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Montessori Mathematics for Students with Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified
Available from: Universitas Muhammadiyah Tangerang
Publication: Prima: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, vol. 6, no. 1
Developmentally disabled children, Mathematics education, Montessori method of education
Abstract/Notes: Montessori is a learning method that uses the surrounding environment as a learning resource. This research is aimed at describing how the Montessori method is applied to Mathematics for students who survive Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The research method used is descriptive qualitative. The research subjects were PDD-NOS grade V SD students in inclusive schools. The research instruments were documentation, observation, and interviews. The results showed that students with PDD-NOS who have delays in communication can more easily accept mathematics learning using the Montessori method. This is supported by the Montessori concept which allows PDD-NOS students to use lego in learning fractions.
The Epistemology Behind the Educational Philosophy of Montessori: Senses, Concepts, and Choice
Available from: Simon Fraser University
Publication: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, vol. 23, no. 2
Abstract/Notes: This article seeks to re-introduce Dr. Maria Montessori’s educational philosophy, which has been absent from modern philosophy of education literature. It describes and analyzes crucial aspects of her epistemology, as best known through her Method. Discussed are the need for early education, the development of the senses, and the exercise of choice by the students. Concept formation is also shown to be an important part of Montessori’s philosophy of instruction. This article concludes with a brief resolution of the “is–ought” objection as framed by Scheffler that might be waged against Montessori’s approach.
Multicultural Teacher Education: Developing a Hermeneutic Disposition
Available from: Philosophy of Education Society
Publication: Philosophy of Education Yearbook
Abstract/Notes: The essay discusses multicultural teacher education (MTE) of preservice teachers, bigotry or prejudices, and the hermeneutics educational theory of Hans-Georg Gadamer. The authors describe changing teachers' dispositions through transformative learning, the history of hermeneutics, and the philosophy of the other. The authors mention cultural interactions, classroom relationships, and class activities to explore diversity and cultural experiences.
Programa de uso del material didáctico basado en el método Montessori para desarrollar las Rutas de Aprendizaje del área de Matemática en los niños de 3 años “B” de la I.E.P. Rafael Narváez Cadenillas, en la ciudad de Trujillo, en el año 2013 [Program for the use of didactic material based on the Montessori method to develop the Learning Paths of the Mathematics area in 3-year-old children "B" of the I.E.P. Rafael Narváez Cadenillas, in the city of Trujillo, in 2013]
Available from: Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (Peru)
Publication: Perspectivas en Primera Infancia, vol. 2, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: Los problemas que afectan al aprendizaje de nuestros estudiantes son múltiples y variados. Sin embargo algunos de ellos pueden ser solucionados adecuadamente por los mismos docentes. Lo que sucede es que mucho profesores debido a la situación económica, falta de tiempo, la falta de creatividad y capacitación para el conocimientos de nuevos materiales didácticos se sienten desalentados frente a su labor de enseñanza y permanecen indiferentes ante la búsqueda de recursos o materiales didácticos para hacer más eficientes sus actividades de aprendizaje propuestos en las programaciones curriculares. [The problems that affect the learning of our students are many and varied. However, some of them can be adequately solved by the teachers themselves. What happens is that many teachers, due to the economic situation, lack of time, lack of creativity and training for the knowledge of new teaching materials feel discouraged in their teaching work and remain indifferent to the search for resources or teaching materials to make the learning activities proposed in the curricular programs more efficient.]
