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782 results

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Investigation of the Effect of Montessori Approach-based STEM Activities on the Problem-solving Skills of Pre-service Preschool Teachers

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi / Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, vol. 14, no. 2

Pages: 93-119

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Abstract/Notes: This research was conducted to determine whether there is any effect of the Montessori approach-based STEM activities on the development of the problem-solving skills of pre-service preschool teachers or not. The mixed-method was employed in the research. The sample of the research consisted of 50 pre-service teachers, who were taking education in the Preschool Teacher Training Department of the Faculty of Education. A single grouped pretest-posttest pattern was created to determine the difference in the problem-solving skills of the pre-service teachers in the research. The quantitative data gathered during the process of the research were analysed with the statistical methods; the qualitative data were analysed with the content analysis. The “Problem Solving Scale” and the “Semi-structured Protocol Form” were used to collect the quantitative data in the research. Qualitative data prepared to support quantitative data consists of the open-ended semi-structured protocol form. The participants were educated with the Montessori approach-based STEM education for 14 weeks. In the results reached as a result of the research, it was observed that there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of problem-solving skills and the qualitative analysis results supported the quantitative results.

Language: English

DOI: 10.30831/akukeg.824773

ISSN: 1308-1659

Book

Our Best Advice: The Multiage Problem Solving Handbook, K-8

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: A multiyear, multiage experience, combined with what is known about collaborative learning, learning styles, and multiple intelligences, grouping practices, and the success of inclusion in such a setting, promises to give all children a real opportunity for success in the classroom. Many schools have implemented multiage programs successfully, but other programs have been rushed into without proper planning and with requirements that conflict with the spirit of multiage practices. This book shows the potential pitfalls of implementing and conducting a multiage program, and tells how to avoid them. It discusses planning, staff development, student selection, parental involvement, inclusion, specialists in the multiage classroom, and many other issues that, handled properly, will make a multiage program a success. The book is a response to concerns expressed by teachers and offers advice to those educators faced with creating a new multiage program, and to those already in a program

Language: English

Published: Peterborough, New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books, 1996

ISBN: 1-884548-04-0

Doctoral Dissertation

Empathy, Social Problem-Solving, and the Social Behavior of Preschoolers

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: A social skills intervention was implemented at two suburban preschools. The purpose of the intervention was to develop subjects' empathic and social problem-solving skills to test whether this training would increase prosocial behavior in class. In addition, the study compared the effectiveness of two teaching methods in promoting cognitive and affective skills: training using role playing and discussion-based training. The subjects were 45 children of both sexes between the ages of four-and-one-half to five-and-one-half years. At each school, teachers led one of three training groups: empathy and problem-solving using role playing; the same training using discussion; home and outdoor safety training, which served as an attention-control group. Training sessions were conducted for 15 to 20 minutes, three times a week for six weeks. Pre- and post-intervention empathy, role-taking, problem-solving scores, observational behavior ratings, and teacher ratings using the Devereux scales were administered. Results of pre-testing revealed expected, significant associations between cognitive and affective skills and between these abilities and subjects' social behavior, with empathy showing the strongest associations. Responses to affective measures, however, did not prove to be consistent across emotions. Empathic and role-taking responses to anger and fear stimuli were unrelated to responses to happiness and sadness stimuli, yet were associated most strongly with observed and rated social behaviors. No significant differences in gain scores emerged across the three treatment groups on outcome measures, although gains in cognitive and affective skills correlated significantly with behavioral improvement. The most likely reasons for this lack of training effects across groups were: all children were from a higher SES background and displayed fewer behavioral problems than subjects used by many other studies in this area; children at one setting (a Montessori program) were much less receptive to a group social skills approach; the small sample size provided insufficient statistical power to assess small effects. Implications of the study's findings for future measurement and training of empathy and social problem-solving skills were discussed.

Language: English

Published: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1983

Doctoral Dissertation

The Characteristics of Problem Solving Transfer in a Montessori Classroom

Available from: Baylor University Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this case study was to examine the use of problem solving strategies and instruction within the Montessori model of learning and to determine if problem solving and transfer occurred. The following research questions were investigated: (1) What Montessori model characteristics are similar to the characteristics reported in the problem solving research which facilitate transfer? (2) In what ways does problem solving within the Montessori classroom transfer? (3) What are the factors that influence problem solving transfer in a Montessori classroom? The site for the study was a fourth through sixth grade level classroom in a private, non-profit Montessori school. Participating in the research were 16 students, two teachers, and a parent of each of the students. The study was conducted over a eight month time period. Data collection and analysis involved both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative data were gathered through video-taping of 24 classroom lessons, audio-taping interviews with the students, teachers, and parents and curriculum document analysis. Quantitative instruments included the TONI-3: Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition, the Problem Solving and Thinking Processes scale, the Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories-Modified, and the Engagement Check. These are the findings: (a) as implemented in this study, the Montessori model of learning, did incorporate instructional strategies that facilitated problem solving and transfer; (b) instances of problem solving, problem solving transfer, and knowledge transfer did occur; and (c) six specific instructional and curriculum strategies influenced the opportunities for problem solving and transfer in the classroom. This research contributes to the field by studying transfer with elementary age students in the natural setting of a classroom and by providing a framework for examining the factors which encourage problem solving.

