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The Progressive Classroom: Unlocking the Potential of Learning for the Future
Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Progressive education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education) - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Published: Chennai, India: Clever Fox Publishing, 2023
Kinaesthetic Learning Material for EFL Pronunciation Teaching and Their Potential for Teacher Education
Book Title: Activating and Engaging Learners and Teachers: Perspectives for English Language Education
Foreign language education, Language acquisition, Language development, Language education, Montessori materials
Published: Tübingen, Germany: Narr Francke Attempto, 2023
Edition: 1st ed.
ISBN: 978-3-8233-8460-1 3-8233-8460-0
Series: AAA - Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik
Analisis metode islamic montessori for multiple intelligences pada anak generasi alpha dalampengembangan pembelajaran pendidikan agama islam / Analysis of the Islamic Montessori for Multiple Intelligences Method in Alpha Generation Children in the Development of Islamic Education Learning
Available from: Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Tarbiyah Madani Yogyakarta (STITMA)
Publication: At Turots: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, vol. 5, no. 2
Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Islamic Montessori method of education, Islamic education, Multiple intelligences, Southeast Asia
Abstract/Notes: Children are born into the world as the nature of both parents. The importance of education from an educator is the initial foundation of the formation of creativity and activity, children. The role of educators of parents and teachers is a principle of how they are formed and fostered by the environment. Alpha generation is a child born in 2010 until now. The development of increasingly advanced technology makes the Alpha generation highly skilled using existing technology. They are principled to become an unfashionable generation. Today, the era is dominated by an instant and easy nature that results in influence in all fields, especially the field of education. The Islamic Montessori for Multiple Intelligences method is a method that teaches Islamic education based on compound intelligence in children. The intelligence of alpha generation children has the potential incomplete multiple intelligences so that they can survive, adapt and always be resilient in following high levels of diversity and all changes that are instant. This research aims to find out (1) The role of educators to alpha generation children in the development of Islamic Education learning with Islamic Montessori methods for Multiple Intelligences, (2) Methods that can support success in improving the quality of education. The method in this article uses by library research. The primary and secondary source is Maria Montessori's book translated in Indonesian and journal references. The result of the discussion in this paper is (1) The development of Islamic Religious Education learning that applies the following, language intelligence, mathematical logic, spatial-visual, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence. (2) Knowing the compound intelligence in alpha generation children in Islamic education. / Anak terlahir ke dunia sebagai fitrah kedua orang tuanya. Pentingnya pendidikan dari seorang pendidik merupakan pondasi awal terbentuknya kreatifitas dan keaktifan pada anak. Peran pendidik dari orang tua dan guru merupakan prinsip bagaimana mereka dibentuk dan dibina oleh lingkungan masing-masing. Generasi alpha adalah anak yang lahir di tahun 2010 hingga sekarang. Perkembangan teknologi yang semakin maju membuat generasi alpha sangat terampil menggunakan teknologi. Sehingga, mereka berprinsip untuk menjadi generasi yang tidak ketinggalan zaman. Dewasa ini, zaman pun di dominasi dengan sifat yang serba instan dan serba mudah yang mengakibatkan pengaruh dalam segala bidang khususnya bidang pendidikan. Metode Islamic Montessori for Multiple Intelligences merupakan metode yang mengajarkan pendidikan Islam berdasarkan kecerdasan majemuk pada anak. Kecerdasan anak generasi alpha memiliki potensi dalam kecerdasan majemuk (Multiple Intelligences) yang komplit sehingga mereka bisa bertahan, beradaptasi dan selalu tangguh dalam mengikuti tingkat keragaman yang tinggi dan segala perubahan yang serba Instan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1) Peran pendidik terhadap anak generasi alpha dalam pengembangan pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam dengan metode Islamic Montessori for Multiple Intelligences, (2) metode yang dapat menunjang kesuksesan dalam perbaikan kualitas pendidikan. Metode pada penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian pustaka (Library Research). Bersumber primer dan sekunder yaitu buku Maria Montessori yang di terjemahkan dalam bahasa Indonesia dan refrensi-refrensi jurnal. Hasil dari pembahasan dalam tulisan ini adalah (1) pengembangan pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam yang menerapkan sebagai berikut, kecerdasan bahasa, logika matematika, visual spasial, kinestetik, interpersonal, intrapersonal dan kecerdasan naturalis. (2) mengetahui kecerdasan majemuk pada anak generasi alpha dalam pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam.