Beyond Executive Functions, Creativity Skills Benefit Academic Outcomes: Insights from Montessori Education
Available from: PLoS Journals
Publication: PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 11
Date: Nov 2019
Abstract/Notes: Studies have shown scholastic, creative, and social benefits of Montessori education, benefits that were hypothesized to result from better executive functioning on the part of those so educated. As these previous studies have not reported consistent outcomes supporting this idea, we therefore evaluated scholastic development in a cross-sectional study of kindergarten and elementary school-age students, with an emphasis on the three core executive measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory update, and selective attention (inhibition). Two hundred and one (201) children underwent a complete assessment: half of the participants were from Montessori settings, while the other half were controls from traditional schools. The results confirmed that Montessori participants outperformed peers from traditional schools both in academic outcomes and in creativity skills across age groups and in self-reported well-being at school at kindergarten age. No differences were found in global executive functions, except working memory. Moreover, a multiple mediations model revealed a significant impact of creative skills on academic outcomes influenced by the school experience. These results shed light on the possibly overestimated contribution of executive functions as the main contributor to scholastic success of Montessori students and call for further investigation. Here, we propose that Montessori school-age children benefit instead from a more balanced development stemming from self-directed creative execution.
Transgresje w biograficznych doświadczeniach wybitnych pedagogów: Marii Montessori i Janusza Korczaka [Transgressions in the biographical experiences of outstanding educators: Maria Montessori and Janusz Korczak]
Available from: University of Gdańsk
Publication: Podstawy Edukacji [Fundamentals of Education], vol. 10
Janusz Korczak - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources
Abstract/Notes: Transgressions are innovative and creative activities. They allow people to go beyond the limits of their current functioning, thus gaining new areas of activity or creating new values. Motivation specific to transgression is hubristic motivation. The article analyzes the biographical experiences of outstanding pedagogues. – Maria Montessori and Janusz Korczak. Maria Montessori – Italian physician, education system creator and Montessori pedagogy based on the needs of the child. Transcendental biography of Janusz Korczak – doctor, pedagogue, writer, journalist, visionary. Biographies contain different spaces of transgressive activities: personal, professional, social, creative, literary. They concern the concept of education, methods of pedagogical work with the child. The accomplishments of outstanding pedagogues include immutable values.
Helen Parkhurst: The First Female Reformer in the Field of Organization of Education
Available from: PNO Journal
Publication: Perspektivy Nauki i Obrazovaniya / Перспективы Науки и Образования [Perspectives of Science and Education], vol. 2, no. 56
Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources
Abstract/Notes: Проблема повышения уровня преподавания в сфере общего и профессионального образования является одной из наиболее значимых в современной педагогике. В связи с этим современные дидакты внимательно изучают наследие своих выдающихся предшественников, – педагогов прошлого. К числу таких ученых, оставивших неповторимый след в педагогической науке и практике, относится американская учительница Хелен Паркхерст (1886-1973). Статья написана в связи с 135-летием со дня рождения Х. Паркхерст.Американская учительница-новатор Хелен Паркхерст, наряду с Марией Монтессори, нарушила монополию мужчин на право считаться крупным ученым в области педагогики. Ее педагогическая деятельность включала в себя стремление к постоянному профессиональному самосовершенствованию, поиску новых путей в решении встававших перед ней педагогических проблем. Ее главным методическим достижением стала разработка Дальтон-плана, в соответствии с которым она успешно перестроила работу в одной из американских школ. Методическая новация Паркхерст получила одобрение со стороны вначале педагогов США, а затем повсюду в мире. В СССР в 1920-1930-х гг. этот метод также активно использовался, правда, без особого успеха. Применение Дальтон-плана в советской школе нашло отражение в ряде произведений художественной литературы (М. Г. Розанов, Н. И. Кочин). Методические идеи Хелен Паркхерст в наши дни крайне востребованы и активно используются в современной образовательной практике многих стран мира, в том числе в России. В то же время их позитивный потенциал еще не вполне изучен и освоен, поэтому наследие Х. Паркхерст заслуживает дальнейшего внимательного исследования дидактами и историками педагогики. / The problem of raising the level of teaching in the field of general and vocational education is one of the most significant in modern pedagogy. In this regard, modern didactic students are carefully studying the legacy of their outstanding predecessors, teachers of the past. The American teacher Helen Parkhurst (1886-1973) is one of these scientists who left an inimitable mark on pedagogical science and practice. The article was written in connection with the 135th anniversary of the birth of H. Parkhurst. The American teacher-innovator Helen Parkhurst, along with Maria Montessori, violated the monopoly of men on the right to be considered a major scientist in the field of pedagogy. Her pedagogical activity included the desire for constant professional self-improvement, the search for new ways in solving the pedagogical problems that confronted her. Her main methodological achievement was the development of the Dalton Plan, according to which she successfully restructured work in one of the American schools. The methodical innovation of Parkhurst was approved first by educators in the United States, and then all over the world. In the USSR in the 1920-1930s. this method was also actively used, however, without much success. The use of the Dalton plan in the Soviet school was reflected in a number of works of fiction (M. G. Rozanov, N. I. Kochin). The methodological ideas of Helen Parkhurst are extremely in demand these days and are actively used in modern educational practice in many countries of the world, including Russia. At the same time, their positive potential has not yet been fully explored and mastered, so the legacy of Helen Parkhurst deserves further careful study by didactics and historians of pedagogy.