Language: English

Published: Waco, Texas, 2002

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Consultation and the Introduction of Social Problem-Solving Groups in Schools

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: The Personnel and Guidance Journal, vol. 60, no. 1

Pages: 37-41

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Abstract/Notes: Social problem-solving programs for withdrawn and hyperactive children within a school context were developed and implemented in a day care center, a Montessori nursery school, a Catholic elementary school, and a Catholic high school. This article describes the program implementation for each of the four schools and some of the effects on the consultative relationship.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1002/j.2164-4918.1981.tb00637.x

ISSN: 0031-5737, 2164-4918

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Relation between Pupils’ Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Mathematical Problem Solving in the Context of the Teachers’ Preferred Pedagogies

Available from: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)

Publication: Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 23

Pages: Article 10215

Comparative education, Czech Republic, Czechia, Eastern Europe, Europe, Mathematics education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Montessori schools

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Abstract/Notes: In research focused on self-efficacy it is usually teacher-related phenomena that are studied, while the main aspects related to pupils are rather neglected, although self-efficacy itself is perceived as a belief in one’s own abilities. Evidently, this strongly influences the behavior of individuals in terms of the goal and success in mathematical problem-solving. Considering that alternative teaching methods are based on the principle of belief in one’s own ability (mainly in the case of group work), higher self-efficacy can be expected in the pupils of teachers who use predominantly the well-working pupil-centered pedagogies. A total of 1133 pupils in grade 5 from 36 schools in the Czech Republic were involved in the testing of their ability to solve mathematical problems and their mathematical self-efficacy as well. Participants were divided according to the above criteria as follows: (i) 73 from Montessori primary schools, (ii) 332 pupils educated in mathematics according to the Hejný method, (iii) 510 pupils from an ordinary primary school, and (iv) 218 pupils completing the Dalton teaching plan. In the field of mathematical problem-solving the pupils from the Montessori primary schools clearly outperformed pupils from the Dalton Plan schools (p = 0.027) as well as pupils attending ordinary primary schools (p = 0.009), whereas the difference between the Montessori schools and Hejný classes was not significant (p = 0.764). There is no statistically significant difference in the level of self-efficacy of pupils with respect to the preferred strategies for managing learning activities (p = 0.781). On the other hand, correlation between mathematical problem-solving and self-efficacy was confirmed in all the examined types of schools. However, the correlation coefficient was lower in the case of the pupils from the classes applying the Hejný method in comparison with the pupils attending the Montessori schools (p = 0.073), Dalton Plan schools (p = 0.043), and ordinary primary schools (p = 0.002). Even though the results in mathematical problem-solving are not consistent across the studies, the presented results confirm better performance of pupils in some constructivist settings, particularly in the case of individual constructivism in the Montessori primary schools. The factors influencing lower correlation of self-efficacy and performance in mathematical problem-solving ought to be subject to further investigation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3390/su122310215

ISSN: 2071-1050

Book Section

Solving the Social Problem [Lecture 20; 21 October 1946]

Book Title: The 1946 London Lectures

Pages: 144-150

Maria Montessori - Writings

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Language: English

Published: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, 2018

ISBN: 978-90-79506-00-2

Series: The Montessori Series , 17

Article

Problem Solving 101: A Simple Book for Smart People

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 21, no. 4

Pages: 48

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

How the Use of Montessori Sensorial Material Supports Children's Creative Problem Solving in the Pre-School Classroom

Available from: British Library - EthOS

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Abstract/Notes: Maria Montessori famously designed her own materials to support children’s development. Thus far, the literature which focuses on Montessori Sensorial education - and on creativity, problem solving and creative problem solving - has not investigated connections between these matters. This study investigated the effect of using the Montessori Method on children’s skills, especially in creative problem solving. This research examines the integration of Montessori materials into a social context to develop children’s creative problem solving, and analyses these data using the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) framework [Isaksen et al., 2000] and Rogoff’s model [1990] of social interaction. The study provides a new way of using the CPS framework, for data analysis, rather than as a way of training an individual or a group in solving problems creatively. The methodology combines a quasi-experimental design with a sample of qualitative cases. The research was conducted in one pre-school in Saudi Arabia, in the city of Riyadh, and involved twenty-four five-year-old children (12 boys, 12 girls) and four teachers. Six matched pairs of children were observed using Montessori sensorial materials (MSM) for one academic year. All the children were assessed on their problem solving capacities, in order to compare their development, using the British Ability Scale-II. The results from the quantitative analysis reveal significant differences between the experimental and control groups in their capacity to solve problems, using a pre-post-test of the four subscales of the BAS II. The qualitative analysis shows social interaction assists children in the “understanding of the challenge” component of the creative problem solving process while individual differences were identified in relation to the three creative skills. The results revealed the children’s different ways of framing and solving their own problems creatively through exploring different positions of the materials and applying them in creative solutions. The research also found that children’s own individual experiences with, and interests in, the material affected their creative problem solving.

Language: English

Published: Southampton, England, 2011

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Chinese and US Preschool Teachers’ Beliefs About Children’s Cooperative Problem-Solving During Play

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 49, no. 3

Pages: 503-513

Americas, Asia, China, East Asia, North America, Perceptions, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Many researchers have investigated the cooperative problem solving (CPS) of children during play; however, there is a lack of studies focused on teachers’ beliefs about how to support the development of children’s CPS in classrooms. This study aims to investigate the pedagogical beliefs of Chinese (n = 3) and US (n = 3) teachers about the CPS of children during play and their decision-making capabilities in supporting children to advance this skill in classrooms. A semi-structured interview was conducted with the integration of video-stimulated recall approach in order to achieve this aim. Results confirm that the Chinese and US teachers believe that children are competent and have the autonomy to decide how to solve problems with their peers. The beliefs are similar across the teachers, whereas their execution of these beliefs varies, which reflects their cultural uniqueness in scaffolding and creating classroom environments.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s10643-020-01087-9

ISSN: 1082-3301, 1573-1707

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