ISSN: 2747-089X, 2656-7555
Ignoring Clustering and Nesting Effects Are Invalid Analysis Choices in a Trial with Clustered Data in Trials Testing Causal Effects. Re: "Impact of a Montessori-Based Nutrition Program on Children's Knowledge and Eating Behaviors"
Available from: PubMed
Publication: Journal of School Health
Date: Mar 13, 2023
Stimulating the Development of Rhythmic Abilities in Preschool Children in Montessori Kindergartens with Music-Movement Activities: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Available from: Springer Link
Publication: Early Childhood Education Journal
Date: Mar 9, 2023
Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Elementary school students, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Movement education, Music education, Preschool children, Rhythm
Abstract/Notes: This article examines the effects of Montessori music-movement activities on the development of the rhythmic abilities of 59 children from Montessori preschools, aged between 3 and 6 years. Children were deployed into two experimental groups (EG 1 (n = 20) & EG 2 (n = 22)) and a control group (CG) (n = 17). Our intervention consisted of introducing 15 to 20 min of unstructured movement time, either accompanied by a piano (EG 1) or recording (EG 2), three times a week for four months, whereas the control group carried on the usual Montessori program. We used a quasi-experimental nonequivalent groups design with pretest–posttest. Three tests for measuring rhythmic abilities were used: auditory discrimination of the rhythmic patterns, imitation of spoken rhythmic phrases, and determining the synchronization of movement with the rhythm of the music. The interventions had a positive effect on the development of the rhythmic abilities of children included in the study. The most significant effect was noticed in EG 1, while no effect of non-activity was detected in the control group.
Montessori Preschool Education: 유아교육에 관하여 [Montessori Preschool Education: About Early Childhood Education]
Available from: RISS
Publication: 人間理解 / Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling, vol. 3
ISSN: 2005-0860, 2671-5821
Kindererziehung als soziale Frage aus der Sicht von Montessori und Miller Pädagogik und Kältestudien [Child rearing as a social issue from the perspective of Montessori and Miller pedagogy and child studies]
Available from: RISS
Publication: 교육의 이론과 실천 / Theory and Practice of Education / Theorie und Praxis der Erziehung, vol. 23, no. 3
Abstract/Notes: Diese Arbeit versucht, den Betrachtungen und Aspekten, die das Kind in unserer Gesellschaft ausgehend vom Standpunkt Montessoris beleuchten, nachzugehen, wobei ich die Gemeinsamkeiten in den Montessoris und Millers pädagogischen Ansätzen feststelle. Laut Montessori und Miller ist das Kind ist als gleichwertiger Mensch anzuerkennen, und die Seele des Kindes erfordert eine besondere Feinfühligkeit des Erwachsenen für seine Bedürfnisse her. Es ist wichtig, die Kinder in ihren Fähigkeiten bestmöglich zu fördern. Im Bezug auf das pädagogische Spannungsverhältnis von Selbständigkeit und Zwang beschäftige ich mich mit dem Widerspruch von pädagogischer Norm und Funktion aus der Sicht der Kältestudien von Gruschka. Die Kältestudien verweisen auf die von den einzelnen Menschen unaufhebbar erfahrenen Widersprüche von der Norm der sozialen Allgemeinheit von Bildung und der Selektionsfunktion von den pädagogischen Institutionen. Schließlich sollten die gesellschaftlichen Strukturen, die Kälte als gesellschaftlich akzeptiertes Verhalten verursachen, bewusst wahrgenommen und reflektiert werden. Dafür ist es nötig, den Kindern so viel wie möglich Freiheitsspielraum zu geben, in der sie Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten haben. Zudem ist Schulbildung mit dem Leben der Kinder zusammenzubringen. den Kindern so viel