Self-Directed Learning: A Cognitive and Computational Perspective
Available from: SAGE Journals
Publication: Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol. 7, no. 5
Date: Sep 2012
Abstract/Notes: A widely advocated idea in education is that people learn better when the flow of experience is under their control (i.e., learning is self-directed). However, the reasons why volitional control might result in superior acquisition and the limits to such advantages remain poorly understood. In this article, we review the issue from both a cognitive and computational perspective. On the cognitive side, self-directed learning allows individuals to focus effort on useful information they do not yet possess, can expose information that is inaccessible via passive observation, and may enhance the encoding and retention of materials. On the computational side, the development of efficient “active learning” algorithms that can select their own training data is an emerging research topic in machine learning. This review argues that recent advances in these related fields may offer a fresh theoretical perspective on how people gather information to support their own learning.
ISSN: 1745-6916, 1745-6924
Towards a Constructivist Montessori Education
Available from: Sabinet African Journals
Publication: Perspectives in Education, vol. 22, no. 2
Cognitive development, Constructivism (Education) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Early childhood education, Jean Piaget - Philosophy, Lev Vygotsky - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Abstract/Notes: This article argues that the Montessori method can be recast as a viable contemporary, constructivist programme for early childhood education. Montessori believed that children in the crucial years from birth to age six possess extraordinary, innate mental powers to "absorb" the environment. This view was typical of the now outdated zeitgeist within which Montessori developed her innatist account of learning in children and put forward the concept of sensorial activity. Critiques of Montessori along anti-innatist lines developed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the 1930s provide the possibility of a break with static, innatist conceptions of learning. The suggestion here is that while Piaget and Vygotsky both held Montessori in high regard, they were unhappy with her construal of "sensory education". Each wanted to use her method and materials as a vehicle for the constructive activity that children engage in when they learn. The paper argues that Montessori's early notion of activity can be the basis for a contemporary reappropriation of her work in the terms of cognitive developmental constructivism.
La Educación Montessori
Available from: Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (Peru)
Publication: Perspectivas en Primera Infancia, vol. 3, no. 1
Americas, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori method of education, Peru, South America
Abstract/Notes: El método Montessori, es un método Italiano, fundado por María Montessori, cuyo propósito fundamental es permitir al niño sea el protagonista de su propio aprendizaje, en un ambiente especialmente preparado, con materiales científicamente diseñados, con objetivos específicos y una guía ó adulto entrenado y capacitado. Los ingredientes principales para la buena ejecución de este sistema metodológico son: la libertad, el respeto por el niño a su individualidad y asu desarrollo físico y emocional. [The Montessori method is an Italian method, founded by María Montessori, whose fundamental purpose is to allow the child to be the protagonist of their own learning, in a specially prepared environment, with scientifically designed materials, with specific objectives and a guide or adult trained and capable. The main ingredients for the proper execution of this methodological system are: freedom, respect for the child to her individuality and her physical and emotional development.]
