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Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Impact of Montessori Teaching Method on IQ Levels of 5-Year Old Children

Available from: ScienceDirect

Publication: Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 205

Pages: 122-127

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the Montessori approach on the IQ of 5-year old children. To do this, a sample of 80 5-year old children (40 children from the traditional kindergartens and 40 ones from a Montessori-regulated kindergarten) were randomly selected from different kindergartens in Shiraz, Iran, based on a simple random selection (for Montessori system) and a multi-stage selection (for the traditional system). Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RMP) test was used to measure participants’ IQ levels. Then Vineland Social Maturity scale was used. The data collected for testing hypotheses was then analyzed using the independent-samples t-test on dependent samples. Results showed that the IQ and the level of the 5-year old children educated through the Montessori approach was substantially higher than that of the children educated based on the traditional approach. The study suggested that education system (Montessori or traditional) had affected the children's IQ and social maturity growth level.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.09.037

ISSN: 1877-0428

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Using Nature-Based Space and Materials on the Children’s Concentration Levels in an Early Childhood Montessori Environment

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: This research study explored the effects of using nature-based space and materials on the children’s concentration levels in an early childhood Montessori environment. Nineteen 3-6-year-olds participated in the study for four weeks. The researcher designed and implemented two interventions, nature-based space and nature-based materials, inside an early childhood Montessori environment. The purpose was to holistically improve the children’s concentration levels by being exposed to a nature-based area and materials. The data collection process relied on four qualitative and quantitative data tools: tally sheets, general observational notes, rate sheets, and measurement notes. The data analyzed in this research study suggests exposing young children to both nature-based space and materials in the learning environment is beneficial to their concentration levels. Lastly, the researcher considers further investigation of the effects of being exposed to nature and technology on the children’s brain by using scientific devices to read and interpret the brain activity.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2020

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Epistemology Behind the Educational Philosophy of Montessori: Senses, Concepts, and Choice

Available from: Simon Fraser University

Publication: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, vol. 23, no. 2

Pages: 125–140

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Abstract/Notes: This article seeks to re-introduce Dr. Maria Montessori’s educational philosophy, which has been absent from modern philosophy of education literature. It describes and analyzes crucial aspects of her epistemology, as best known through her Method. Discussed are the need for early education, the development of the senses, and the exercise of choice by the students. Concept formation is also shown to be an important part of Montessori’s philosophy of instruction. This article concludes with a brief resolution of the “is–ought” objection as framed by Scheffler that might be waged against Montessori’s approach.

Language: English

ISSN: 2369-8659

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Modeling High-Leverage Practices on Classroom Management Skills

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to see how using High-Leverage Practices with a novice teacher would affect her classroom management skills in a lower elementary, Montessori classroom. Teaching in a lower elementary, Montessori classroom is always difficult as it is a mixed-age environment of first through third grade students. It is also difficult when the teacher is new to the field of teaching. Since many teachers come to teaching from other careers, learning how to effectively manage their classrooms is an on-going struggle. This study focuses on what happens when a master teacher, with more than 20 years of experience, works with a novice teacher who has taught for less than 3 years. The researcher used High-Leverage Practices to model teaching practices in the novice teacher’s classroom based on observed areas for growth. Improvements were seen in the areas selected by the novice teacher, such as giving individual and group lessons, redirecting students who are not engaged, and lesson preparation. Research should continue in this area as there is little history of this practice in Montessori teacher education. Research should also continue to see if the effects of the interventions would be more significant over a longer period of time.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2020

Bachelor's Thesis

Perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak Prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori [Differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools]