wie möglich Freiheitsspielraum zu geben, in der sie Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten haben. Zudem ist Schulbildung mit dem Leben der Kinder zusammenzubringen. den Kindern so viel wie möglich Freiheitsspielraum zu geben, in der sie Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten haben. Zudem ist Schulbildung mit dem Leben der Kinder zusammenzubringen. [This work attempts to trace the considerations and aspects that illuminate the child in our society from the Montessori point of view, noting the similarities in the Montessori and Miller's pedagogical approaches. According to Montessori and Miller, the child is to be recognized as an equal human being, and the child's soul requires a special sensitivity on the part of the adult for its needs. It is important to support the children in their abilities in the best possible way. In relation to the pedagogical tension between independence and coercion, I deal with the contradiction between pedagogical norm and function from the point of view of Gruschka's cold studies. The cold studies point to the irreconcilable contradictions experienced by individuals between the norm of the social generality of education and the selection function of educational institutions. Finally, the social structures that cause cold as socially accepted behavior should be consciously perceived and reflected upon. For this it is necessary to give the children as much freedom as possible in which they have opportunities for experience. In addition, school education must be combined with the life of the children. to give the children as much freedom as possible in which they have opportunities for experience. In addition, school education must be combined with the life of the children. to give the children as much freedom as possible in which they have opportunities for experience. In addition, school education must be combined with the life of the children.]
Effects of Applying AMSP (American Montessori Society Program) According to the Years of Mathematics / 수학연한에 따른 AMSP (American Montessori Society Program)의 적용효과: 유아의 창의성과 지능에 미치는 영향을 중심으로
Available from: RISS
Publication: 교육과학연구 / Journal of Educational Science Research, vol. 35, no. 2
Abstract/Notes: This study investigated the effects of AMSP(American Montessori Society) on young children's creativity and intelligence according to the learning term.The questions for research were as follows:1. What is the effect of AMSP on young children's creativity according to the learning term?2. What is the effect of AMSP on young children's intelligence according to the learning term? The subjects of this study were 57 aged five-old children at H kindergarten in J. City. They were classified to three groups according to learning term of AMSP.The data were collected using the General Creativity Test for Children(Chon, kyoung-won, 2000), the Revised Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Park, kwang-bae 1995), and analysed by ANCOVA, the Scheffe test with SPSS 11.0 Program.The results of this study are summarized as follows:1. The longer the learning term was, the more AMSP improved young children's creativity significantly. The longer the learning term was, the more AMSP improved young children's creativity significantly. 2.The longer the learning term was, the more AMSP improved young children's intelligence significantly. The longer the learning term was, the more AMSP improved young children's intelligence significantly. / 본 연구는 AMSP가 유아의 창의성과 지능에 미치는 영향에 있어 수업연한에 따른 차이를 알아본 것으로, AMSP의 수업연한에 따라 구분된 1년차 집단, 2년차 집단, 3년차 집단 각 19명씩 만 5세 유아 총 57명을 대상으로 실시하였다. 전경원(2000)의 창의성 검사와 박혜원곽금주박광배(1996) 등이 개발한 한국형WPPSI(K-WPPIS)를 실시한 결과, AMSP의 수업연한이 높을수록 유아의 창의성과 지능발달에 전반적으로 더 큰 효과를 나타냈다. 이에 AMSP가 유아의 창의성과 지능발달을 돕는 하나의 효과적인 접근방안일 뿐만 아니라 유치원의 3년 교육 기간에 AMSP를 제공받는 것이 유아의 창의성과 지능발달에 더 효과적임을 시사해준다고 하겠다.
