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156 results

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Development of Italian Educational Philosophy in the 20th Century

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Review of Education, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 313-326

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: In our brief historical outline of educational conditions in Italy, we have seen that by far the greatest efforts over the past fifty years have been devoted to clarifying the theoretical issues of educational problems. We have been examining philosophical Systems that pretended to afford an unshakeable foundation to educational theory and to answer every problem raised by educational practice. They have been scrutinized and found wanting. The new Government Syllabus (1955) for the Italian elementary schools is thoroughly Catholic in spirit, humanistic in content and progressive in method. The author of the present paper feels, however, that too much theorizing is still blinding Italian educators. The canker of Transcendental Idealism is still gnawing at the efforts of all too many, also Catholic, thinkers. The “active schools” need renewed fervour, cogent Stimulation, and enlightened Inspiration from an integral Catholic philosophy of life. We must stop philosophizing and get down to realizing: experimentation and co-operative effort are badly needed, not less than clear ideas. Not words but deeds! Idealism had thought of itself being the all-inclusive answer to every problem. We must repeat Hamlet's word to the die-hard Idealist: “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy”.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF01423725

ISSN: 1573-0638, 0020-8566

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Moral Philosophy of Maria Montessori

Available from: Cambridge University Press

Publication: Journal of the American Philosophical Association, vol. 7, no. 2

Pages: 133-154

Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Moral education

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Abstract/Notes: This paper lays out the moral theory of philosopher and educator Maria Montessori (1870–1952). Based on a moral epistemology wherein moral concepts are grounded in a well-cultivated moral sense, Montessori develops a threefold account of moral life. She starts with an account of character as an ideal of individual self-perfection through concentrated attention on effortful work. She shows how respect for others grows from and supplements individual character, and she further develops a notion of social solidarity that goes beyond cooperation toward shared agency. Partly because she attends to children's ethical lives, Montessori highlights how character, respect, and solidarity all appear first as prereflective, embodied orientations of agency. Full moral virtue takes up prereflective orientations reflectively and extends them through moral concepts. Overall, Montessori's ethic improves on features similar to some in Nietzschean, Kantian, Hegelian, or Aristotelian ethical theories while situating these within a developmental and perfectionist ethics.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1017/apa.2019.41

ISSN: 2053-4477, 2053-4485

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

On Ki Hadjar Dewantara's Philosophy of Education

Available from: Universitetsbiblioteket OsloMet

Publication: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 65-78

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Ki Hajar Dewantara - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia, Taman Siswa

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Abstract/Notes: This comparative education article explores the purpose of education in the Indonesian context. My aim is to see if there are any differences between the purpose of education during the colonial era and present-day Indonesia. In order to do that, I draw mostly on the philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara, who is regarded as the father of Indonesian education. This article is particularly relevant because the Indonesian government has recently started to critically re-examine two of the educational concepts proposed by Dewantara, which are "pendidikan karakter" (character education) and "merdeka belajar" (independent learning). In conceptualising education, Dewantara, who was influenced by Tagore, Montessori, and Fröbel, saw the importance of imparting local wisdom and values ignored by the colonial schools. Therefore, in this article, I will compare his educational views with the Dutch view of schooling during the colonial era. I will then look at Indonesia's current approach to education to find the similarities and differences of purpose relative to Dewantara's views of education. In this article, I argue that Dewantara's philosophy is still very much relevant today. I conclude that the Indonesian government should refer back to its history when defining education for its next generation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.7577/njcie.4156

ISSN: 2535-4051

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Epistemology Behind the Educational Philosophy of Montessori: Senses, Concepts, and Choice

Available from: Simon Fraser University

Publication: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, vol. 23, no. 2

Pages: 125–140

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Abstract/Notes: This article seeks to re-introduce Dr. Maria Montessori’s educational philosophy, which has been absent from modern philosophy of education literature. It describes and analyzes crucial aspects of her epistemology, as best known through her Method. Discussed are the need for early education, the development of the senses, and the exercise of choice by the students. Concept formation is also shown to be an important part of Montessori’s philosophy of instruction. This article concludes with a brief resolution of the “is–ought” objection as framed by Scheffler that might be waged against Montessori’s approach.