Characteristics of the Child in Elementary School
Publication: Communications: Journal of the Association Montessori Internationale (2009-2012), vol. 2010, no. 2
Abstract/Notes: A talk given at the 19th International Montessori Congress, "Help the Child to Shape Man's Future", Amsterdam, 1979.
Stacey Cook and Transformation: First Year Reflections in an OEkos Schools Program [Lakeside Elementary School, Pine Bluff, Arkansas]
Publication: OEkosphere [Œkosphere], vol. 1, no. 3
Date: Apr/May 1995
Flotsam and Jetsam; Amsterdam - Children at Montessori Primary Schools Perform Better than Other Children in Traditional Schools
Available from: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Publication: Bonaire Reporter (Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands)
Date: Sep 30, 2013
New Education and Alternative Schools in Taiwan: Educational Research from 1949 to 2005 Taking Special Account of Ten Alternative Schools
Asia, China, East Asia, Taiwan
Abstract/Notes: Reviewed in Communications 2008/1 // In her dissertation she analyses the efforts of New Education in her home country and compares them to European reform approaches. In this context she analyses and evaluates a large amount of written documents and adds to her literary research especially for the ten alternative schools her own studies at these schools and interviews with the educationalists/teachers responsible. One of the analysed schools was a Montessori school, another one was a Waldorf school. The survey communicates interesting insights and findings about school development in an increasingly democratising Asian country that is scarcely considered in Germany.
Published: Münster, Germany, 2005
Doctoral Dissertation (Ph.D.)
A Comparative Multi-Case Study of Teacher Roles in U.S. Montessori Preschool and Saudi Public Preschool
Available from: OhioLINK ETD Center
Americas, Asia, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Middle East, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Montessori schools, North America, Public Montessori, Saudi Arabia, Teachers, United States of America
Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast teacher roles in two early childhood education settings—a U.S. Montessori preschool and a traditional Saudi public preschool—and to examine the philosophical, cultural, and theoretical influences on those roles. Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism, and multi-cultural theories were used as a research framework. Data was collected from the two teacher cases in their respective settings through classroom observations, in-depth interviews, and lesson plan/student assessment documents. The study’s findings showed that the roles of a U.S. Montessori preschool teacher and the roles of a Saudi traditional preschool teacher are generally much the same. Though the contexts and the surrounding national cultures and educational philosophies contrast significantly, the work of an early childhood teacher can be summarized in five categories which were consistent between data contexts: academic instruction, relationship with students and other adults, personal and professional development, behavioral management, and environmental preparation. Complementing this general role similarity between contexts, however, was the contrast in aspects of these roles between the two case teachers: the degrees of their attention to their roles, their efforts to perform these roles with excellence, and their application of their philosophies within their particular preschool settings and national cultures. Internationally, ECE programs need clarity about teachers’ responsibilities and a greater awareness of the cultural and philosophical influences on preschool teachers’ work.