ISSN: 1229-8484, 2713-6515
Academic Information Management System for L’Atra Montessori School
Available from: DBpia
Publication: ICEIC : International Conference on Electronics, Informations and Communications, vol. 1, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: Academic Information Management System (AIMS) for L’atra Montessori School (LMSI) is a school management solution which is highly adaptable for Schools, Institute of Higher Learning and Training Academics. AIMS is built on today’s leading edge internet technology. It is a comprehensive, easily implemented and user friendly. It is the answer that understands the challenges and are focused on delivering effective, high?quality Information System that allow you to creates the right balance of process efficiency and learning excellence. Attaining a higher pass rate of students is consequential for any institutions, this puts pressure on the lecturer to review teaching methodologies and devoting time to students. Information should be readily available for teachers, parents, students and school administration. Administrative duties should be automated and minimized, allowing all parties room to excel. AIMS offers the robust functionality needed to automate the entire academic processes from class scheduling, student enrolment, and class registration including financial aid information such as billing. AIMS provides a centralized data warehouse that gives you a single source of information to make well-informed financial and operational decisions in real time.
Arquitetura Vernácula e Sustentabilidade Arquitetura Montessoriana e Características Vernaculares Brasileiras [Vernacular Architecture and Sustainability Montessorian Architecture and Brazilian Vernacular Characteristics]
Available from: Brazilian Journals
Publication: Brazilian Journal of Development, vol. 6, no. 1
Date: Jan 2020
Americas, Architecture, Brazil, Latin America and the Caribbean, South America, Sustainability
Abstract/Notes: O presente trabalho tem como objetivo fazer a análise das possibilidades que a arquitetura vernacular, em suas relações com materiais, espaços e inserção cultural, traz para o aprendizado dentro de uma perspectiva montessoriana. Analisando as premissas educacionais propostas pela médica Maria Montessori para um ambiente de escolas infantis, procura-se estabelecer uma relação entre o valor que é dado para o ambiente preparado para a evolução e aprendizado individual de cada aluno, com a cultura, a sustentabilidade e utilização de materiais ligados à arquitetura vernacular. Neste sentido, a partir de uma pesquisa da literatura referente à interação do indivíduo com o edifício e com a arquitetura vernacular brasileira, procurou-se identificar a relação existente entre as características do aprendizado montessoriano e os materiais e técnicas aplicados em edifícios com arquitetura ou recursos vernaculares. A partir da pesquisa é possível vislumbrar os benefícios que um incentivo de utilização de técnicas e materiais utilizados na arquitetura vernacular podem trazer em termos de potencial para promover o aprendizado, considerando as premissas montessorianas. [The present work aims to analyze the possibilities that vernacular architecture, in its relations with materials, spaces and cultural insertion, brings to learning within a Montessori perspective. Analyzing the educational premises proposed by the doctor Maria Montessori for an environment of nursery schools, we seek to establish a relationship between the value that is given to the environment prepared for the evolution and individual learning of each student, with culture, sustainability and use of materials linked to vernacular architecture. In this sense, from a literature search regarding the interaction of the individual with the building and with Brazilian vernacular architecture, we sought to identify the relationship between the characteristics of Montessori learning and the materials and techniques applied in buildings with vernacular architecture or vernacular resources. From the research it is possible to glimpse the benefits that an incentive to use techniques and materials used in vernacular architecture can bring in terms of potential to promote learning, considering the Montessori premises.]
Publication: AMI Bulletin, no. 2
Architecture, Europe, Herman Hertzberger - Works, Holland, Mamie Harvey, Netherlands, Western Europe
Abstract/Notes: featuring architects Herman Hertzberger and Mamie Harvey; and the Apollo Montessori School, Amsterdam
La scuola di Amsterdam: Tracy Metz parla con Herman Hertzberger dellárchitettura per l;educazione / The Amsterdam School: Tracy Metz talks to Herman Hertzberger about the architecture of education
Publication: Domus, no. 832
Das kinderhaus: Montessori-Grundsätze und Architektur [The Children's House: Montessori principles and architecture]
Publication: Der Aufbau
Architecture, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Ecosostenibilità in Maria Montessori. Nella didattica, nell'ambiente, nelle architetture [Eco-sustainability in Maria Montessori. In teaching, in the environment, in architecture]
Abstract/Notes: In questo libro si sottolinea come i fondamenti del Metodo Montessori ricolleghino il bambino alla natura attraverso pratiche educativo-didattiche, ambienti e architetture a questo scopo dedicate. Una chiave, questa, per entrare nel mondo montessoriano più evoluto all'insegna di Ecologia, Ecosostenibilità, Biofilia, Energie alternative, dove il contenuto, il contenitore e quel che lo circonda devono essere in totale sintonia con l'ambiente. Colloquio esclusivo, tra gli altri, con l'archistar olandese Herman Hertzberger, autore - insieme all'architetto italiano Marco Scarpinato - del progetto di una scuola romana unica al mondo. [This book underlines how the foundations of the Montessori Method reconnect the child to nature through educational-didactic practices, environments and architectures dedicated to this purpose. This is a key to entering the most advanced Montessori world under the banner of Ecology, Eco-sustainability, Biophilia, Alternative Energy, where the content, the container and what surrounds it must be in total harmony with the environment. Exclusive conversation, among others, with the Dutch archistar Herman Hertzberger, author - together with the Italian architect Marco Scarpinato - of the project for a unique Roman school in the world.]