Language: English

ISSN: 2369-8659

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Possible Connections Between the Montessori Method and Philosophy for Children

Available from: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Publication: Childhood and Philosophy, vol. 16, no. 36

Pages: 01-22

Comparative education, Montessori method of education, Philosophy for Children

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Abstract/Notes: This paper aims to focus on certain aspects of two education methods: one initiated in the first half of the twentieth century by Maria Montessori, and the other in the second half of that century by Matthew Lipman. The aim – neither comparative nor analytical – is to shed light on the connections and, more specifically, the elements of the Montessori Method that reflect on Lipman’s proposal. The question this paper aims to answer is: can P4C find fertile ground in schools applying the Montessori Method? The paper will focus, among other elements: on the importance to give space to thinking experience from childhood and on the recognition of the value of childhood. Both Lipman and Montessori have systematically observed children of different ages – the former in the first half, the latter in the second half of the twentieth century. Both characterized, gave value, and focused their scientific contributions on children’s ability to think and express their thoughts through languages (purposely in the plural form). As educational researchers and professionals know, children have the ability to think, but such ability has not always been (still isn’t) considered to exist. Even when it is evoked in words, educational choices and proposals seem – still today – to express mistrust towards children’s thought. The two mentioned authors have repeatedly highlighted the importance of an essential right: the right to think and to be given a space – even as children – to exercise thinking with others. In particular, both authors – though envisaging different educational paths – identified the same categories functional to exercising thinking. Their interconnection may guide the actions of teachers, educators, and learning process experts. In fact, P4C might play a role in educational contexts in which the class is already considered a community of inquiry, in which the teacher is assigned the same role as a facilitator

Language: English

DOI: 10.12957/childphilo.2020.46784

ISSN: 1984-5987

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Beginning to Implement the Reggio Philosophy

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: Young Children, vol. 53, no. 5

Pages: 20-25

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Language: English

ISSN: 0044-0728

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

A Study Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori and Its Relevance in Present Educational Scenario

Available from: Sabhavna Research Journal

Publication: Sadbhavna: Research Journal of Human Development, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: 100-107

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori system its impact can easily be seen in the field of pre-primary education in the European countries, U.S.A., India, China, Japan, African countries, Latin American countries and all through the world, This system has encouraged lovers of education to discover new methods of teaching young children. This system emphasized the necessity of study of children in order to educate them properly. As a result, education became child-centered. The construction of curriculum became oriented to the actual needs of life. It was considered necessary to provide a good environment in the school. The aims of education became oriented to individual development of each child. Hence emphasis was laid on the development of personality of each child. Proper training of teachers was considered necessary.

Language: English

ISSN: 2277-7377

Article

The Outsider Part Two: The Light of Montessori v. the Gloom of Philosophy

Publication: Montessori Courier, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 20–21, 26

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Language: English

ISSN: 0959-4108

Conference Paper

Teaching the "Ineducable": The Impact of Sensationalist Philosophy on Educational Thought and Practice

Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

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Abstract/Notes: The paper traces the influence of theories of J. Locke, J. Rousseau and the Abbe de Condillac on the development of educational programs for persons with mental retardation under J. Itard and E. Seguin. Itard's emphasis on sensory activities is discussed, as is his collaboration with Seguin. The effects of their work on M. Montessori, specifically on her stress on the senses of touch and vision are considered. Contemporary practices which emphasize sensory training are traced to these earlier theorists. Appended materials include illustrations of Montessori's sandpaper letters, Sequin's texture board and training apparatuses, and gymnastic exercises designed to improve perceptual motor development.

Language: English

Published: Montreal, Quebec, Canada: American Educational Research Association, Apr 1983

Pages: 30 p.

Article

The Social Philosophy of Maria Montessori

Publication: Social Justice Review, vol. 62, no. 11

Pages: 396-400

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Language: English

ISSN: 0037-7767

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