Published: Kent, Ohio, 2017
Whither Whitby? An Ambitious Reorganization at the Oldest Montessori School in the U.S. Raises Questions... And Emotions [Whitby School, Greenwich, Connecticut]
Publication: Public School Montessorian, vol. 16, no. 2
Date: Winter 2004
Pages: 1, 18-19
A Study of Pre-School Education in the Republic of Ireland with Particular Reference to Those Pre-Schools Which are Listed by the Irish Pre-School Playgroups Association in Cork City and County
Available from: British Library - EthOS
Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Europe, Ireland, Montessori method of education, Northern Europe, Preschool education
Abstract/Notes: This study was undertaken in order to investigate the activities which took place in Irish pre-schools other than those within the formal school system. The principle focus of the research concerned the degree to which the pre-school children were being 'cognitively stretched' by the curriculum in which they were engaged. The social, linguistic, physical and creative development of these children was also considered.An historical review of the theory of play and recent research in this area was undertaken.Twenty-three pre-schools were taken at random from the membership list in Cork city and county of the Irish Pre- School Playgroups Association. One pre-school which was not a member was added. Prior to embarking upon the study, a history of the I.P.P.A. was given.The ethnographic research strategy was found to be the most suitable method of assessing empirically the nature and frequency of play in the pre-school. This study, which took place between 1986 and 1990, was therefore eclectic in nature, employing a multi-faceted approach encompassing a target child observational schedule, interviews, a study of classrooms, a questionnaire and an interaction analysis system.Briefly, the results showed that the 157 children engaged in this study were being cognitively stretched for approximately one quarter of the time if they were in a playgroup and approximately one half of the time if they were in a Montessori setting. Social and linguistic behaviour was limited by the actions of the pre-school leaders and physically or creatively challenging behaviour was rarely observed. The fact that the children played alone for half of the total time spent in the pre-school was most striking.The most important finding to emerge from the study of language in the twenty-four pre-schools was the fact that the children rarely communicated verbally. Dialogue was almost non-existent and children's questions were very sparse. In order to place the above in a National context, a questionnaire was sent in 1990 to a random sample of one hundred I.P.P.A. members in the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland. Unfortunately, only 39 responded. However, of note was that approximately 25% of playgroup leaders had degrees and four-fifths of them were mothers in their mid-thirties. They strongly disagreed with the teaching of the 3Rs and felt that much more government money should be devoted to playgroups and in-service training for their personnel.
Published: Hull, England, 1993
Schools Helping Schools: Karuna Montessori
Publication: Montessori Matters, no. 1
The OEkos Schools Program Sites [14 public schools]
Publication: OEkosphere [Œkosphere], vol. 1, no. 2
Date: Jan/Feb 1995
The Parent-Centered Early School: Highland Community School of Milwaukee
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Abstract/Notes: In May, 1991, the newly chosen Milwaukee Public Schools Superintendent, Dr. Ho,vard Fuller, visited Highland Community School. His main question to parents and staff assembled to greet him was, "What lessons can we public school people learn from you?" Highland people had cogent ideas to pass on to him. This book is a more formal response in which I hope the hundreds of people who have continuously created Highland in its first twenty-five years speak through me in answer to him and to his colleagues elsewhere in public education. Highland began in late 1968, and by 1994 was one of only ten schools in the entire country to qualify for state-financed vouchers to independent urban schools. It is small: about seventy ethnically and economically diverse students aged two-and-a-half to ten years, three teachers and three assistants, a full-time executive director, and three part-time helpers, including a parent coordinator. One of the teachers doubles as principal. Annual expenditures per pupil are about $2,800. The curriculum is Montessori-based. The building is a century-old mansion. The school is governed by a nine-member parent board of directors and helped, primarily in fund-raising, by an advisory group of trustees. It is located in Milwaukee's Near West Side, an economically depressed and violent neighborhood (Jeffrey Dahmer's apartment, since razed, was only five blocks from the school). This is the story of a small school. Faced with the vastness of urban decay and its impact on educational institutions, the reader might question whether describing and analyzing this diminutive organization has any relevance to urban education. Despite differences between it and stereotypical urban public schools, however, it brings a message to American education much more important than its size seems to warrant. Its size is precisely the point. Change nucleates and incubates in small settings. Our huge society conditions us to think in terms of large numbers, sweeping change, vast federal programs. Government may be able to create contexts for change, but the changes themselves have to be brought about where individuals assemble to meet their mutual needs. Whether their relationships will be harmonious and productive, or acrimonious and dysfunctional, depends on how the organization is structured and what spirit has been breathed into it. This book fleshes out the organizational and attitudinal reasons that Highland works so well and what public education can learn from this small inner-city educational oasis. As a framework for the organization of this study, let us first review factors that research has revealed make a school effective.
Published: New York, New York: Garland, 1997
Series: Studies in Education and Culture , 10