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Théosophie et éducation en Espagne (1891-1939): espaces de sociabilité et réseaux éducatifs [Theosophy and education in Spain (1891-1939): spaces of sociability and educational networks]

Available from: OpenEdition Books

Book Title: Éduquer dans et hors l’école: Lieux et milieux de formation. XVIIe-XXe siècle

Pages: 87-102

Europe, Southern Europe, Spain, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: L’occasion de lancer des recherches sur les liens entre le mouvement théosophique et l’éducation en Espagne et l’intérêt que celles-ci pouvaient présenter surgirent à partir de la lecture du Petit Journal d’Adolphe Ferrière dans les Archives de l’institut J.-J. Rousseau de l’université de Genève. En 1930, de passage à Barcelone sur le chemin de son long voyage vers l’Amérique latine, le pédagogue suisse fut reçu par Maria Solà de Sellarés, Attilio Bruschetti et José Forteza. Cependant ces personnages n’apparaissent pas dans les pages de l’historiographie de l’éducation nouvelle et de la rénovation pédagogique en Catalogne au cours du premier tiers du XXe siècle. Après les recherches qui s’imposaient, nous sûmes qu’ils militèrent dans l’hétérodoxe mouvement théosophique et que, suivant les pas de Béatrice Ensor, ils se rapprochèrent de sa pédagogie par le biais de la Fraternité internationale de l’Éducation. La vocation éducative du mouvement théosophique se manifesta dans l’organisation de cours et de conférences, l’édition de livres et de dépliants à caractère doctrinal et didactique, la création d’espaces de sociabilité et, entre autres initiatives, par la fondation d’un certain nombre d’écoles et de centres éducatifs qui tentèrent de rejoindre les mouvements rénovateurs européens, tout en restant fidèles au spiritualisme oriental. Plus tard et malgré les distances que leur imposèrent dissidences et fractures, un autre courant allait apparaître à l’horizon de l’évolution de ce mouvement: l’anthroposophie de Steiner et la pédagogie Waldorf. Cet article se propose d’analyser, dans les contextes européen et international, la fonction sociale, éducative et socialisatrice de la théosophie et des réseaux socioéducatifs théosophiques, hors et dans l’école, en Espagne au cours du premier tiers du XXe siècle. Cette recherche part de l’analyse de sources orales (membres de familles de théosophes et personnes ayant des liens avec le mouvement théosophique) et de sources écrites (directes et indirectes) consultées et étudiées dans diverses archives : Biblioteca de Cataluña (Barcelone), bibliothèque privée de la Branche Arjuna de Barcelone, Centro nacional de la Memoria histórica de Salamanque (Espagne), archives privées de la famille Jover Dalmau (ancien élève de l’école Damon) et Archives historiques municipales de Sabadell (Catalogne). [The opportunity to launch research on the links between the theosophical movement and education in Spain and the interest that these could present arose from the reading of the Petit Journal d'Adolphe Ferrière in the Archives of the institute J.-J. Rousseau from the University of Geneva. In 1930, passing through Barcelona on the way to his long journey to Latin America, the Swiss teacher was received by Maria Solà de Sellarés, Attilio Bruschetti and José Forteza. However, these characters do not appear in the pages of the historiography of new education and educational renewal in Catalonia during the first third of the twentieth century. After the necessary research, we learned that they were active in the heterodox theosophical movement and that, following in the footsteps of Beatrice Ensor, they approached her pedagogy through the International Fraternity of Education. The educational vocation of the theosophical movement was manifested in the organization of courses and conferences, the publication of books and leaflets of a doctrinal and didactic nature, the creation of spaces for sociability and, among other initiatives, by the foundation of a number of schools and educational centers which tried to join the European renovating movements, while remaining faithful to Eastern spiritualism. Later and despite the distances imposed by dissidence and fractures, another current would appear on the horizon of the evolution of this movement: the anthroposophy of Steiner and the Waldorf pedagogy. This article aims to analyze, in European and international contexts, the social, educational and socializing function of theosophy and theosophical socio-educational networks, outside and in school, in Spain during the first third of the twentieth century. This research starts from the analysis of oral sources (members of families of Theosophists and people with links to the Theosophical movement) and written sources (direct and indirect) consulted and studied in various archives: Biblioteca de Cataluña (Barcelona), library private of the Arjuna Branch of Barcelona, ​​Centro nacional de la Memoria histórica de Salamanca (Spain), private archives of the Jover Dalmau family (former pupil of the Damon school) and Municipal Historical Archives of Sabadell (Catalonia).]