Available from: CORE

Asia, Australasia, Comparative education, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Kemandirian adalah kemampuan seseorang untuk melakukan segala sesuatunya sendiri sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yang didasari oleh inisiatif, keinginan, kontrol diri dan kepercayaan pada kemampuannya sendiri. Anak perlu dilatih kemandiriannya sejak usia dini supaya tugas perkembangan dapat berkembang secara optimal. Sekolah memiliki peran penting untuk meningkatkan kemandirian anak. Menurut Santrock (2002:242), lingkungan bermain sangat penting dalam optimalisasi perkembangan anak. Salah satu sekolah dengan pendekatan seperti di atas adalah sekolah Montessori. Pendekatan Montessori menerapkan agar anak belajar mandiri dan tidak bertanya kepada guru atau menunggu jawaban (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Anak yang dididik dengan pendekatan Montessori diberi kesempatan untuk bekerja sendiri dengan material-material yang ada di lingkungannya, mengungkapkan keinginannya untuk memilih aktivitas, mengembangkan disiplin, dan anak perlu mengetahui apa yang baik dan buruk. Apabila hal-hal ini telah dipenuhi, maka kemandirian anak akan terbentuk (Modern Montessori International n.d.:40-41). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui secara empiris ada tidaknya perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori. Subjek penelitian (N=28) adalah anak prasekolah berusia 3-4 tahun yang bersekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dan sekolah non Montessori “Y” Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan seluruh populasi playgroup 2. Pengambilan data menggunakan rating scale terhadap kemandirian anak di sekolah Montessori maupun di sekolah non Montessori. Data dianalisis dengan teknik Uji t (t-test). Nilai t = 0.364, dengan p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis penelitian ditolak. Hal ini berarti tidak ada perbedaan signifikan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dengan sekolah non Montessori “Y”. [Independence is a person's ability to do things on their own in accordance with their developmental tasks based on initiative, desire, self-control and belief in their own abilities. Children need to be trained to be independent from an early age so that developmental tasks can develop optimally. Schools have an important role in increasing children's independence. According to Santrock (2002: 242), the play environment is very important in optimizing children's development. One of the schools with such an approach is the Montessori school. The Montessori approach applies so that children learn independently and do not ask the teacher or wait for answers (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Children who are educated with the Montessori approach are given the opportunity to work alone with materials in their environment, express their desire to choose activities, develop discipline, and children need to know what is good and bad. If these things have been fulfilled, then the child's independence will be formed (Modern Montessori International n.d.: 40-41). This study aims to determine empirically whether there are differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools. The research subjects (N=28) were preschoolers aged 3-4 years who attended Montessori schools "X" and non-Montessori schools "Y" The sampling technique used the entire playgroup population 2. Data collection used a rating scale on the independence of children in Montessori schools. as well as in non-Montessori schools. The data were analyzed by using the t-test technique (t-test). The value of t = 0.364, with p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) which means the research hypothesis is rejected. This means that there is no significant difference in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools "X" with non-Montessori schools "Y"]

Language: Indonesian

Published: Surabaya, Indonesia, 2009

Article

The Slowdown of the Multiage Classroom: What Was Once a Popular Approach Has Fallen Victim to NCLB Demands for Grade-Level Testing

Available from: ERIC

Publication: School Administrator, vol. 62, no. 3

Pages: 22

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Abstract/Notes: In this article, the author discusses multiage education. Multiage education hailed as recently as 10 years ago as a promising way to restructure schools and boost student achievement but now has fallen on hard times. Interest in the issue has waned, with new research on the topic virtually nonexistent and attendance at national multiage conferences a fraction of what it once was. Schools across the country are cutting existing multiage programs, or choosing not to begin new ones. Even the state of Kentucky, which in 1990 heralded ungraded primary education as a linchpin of its sweeping school reform effort, has seen the scope of its multiage initiative reduced by half. Some trace the decline of multiage education to No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its emphasis on standardized, grade-level testing. A list of additional resources and Web sites concludes this article.

Language: English

ISSN: 0036-6439

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Capacitación docente, basada en la teoría Montessori, para atender la discapacidad intelectual leve en niños de Educación General Básica de Guayaquil 2021 / Teacher training, based on Montessori theory, to attend to mild intellectual disability in children of Basic General Education of Guayaquil 2021

Available from: South Florida Publishing

Publication: South Florida Journal of Development, vol. 3, no. 1

Pages: 194-210

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Abstract/Notes: La presente investigación tuvo como propósito determinar que la capacitación docente basada en la teoría Montessori, influye en la atención de la discapacidad intelectual leve en niños de educación general básica de Guayaquil. Se sustentó teóricamente con los aportes de Montessori (1907), Lee (2018), Molina (2012, 2015), Chiavenato (2000), Rodríguez y Ramírez (1997), OMS (2021), AARM (2020),Tünnermann (2011), (Aubrey, 2010), UNESCO (2006), Cossentino (2005), Díaz (2002), Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador (2011), entre otros. La investigación se catalogó como experimental-aplicada, con nivel netamente explicativo. El diseño se clasificó como pre-experimental, con modelo pre-test/post-test con un solo grupo. La población estuvo constituida por 50 profesionales de educación general básica; debido al número finito y conocido de la población se empleó un censo poblacional. Como técnica de recolección de datos se utilizó la encuesta y como instrumento, el cuestionario. El análisis descriptivo de los datos se realizó mediante la confección de tablas de frecuencia absoluta (fa) y porcentaje (%), medidas de posición (promedio, mediana, mínima y máxima), dispersión (desviación estándar) y varianza. Asimismo, se realizó un análisis inferencial acerca de la población, basándose en los datos recolectados y la contrastación de las hipótesis planteadas. Los resultados evidenciaron una diferencia significativa de 19,02, entre los resultados del pre y post test, con un nivel de significancia de 0,000 < 0,05. Por tanto, se aceptó la hipótesis de investigación (Hi) y se rechazó la hipótesis nula (Ho), llegando a la conclusión que la propuesta basada en teoría Montessori influye de forma significativa y positiva en la atención de la discapacidad intelectual leve en niños de educación general básica de Guayaquil. El presente estudio representa un gran aporte para el sistema educativo en lo concerniente al área de la discapacidad e inclusión.

