berpengaruh terhadap perkembang an anak selanjutnya. Kemudiaan sebagai umat Islam, sudah menjadi kewajiban bagi orang tua dan pendidik untuk menanamkan nilai-nilai ke-Islaman pada anak-anaknya. Dan agar nilai-nilai ke-Islaman tersebut dapat terserap dengan sempurna, maka harus diajarkan sejak anak-anak usia dini juga. Rasulullah telah menegaskan tentang tanggung jawab orang tua terhadap anak-anak dalam sabdanya. [This paper tries to explain Islamic education from the perspective of Maria Montessori, who is a figure of children's education who devotes almost her entire life to children. Maria Montessori has a basic principle regarding this Montessori Method, which is very focused on children as children centers and adults as guides. According to him, a phase of life at the beginning is very influential on the phases of the next life which means that the experiences experienced by a child early in life are very influential on their maturity as well as the treatment that children get from childhood will greatly affect the subsequent development of children. Youth as Muslims, it has become an obligation for parents and educators to instill Islamic values in their children. And so that these Islamic values can be absorbed perfectly, it must be taught from an early age as well. Rasulullah has emphasized the responsibility of parents towards children in their sayings.]

Language: Indonesian

ISSN: 2549-3329

Master's Thesis

Aspects of Maria Montessori's Educational Philosophy Applied to Contemporary Urban Kindergarten and Prekindergarten Programs

Available from: Loyola University Chicago

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Language: English

Published: Chicago, Illinois, 1967

Doctoral Dissertation (Ph.D.)

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970

Article

Yanzheng haishi zhiyi: Meiguo jiaoyu xuejie dui meng tai suo li jiaoyu de pipan / 验证还是质疑:美国教育学界对蒙台梭利教育的批判 [Verification or Questioning: American Educational Circles’ Criticism on Montessori Education]

Publication: Xueqian jiaoyu yanjiu / 学前教育研究 [Studies in Preschool Education], vol. 2019, no. 10

Pages: 24-31

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: At the beginning of the 20th century, Montessori’s educational thought and practice disseminated to the United States in a short and concentrated way. This process was always accompanied by the questioning and criticism of Montessori education in the American educational circles. The in-depth analysis and inspiration of the questioning and criticisms are currently lacking in domestic and foreign research. Most of the educational psychologists, progressive education scholars, and Froebelians who dominated the American educational community were critical of Montessori education. American education scholars criticized Montessori education on two levels: fundamentals of philosophy and psychology, curriculum system. They believed that Montessori's education theory lagged behind the times, and the curriculum system ignored young children’s sociality, imagination and freedom. These criticisms reflected the cautious attitude of the American educational scholars who didn’t blindly follow the imported theory, and promoted the Americanization of Montessori education. At present, China’s educational academics are keen to interpret and verify when introducing western educational theories. This situation is not conducive to the creation of original educational theories. In order to change this situation, the Chinese educational scholars should first establish cultural self-confidence, treating western educational theories with an equal mindset and perspective; second discriminate and absorb the foreign educational theories on the basis of reflective criticism; third, root in China’s educational practice. In this way can the scholars better absorb western educational theories’ essence and promote the creation of original educational theories.

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 1007-8169

Doctoral Dissertation

A Phenomenology of Educational Care: Early Adolescent Descriptions

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: School design and operation are, at times, counter-productive to cultivating academic and personal success in all students. Teachers often lack adequate preparation time, and are pressed by class size and regulatory mandates. Thus, there is seemingly little time to focus on cultivating affective well-being or a supportive educational climate. This lack of support is linked to high drop-out rates, large numbers of academically unsuccessful students, and the disenfranchisement of many minority and English Language learners in our school system. The phenomenon of care, particularly as it relates to education, has been studied only briefly. Few comprehensive, qualitative descriptions regarding how students conceptualize care exist despite significant evidence that when students perceive teachers and schools as caring, they have higher and more sustainable levels of academic motivation. This research project endeavored to give children a voice regarding educational care through a qualitative study on the phenomenon of care from an adolescent perspective. The study employed multiple data collection methods including: interviews, art, and student writing with students ages 11-14 from two school environments. Data collected were analyzed using the vanKamm phenomenological method of analysis. Results indicated that the phenomenon of educational care was a complex set of actions and behaviors from the student vantage point. Five themes emerged including: (1) Relationships are a critical aspect of educational care, (2) Rules in educational settings should be simple and consistent within classrooms and institutions, (3) Students perceive some control of their learning environments as caring, (4) Educational environments and teacher behavior are both critical to care, (5) Basic safety and concern for physical space are necessary for educational care. Each theme is independently necessary but not sufficient when observed alone in educational contexts. Together these themes support Nel Noddings' ideal version of ethical caring, in that they involve motivated behaviors, reciprocal action, receptivity on the part of the students, and a sense of obligation to care in a manner above and beyond noticing the basic well being of the student. The themes indicated by the data demonstrated a multifaceted view of educational care previously undiscovered and provide useful fodder for educators to consider.

Language: English

Published: St. Louis, Missouri, 2010

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