Language: French

Published: Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2018

ISBN: 978-2-7535-5561-7

Series: Histoire

Doctoral Dissertation

Education as a Tool for Social Change: Case Study of an Arizona Inner-City Charter School

Available from: University of San Francisco

Social transformation

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Abstract/Notes: It is a very difficult task to provide adequate education in the United States for children living in an inner-city environment, with problems of poverty, minority status, drugs, crime, gangs, suicide, despair, and many single-parent households. This is a Case Study of how one Arizona inner-city poverty community has risen to answer these educational demands for its children through a Montessori theory-based Charter Pre-12 school. The 650 student population served in this school is approximately 80% Hispanic American, 12% African American, and 8% Native, Asian and European American. Data were gathered from extensive interviews, observations, and document analysis. They were analyzed and evaluated in three ways: first, according to a literature review of the educational theories of Maria Montessori, then according to those of Paulo Freire, and lastly, according to a review of Charter school books, articles, and government documents available up to January of 2000. The results were an in-depth description of first, the history of this community's needs, its struggle to establish and fund the school, then the resulting educational program which it developed and implemented, and lastly, the community's positive evaluation of it's efforts. The curriculum described had extensive use of ESL and cultural appreciation programs, hands-on student initiated and student-implemented programs, integrated curriculum and critical thinking programs, job-skills related programs, self-esteem and character development programs, and Sustainable Systems Ecology Education demonstration programs. All these findings were presented in a manner which could be useful to other Administrators, who might desire to use this school's example to begin or to improve their own programs for a similarly disadvantaged inner-city population. Conclusions were that after five years of operation, this community empowerment school has indeed found methods, curriculum and programs that have successfully helped to meet the emotional, cultural, moral, and educational needs of the children in this particular poverty community. Conclusions were also that this community's experiences are valuable and appropriate for examination by other prospective Charter school Administrators from similar communities.

Language: English

Published: San Francisco, California, 2000

Article

外国の教育方法を日本に導入するときの課題と検討 (その1) [Issues and examinations when introducing foreign educational methods to Japan (Part 1)]

Available from: Fuji Women's University - Institutional Repository

Publication: Fuji Joshi Daigaku Kiyou. Dai 2-bu / 藤女子大学紀要. 第II部 / The Bulletin of Fuji Women's College (Series 2), no. 50

Pages: 103-117

Asia, East Asia, Educational change, Japan, Trainings

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Abstract/Notes: Since the Meiji era, various educational methods from overseas have been introduced to Japan, implemented, and "adapted" to the country's educational environment. In this study, we examined possible issues that could arise when introducing educational methods developed in different cultures to our country. The purpose of this paper is to find the factors that cause adaptation or changes to the educational methods developed overseas during the localizing process in Japan. In our country, more diversity in education methods and content is called for as well as a quantitative increase in childhood education, but practicing educators seek for improvement in the qualitative side of education. In this study, we aim to present the findings to the educators in Japan for further meaningful consideration as we feel that a wide variety of viewpoints are possible when studying education methods from overseas based on different cultures and ideas. This study, a reconstruction of the symposium from the 65th meeting of the Japan Society of Research on Early Childhood Care and Education, also aims to set a new perspective for further research of this theme. This study comprises of three parts: localization of the Froebel Gifts and children's plays, Italian society in which Montessori education is widespread and the current situation in Japan, and the differences in attitude between the government or management of childcare facilities that introduce foreign educational methods and practicing nursery teachers. We attempt,in this study, to consider the issues around the localization of educational methods from overseas as a matter that affects not only the practicing nursery teachers but the education of nursery teachers, by presenting a wide variety of opinions and ideas from members of the Japan Society of Research on Early Childhood Care and Education based on their own research over many years.