Published: Roma: Fefè Editore, 2021
Series: Pagine vere , 49
Lessons for Students in Architecture
Architecture, Herman Hertzberger - Works, Montessori schools
Abstract/Notes: Herman Hertzberger's Lessons for Students in Architecture was first published in 1991, as an elaborated version of lectures he had given since 1973 at Delft University of Technology. It presents a broad spectrum of subjects and designs, with practical experience and evaluation of the use of these buildings serving as a leitmotif. This immensely successful book has gone through many reprints and has also been published in Japanese, German, Italian, Portuguese, Taiwanese, Dutch, Greek, Chinese, French, Polish and Persian. More than 750 illustrations give a broad insight into Hertzberger's 'library' and a stimulating impression of the influences and sources of inspiration of one of the Netherlands' major postwar architects.
Published: [S.I.]: 010 Publishers, 2005
Lessons from Taliesin West: NAMTA's Montessori Architecture Symposium
Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 30, no. 2
A Brief Theoretical Note and Exempla Drawings Toward a Montessori Architecture
Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 31, no. 3
Master's Thesis (M. Arch.)
(Re)thinking Public School Architecture as a Pedagogical Tool
Available from: Laurentian University - Institutional Repository
Abstract/Notes: This thesis aims to rethink elementary public-school architecture by exploring its ability to become an influential aspect of the pedagogical process in schools. As educational paradigms have historically responded to social, political, and cultural conditions, it appears that the development of educational paradigms has moved faster than the educational buildings of the 21st century. Paradoxically, the spatial conditions of educational architecture seem to be stuck in the 19th century. Although there are notable school buildings that emerged from the 20th and 21st century that challenge a conventional school model, the existence of a gap between school architecture and pedagogical paradigms is predominant in the North American context. Beginning with an investigation of the current spatial conditions of educational architecture, specifically in North America, this thesis analyzes the relationship between school buildings and pedagogical paradigms that draw upon the history of education and its built institutions. As well, it examines the factors that prevent such correlation. Relevant building typologies were studied through orthographic drawings to create a visual comparison of school buildings from the 19th century to today. This allows us to observe the major spatial transformations that occurred between school models over time. Additionally, the analysis addresses how the social, economic, and political factors influence the relationship between the design of learning environments and the shift in educational paradigms, uncovering the principles of school designs and identifying clear discontinuities between the built forms and educational models. Undoubtedly, most of the contemporary educational buildings present in the North American context manifest spatial traditions that bear few relations to the current knowledge of the learning processes. Considering the significant role of the learning environment in the support of critical thinking, discovery, and creativity, this thesis explores this potential to overcome century-old traditions of learning through memorization and subservience to the authority of the teacher. We use the context of Markham, Ontario, in the Greater Toronto Area, to create an elementary school based on the principles seen in Montessori’s, Reggio Emilia Schools, and Lab Ecole projects, which respond to the basis of the most actual theories of children education. The designs we see today of newly constructed school buildings within the suburban context tend to be an afterthought, prioritizing budget, and fast construction rates with little to no consideration to how the built environment can aid in the learning process. As a result, the suburbs provide an ideal setting to explore how the physical environment can aid in the learning process. Ultimately, using architecture as a pedagogical tool that prompts the physical environment to inspire, stimulate, and encourage exploration and investigation of new ideas while supporting collaboration and the development of connections beyond the typical school environment.