Language: Spanish

DOI: 10.46932/sfjdv3n1-015

ISSN: 2675-5459

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

A Systematic Review of Montessori-Based Activities for Persons With Dementia

Available from: ScienceDirect

Publication: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 17, no. 2

Pages: 117-122

Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Gerontology, Montessori therapy, Montessori-based interventions (MBI)

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori-based activities are becoming a popular approach for the care of older adults living with dementia. The aim of this study was to systematically assess the quality of the research examining the benefits of Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia. Six peer-reviewed databases were systematically searched for all relevant articles published until April 2015. Included articles were peer-reviewed studies published in English that employed Montessori-based activities with persons with dementia. Methodological quality was assessed by 2 independent raters using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale or the Downs and Black evaluation tool. Levels of evidence were assigned to the study design using a modified Sackett scale. One hundred fifty articles were identified, and 14 were selected for inclusion. Level-2 evidence examining the impact of Montessori-based activities on eating behaviors suggested that difficulties with eating could be reduced with Montessori training. There was limited level-4 evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on cognition, wherein benefits appeared to be specific to lower-level cognitive abilities including memory and attention. Finally, there is level-1 (n = 1), level-2 (n = 3), and level-4 (n = 6) evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on engagement and affect, whereby constructive engagement and positive affect were heightened. Overall, there is a strong level of evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on eating behaviors and weak evidence for the benefits on cognition. Evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on engagement and affect are mixed. Future research is needed to examine the long-term benefits of Montessori-based activities.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2015.10.006

ISSN: 1525-8610

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Traditional vs. Montessori Education in Relation to Children's Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Prosocial Behavior

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, Americas, Caribbean, Comparative education, Elementary education, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori schools, Puerto Rico, Student attitudes

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Abstract/Notes: The present study compares elementary school children from Traditional and Montessori programs. The purpose is to investigate how different educational philosophies and teaching methods affect perceived levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy, prosocial behavior and aggressive behavior in children. The participants in this study consisted of second through sixth grade students who were attending Montessori and Traditional schools since the age of five, or earlier. All children completed the Washington Self-Description Questionnaire (WSDQ), three subscales of the Children's Multi-dimensional Self-Efficacy Scales (i.e., academic achievement, self-regulated learning, & social), the Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale, and the Prosocial Behavior Scale. No significant differences were revealed between the Montessori and Traditional programs in relation to the children's perceived levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy for academic achievement, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, social self-efficacy, or prosocial behavior. However, the Montessori children reported significantly lower levels of physical/verbal aggression than the Traditional children. Moreover, as Montessori children develop a heightened ability to work within a group of peers, they seem to develop lower levels of physical/verbal aggression, which was not found among Traditional children. Furthermore, Montessori children's perceived ability to make and keep friends of the same gender was found to significantly improve with increased years in the program, which was not found in the Traditional method. For Montessori children, their perceived ability to work together in a group was found to be positively associated with heightened levels of self-efficacy for academic achievement and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Furthermore, the Montessori children's levels of self-esteem were correlated significantly with their perceived levels of self-efficacy for academic achievement and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Although Traditional children were also found to gain self-efficacy for self-regulated learning through working together at young ages, as they proceed to higher grade levels, their self-efficacy for self-regulated learning decreased.

Language: English

Published: San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2002

Doctoral Dissertation

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Korean Montessori Teacher Training Program as Perceived by Montessori Teachers and Parents of Montessori-Educated Children

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: During the past ten years, a total of 3,642 teachers and administrators have attended the Korean Montessori Teacher Training Program (KMTTP). A sample of Montessori teachers (n = 261) and Korean parents (n = 375) from 32 Korean Montessori schools located in the major cities of Korea were surveyed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this teacher preparation program. The EXPECTATIONS AND GOAL ATTAINMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (EGAQ), designed by the researcher, was the instrumentation used to conduct this study. Major findings demonstrated that 74.5 percent of the teachers surveyed indicated that their main reasons for attending the KMTTP were to increase their professional competency and their knowledge of child development through Montessori philosophy. The correlation between teachers' levels of satisfaction with their preparation and perceived effectiveness of the training program was higher (r =.29, p $<$.05) than between their levels of satisfaction with the program and their perceptions of their preparedness after completion of training (r =.18, p $<$.05). Significant differences existed between perceived effectiveness of the KMTTP and teachers' ages, positions, and years of experience. Older teachers and those with more advanced teaching positions expressed greater satisfaction with the program. Teachers indicated that, upon completion of the KMTTP, they felt more prepared in, than knowledgeable of, Montessori educational methodology. From the parent perspective, the most frequently cited reason (74.3%) for sending their child to a Montessori School was to provide a learning environment that nurtured their child's interpersonal growth. A majority of the parents (58.5%) were very satisfied with the Montessori experience; no parents were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied. In correlating the effectiveness of Montessori education with specific outcomes, parents indicated highest levels of satisfaction in the areas of "concentration" and "academic achievement." A majority of the teachers surveyed (52.8%) encouraged the implementation of the Montessori Teacher Training Program in neighboring countries, with 42.1 percent strongly encouraging implementation. This study demonstrated the need for further development and improvement in the area of Montessori teacher training in Korea.

Language: English

Published: San Francisco, California, 1994

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