Language: Japanese

ISSN: 1346-1389

Article

The Confirmation of Montessori Postulates in Contemporary Educational Neuroscience / Potvrde postulata Montessori pedagogije u suvremenoj obrazovnoj neuroznanosti

Available from: University of Zagreb

Publication: Croatian Journal of Education - Hrvatski časopis za odgoj i obrazovanje, vol. 22, no. 4

Croatia, Europe, Neuroscience, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: This paper lends insight into the fundamental postulates of Montessori pedagogyand definitions of contemporary educational neuroscience, focusing on the needsand solutions of contemporary didactic approaches. By presenting the results ofcontemporary researches, the paper connects the achievements of Montessoripedagogic methods and strategies with the scientific indicators of educationalneuroscience about the manners of positive impact on the development of anindividual. The results of the educational neuroscience research will corroborate thepostulates of Montessori pedagogy that state that understanding the developmentalstages of upbringing, individual competences, and specificities of each child areimportant for upbringing. Specific cases will be used to emphasize that, apartfrom the cognitive competence, it is essential to develop psychomotor and affectivecompetences, meaning that the development of these personality spheres isconnected and interdependent. By providing the pedagogic perspective, the paperpoints to the need for further deliberation on how to shape an optimal curriculum.The paper suggests that various social and technological changes are reasons toconsider pedagogic methods, strategies, and approaches of Montessori, which is alsosupported and substantiated by contemporary educational neuroscience.Key words: didactics; Montessori pedagogy; neurodidactics; neuroscience. - U ovom radu daje se uvid u osnovne postulate Montessori pedagogije i definicijesuvremene obrazovne neuroznanosti, orijentirajući se prema potrebama i rješenjimaza suvremene didaktičke pristupe. Prikazom rezultata suvremenih istraživanja radpovezuje dostignuća Montessori pedagoških metoda i strategija sa znanstvenimpokazateljima obrazovne neuroznanosti o načinima pozitivnoga utjecaja na razvojpojedinca. Rezultati istraživanja obrazovne neuroznanosti potkrijepit će postulateMontessori pedagogije da je za odgojni pristup važno razumijevanje razvojnih fazaodrastanja, individualnosti kompetencija i specifičnosti odgajanika. Specifičnimprimjerima naglasit će se da je uz kognitivne, bitno razvijati psihomotorne iafektivne kompetencije, odnosno da je razvoj ovih sfera ličnosti povezan imeđuovisan. Ponuđenom pedagoškom perspektivom rad ukazuje na potrebudaljnjega razmatranja kako pristupiti oblikovanju optimalnih kurikula. U radu sesugerira da je upravo zbog različitih društvenih i tehnoloških promjena potrebnorazmišljati o pedagoškim metodama, strategijama i pristupima Montessoripedagogije, što podržava i potkrepljuje suvremena obrazovna neuroznanost.Ključne riječi: didaktika; Montessori pedagogija; neurodidaktika; neuroznanost.

Language: English

DOI: 10.15516/cje.v22i4.3751

ISSN: 1848-5189, 1848-5197

Article

Children’s Stories in the Educational Theories of Ellen Key, Rudolf Steiner, and Maria Montessori

Available from: Università di Bologna

Publication: Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica / Journal of Theories and Research in Education, vol. 11, no. 2

Pages: 47-66

Children’s Literature, Ellen Key - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Rudolf Steiner - Philosophy, Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: The article explores the educational value that Ellen Key (1849-1926), Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) and Maria Montessori (1870-1952) attributed to children's stories. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century these three important authors contributed to the renewal of the educational theories and practices. They dedicated a part of their pedagogical reflections to the educational meanings of children's stories; consider, e.g., the many pages of Ellen Key on children's literature, the recommendations of Rudolf Steiner on the educational relevance of fairy tales and mythology or, finally, Maria Montessori's reflections on fairy tales. The article examines these ideas from a historical and pedagogical point of view.