Published: Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, 2021
Pedagogy, Architecture and Disabilities: Redesigning a Special Needs School in Mexico City
Available from: Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Americas, Architecture, Central America, Classroom environment, Design, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico
Abstract/Notes: This research aims to understand the influence of pedagogical methods in the design of schools, focusing on inclusive schools. The type of research will be a qualitative one through theoretical analysis. The result is an architectural design project for a school for Down Syndrome students in Mexico City taking into consideration the design tools identified in the research. This project has an personal meaning for me as the school to be designed is my brother’s current school. To achieve this aim, we are going to deep dive into four pedagogical methods, their characteristics, and their origins. We will then study their influence and reinterpretation in school architecture around the world through case studies. After that, we will look at the identification of key characteristics from these methods that can help create a more inclusive school. Finally, we will apply the findings to the design of a real school. Despite the advanced knowledge in materials, technology, and architectural theories, the school’s design is still developing. At the moment, many schools are being built without real thought of the design and its effects on the users, being this a problem since school design is crucial in an adequate learning experience. During the first half of the last century, more specifically during the war era, there was an enormous advance in the pedagogical field in European countries such as Austria and Italy mostly influenced by the emergence of educational psychology theories such as “constructivism”. In this research, we are going to focus on three pedagogical methods born in that era, the followings: Montessori (Italy), Reggio Emilia (Italy,) and Waldorf (Germany). Although these methods have different approaches, they all rely on students’ autonomy, the decentralization of authority, and a balanced and holistic worldview. Pedagogy is also highly influenced by its environment regardless of socioeconomic and sociocultural circumstances therefore a proper setting of spaces is key. This relation is not new and can be seen with Henry Barnard who in 1849 wrote “School Architecture”, one of the first school construction manuals which are taking into account pedagogical methods in the building of learning spaces. Throughout the years, specialized architecture manuals for schools such as the Montessori’s one has been created and the design methods have migrated and been applied throughout the globe. Examples of this are Waldorf’s “Family School” in Costa Rica by Arkitito Arquitetura, Oficina umauma & Luiza Gottschalk, the Reggio Emilia’s “Tellus Nursery School” in Sweden by Tham & Videgård Arkitekter and the Montessori’s “Delft Montessori School” by Herman Hertzberger in Holland. The methods have been proven to work well especially in the developmental stages of kids, proving to be effective not only for the conventional student but also for the intellectually disabled ones. When it comes to inclusive education, is quite a new topic for society. In the past, having a disability meant being put in an asylum, psychiatric hospital, or institution with barely or no education. It is until the middle of the last century and with the emergence of human rights together with the development of the pedagogical methods above mentioned, that disabled people started to have a voice in the education system and therefore a place in the classroom. Inclusive education means integrating disabled students into all the events of a classroom through the exercising of their autonomy and a surrounding with an adequate level of stimuli (such as light or color). This can be achieved by the right application of the pedagogical methods in the design phase of the school. For example, the Montessori’s accessible furniture or the Reggio Emilia’s natural lighting. In conclusion, thanks to the evolution of pedagogy and its application to architecture, we are and will witness the development of both, more inclusive schools and highly inclusive spaces in which students (disabled and non-disabled) can better coexist. The analysis of pedagogy is fundamental to building more inclusive schools and through this research, we aim to better understand its methods to apply them to a real case study. / Questa ricerca mira a comprendere l'influenza della pedagogia nella progettazione delle scuole, puntando sull'inclusività. Il tipo di ricerca sarà di tipo qualitativo attraverso un analisi pedagogica teorica. Il risultato finale è un progetto architettonico su una scuola per studenti con Sindrome di Down a Città del Messico prendendo in considerazione gli strumenti individuati nella ricerca. Questo progetto ha un significato personale per me perché mio fratello è al momento uno studente presso quella scuola. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo, ci addentreremo profondamente in quattro metodi pedagogici, le loro caratteristiche e le loro origini. Ne studieremo poi l'influenza e la reinterpretazione nell'architettura scolastica di tutto il mondo attraverso case studies. A seguire, esamineremo le caratteristiche delle architetture pedagogiche che possono aiutare a creare una scuola più inclusiva. Infine, applicheremo i risultati a la progettazione di una vera scuola. Nonostante le avanzate conoscenze sui materiali, tecnologia e teorie architettoniche, in generale il design delle scuole è ancora in via di sviluppo. Al momento, molte scuole sono in costruzione senza un vero pensiero al design e ai suoi effetti sugli utenti. Questo risulta essere un problema dal momento che il design della scuola è cruciale in un'adeguata esperienza di apprendimento. Durante la prima metà del secolo scorso, ci fu un enorme progresso nel campo pedagogico nei paesi europei i quali furono maggiormente influenzati dall'emergere dell'istruzione di teorie psicologiche come il “costruttivismo”. In questa ricerca, ci concentreremo su tre metodi pedagogici nati in quell'epoca, i seguenti: metodo Montessori (Italia), metodo Reggio Emilia (Italia) e metodo Steiner/Waldorf (Austria/Germania). Sebbene questi metodi hanno approcci differenti, sono tutti basati su una serie di concetti comuni tra i quali l'autonomia degli studenti, il decentramento dell'autorità e una visione del mondo equilibrata e olistica. In generale, anche la pedagogia è altamente influenziata dall’ambiente circonstante indipendentemente dal livello socioeconomico e dalle circostanze socioculturali presenti, quindi un ambiente con spazi adeguati risulta fondamentale. Questa relazione tra spazio e pedagogia è un argomento che si può notare già con Henry Barnard, che nel 1849 scrisse “School Architecture”, uno dei primi manuali di costruzione scolastica che già all’epoca prese in considerazione i metodi pedagogici negli edifici scolastici. Nel corso degli anni, sono stati creati veri e propri manuali specializzati in architettura per pedagogie come ad esempio la Montessori ed è proprio grazie a questi manuali, che ad oggi queste architetture sono presenti ed applicate in tutto il mondo. Esempi che confermano l’applicazione di queste pedagogie sono la "Family School" di Steiner/Waldorf in Costa Rica (Arkitito Arquitetura, Oficina umauma & Luiza Gottschalk), la “Tellus Nursery School” di Reggio Emilia in Svezia (Tham & Videgård Arkitekter) e la “Delft Scuola Montessori” in Olanda (Herman Hertzberger). I metodi hanno dimostrato di funzionare bene soprattutto nelle fasi di sviluppo dei bambini, dimostrando di essere efficaci non solo per lo studente convenzionale ma anche per gli intellettualmente disabili. In generale l’educazione inclusiva è considerato un argomento abbastanza nuovo per la società. In passato, avere una disabilità significava essere messi in un ospedale psichiatrico o un istituto con scarsa o nessuna istruzione. È fino alla metà del secolo scorso e con l'emergere dei diritti umani insieme allo sviluppo dei metodi pedagogici sopra menzionati, che le persone disabili hanno iniziato ad avere una voce nel sistema educativo e quindi un posto in classe. Educazione inclusiva significa integrare gli studenti disabili in tutti gli eventi che si svolgono in classe, aiutandoli ad esercitarsi ad essere autonomi attraverso uno spazio con un adeguato livello di stimoli (come la luce o il colore). Questo può essere ottenuto con la giusta applicazione dei metodi pedagogici nella fase progettuale della scuola. Ad esempio, i mobili accessibili della pedagogia Montessori o l'illuminazione naturale della pedagogia Reggio Emilia. In conclusione, grazie all'evoluzione della pedagogia e della sua applicazione all'architettura, siamo e saremo testimoni dello sviluppo di scuole sempre più inclusive in cui gli studenti (disabili e non) possano convivere meglio insieme. Questa ricerca, mira per l’appunto a comprendere al meglio le tematiche pedagogiche con l’obiettivo finale di costruire scuole sempre più inclusive.
Published: Milano, Italy, 2022