Language: English

DOI: 10.6092/issn.1970-2221/6374

ISSN: 1970-2221

Article

Maria Montessori and Educational Forces in America

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 19, no. 1

Pages: 34-47

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: When Maria Montessori addressed two wildly enthusiastic American audiences at Carnegie Hall in December 1913, she thrilled the parents in attendance, but sent a shock wave through the educational establishment. Instead of accommodating skeptics from the teacher-training institutions seated there that night, she appealed directly to parents who found in the Montessori message an antidote to the miasma in their children's schools. Subsequently, the educational establishment that found more to dislike than to admire in Montessori marshaled their considerable power to discourage any permanent American Montessori movement for years to come. This article explores the clash between Montessori and optimistic American families versus the American educational establishment of the time. For further historical perspective, the author offers an analysis of the growth of the kindergarten movement and the emergence of progressivism in education as an outgrowth of the American Progressive movement at the turn of the 20th century. Maria Montessori's presentations at Carnegie Hall occurred at the apex of these convulsive forces.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

Montessori's Mediation of Meaning: A Social Semiotic Perspective

Available from: University of Sydney Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: The distinctive objects designed by Dr Maria Montessori as the centrepiece of her approach to pedagogy are the topic of this study. The Montessori approach to pedagogy, celebrating its centenary in 2007, continues to be used in classrooms throughout the world. Despite such widespread and enduring use, there has been little analysis of the Montessori objects to evaluate or understand their pedagogic impact. This study begins by outlining the provenance of the Montessori objects, reaching the conclusion that the tendency to interpret them from the perspective of the progressive education movement of the early twentieth century fails to provide insights into the developmental potential embodied in the objects. In order to appreciate that potential more fully, the study explores the design of the objects, specifically, the way in which the semiotic qualities embodied in their design orient children to the meanings of educational knowledge. A meta-analytic framework comprising three components is used to analyse the semiotic potential of the Montessori objects as educational artefacts. First, Vygotsky’s model of development is used to analyse the objects as external mediational means and to recognise the objects as complexes of signs materialising educational knowledge. In order to understand how the objects capture, in the form of concrete analogues, the linguistic meanings which construe educational knowledge, systemic functional linguistics, the second component of the framework, is used to achieve a rich and detailed social semiotic analysis of these relations, in particular, material and linguistic representations of abstract educational meanings. Finally, the pedagogic device, a central feature of Bernstein’s sociology of pedagogy, is used to analyse how the Montessori objects re-contextualise educational knowledge as developmental pedagogy. Particular attention is paid to the Montessori literacy pedagogy, in which the study of grammar plays a central role. The study reveals a central design principle which distinguishes the Montessori objects. This principle is the redundant representation of educational knowledge across multiple semiotic modes. Each representation holds constant the underlying meaning relations which construe quanta of educational knowledge, giving children the freedom to engage with this knowledge playfully, independently and successfully. The conclusion drawn from this study is that the design of the Montessori objects represents valuable educational potential which deserves continued investigation, as well as wider recognition and application. To initiate this process, the findings in this study may provide insights which can be used to develop tools for evaluating and enhancing the implementation of Montessori pedagogy in Montessori schools. The findings may also be used to adapt Montessori design principles for the benefit of educators working in non-Montessori contexts, in particular, those educators concerned with developing pedagogies which promote equitable access to educational knowledge.

Language: English

Published: Sydney, Australia, 2007

Article

The Development of Italian Educational Philosophy in the 20th Century

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Review of Education, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 313-326

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: In our brief historical outline of educational conditions in Italy, we have seen that by far the greatest efforts over the past fifty years have been devoted to clarifying the theoretical issues of educational problems. We have been examining philosophical Systems that pretended to afford an unshakeable foundation to educational theory and to answer every problem raised by educational practice. They have been scrutinized and found wanting. The new Government Syllabus (1955) for the Italian elementary schools is thoroughly Catholic in spirit, humanistic in content and progressive in method. The author of the present paper feels, however, that too much theorizing is still blinding Italian educators. The canker of Transcendental Idealism is still gnawing at the efforts of all too many, also Catholic, thinkers. The “active schools” need renewed fervour, cogent Stimulation, and enlightened Inspiration from an integral Catholic philosophy of life. We must stop philosophizing and get down to realizing: experimentation and co-operative effort are badly needed, not less than clear ideas. Not words but deeds! Idealism had thought of itself being the all-inclusive answer to every problem. We must repeat Hamlet's word to the die-hard Idealist: “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy”.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF01423725

ISSN: 1573-0638, 0020-8566

Article

The Current Landscape of US Children’s Television: Violent, Prosocial, Educational, and Fantastical Content

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of Children and Media, vol. 13, no. 3

Pages: 276-294

Angeline Stoll Lillard - Writings, Children's mass media, Children's television programs, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The present study examined currently popular children’s television shows to determine the prevalence of violent, prosocial, educational, and fantastical content (including fantastical events and anthropomorphism). Network, style, and content ratings were collected for 88 shows using a combination of Common Sense Media and laboratory ratings applied to two randomly-selected episodes of each show. Overall, currently popular children’s television shows were most often animated and contained little violent, prosocial, or educational content, but a great deal of fantastical content. Interrelations among variables were also examined. Shows with fantastical events were both more violent and more prosocial than shows without, and shows with anthropomorphism were more prosocial than shows without. The network on which a show aired predicted violent, prosocial, and educational content, but not fantastical content. Children’s television today is not as violent as might be believed, but nor is it particularly prosocial or educational. It is highly fantastical. The implications of the landscape for children’s behavior, learning, and cognition are discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/17482798.2019.1605916

ISSN: 1748-2798

Conference Paper

Positive Socialization in an Educational Inclusion Group of a Montessori Elementary School

Available from: IATED Digital Library

8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the present work was to foster positive socialization in a multilevel group of a Montessori elementary school comprised by 20 students between 9 and 12 years old and many students with Special Education Needs. Positive socialization refers to the group of behaviors to aid the more vulnerable and concern for the others (Rudolph, 2000). It is important to nurture these behaviors during the school age since this is the stage where students require them to foster healthy coexistence and cooperation, as well as respect for differences and diversity among peers, which is closely related to educational inclusion, which premise is to make a school for all, for which the creation of spaces where coexistence and differences acceptance are nurtured taking into account the needs of each student (Romera, 2008). The Elementary Education Syllabus in Mexico mentions the inclusion principle, which emphasizes the teaching of values, attitudes and behaviors towards helping the others (Secretary of Public Education, 2011). Under this perspective, a traditional empirical quantitative applied field study was conducted. The design was of only one group, with two pretest-posttest measurings in which also 5 teachers participated in the group activities. The group was assessed in Positive socialization by means of the Socialization Battery BAS-3 by Silva and Martorell (1987) which defines a child’s profile by five factors. The pretest results indicated five subjects obtained a scoring below the mean value in the Concern for the others scale, this meant the subjects had little social sensitivity or concern for others. In addition, the Inclusive Practices in the Classroom Evaluation Guideline in its observation and self-report version by Garcia, Romero and Escalante (2009) was applied, which allowed to measure the levels of educational inclusion in the group. The results determined that four teachers obtained a scoring below the mean value in the planning area scale. Based on the pretest results obtained from both instruments, an intervention program was designed based on the Cooperative play proposal by Garaigordobil (2004), to foster prosocial behaviors, while the decision taking according to the students’ needs were worked with the teachers. At the end of the intervention, a posttest was applied to the group and the results indicated a significant increment in the positive socialization, especially, the behaviors towards helping the others in the students with the lowest scores from the pretest; teachers planning also improved to achieve a more inclusive environment in the group. The results were validated with the non-parametric Wilcoxon test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Language: English

Published: Barcelona, Spain: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2016

Pages: 7934-7941

DOI: 10.21125/edulearn.2016.0741

ISBN: 978-84-608-8860-4

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