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Article

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

Article

Philosophically-Based Alternatives in Education: An Exploration of Learner-Centered, Progressive, and Holistic Education

Publication: Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice, vol. 17, no. 1

Pages: 17-27

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Based on a database of over 500 resources, this paper explores the educational alternatives that exist today between the cracks of mainstream education and culture. It presents information about the growing numbers of schools and education centers that call themselves learner-centered, progressive, and/or holistic. Sources of data for this summary report also include over 3 years of informal interviews with and observations of people at alternative schools. The paper begins by examining terminology issues, discussing qualities for distinguishing educational alternatives, and describing eight types of schools (democratic and free schools, folk education, Quaker schools, homeschooling/unschooling/deschooling, Krishnamurti schools, Montessori schools, open schools, and Waldorf schools). It also presents frameworks for education (maps for understanding the territories of alternatives), and it discusses the three orientations of a competency based education: transaction (progressive), self-directed (learner-centered), and transformation (holistic). After looking at political issues around school choice which could impact the growth of the various philosophical alternatives, the paper concludes that in a society where issues of pluralism and diversity are valued as part of creating a more sustainable world and just democracy, the diversity of philosophical perspectives in education needs to be acknowledged. (Contains 41 references.) (SM)

Language: English

ISSN: 1094-3838, 2158-8414

Article

Montessori Education as Foundation for the Education Reform by the Ad Hoc Commission on Education

Publication: Montessori Kyōiku [Montessori Education], no. 19

Pages: 8-15

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Language: Japanese

ISSN: 0913-4220

Doctoral Dissertation

The New Education Fellowship and the Reconstruction of Education: 1945 to 1966

Available from: UCL

Educational change, Europe, New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: During the 1920s and 1930s, the New Education Fellowship (NEF), founded in 1919, established itself as an important international force for radical education and educational experimentation. Its membership was drawn from many different countries and included some of the most prominent progressive educators of that period. By 1945, however, the movement was experiencing international decline. Membership had fallen and in many countries the new educational network had ceased to exist. This situation was a result not only of the destruction of the new educational network in Europe during the Second World War, but also of the change in the outlook of educationists and reformers who sought new solutions to the problems of the reconstruction of society and education. The purpose of this study is to explore the NEF's importance as a disseminator of educational and political ideals after 1945 and its contribution to debates about the post-war reconstruction of education and society, using the considerable but currently little-researched material held at the Institute of Education, University of London. This thesis examines the NEF's network after 1945 and considers how far the NEF successfully extended its membership amongst school teachers and educationists at teacher training colleges. The NEF also sought to develop an international network. The international activities of the NEF, both through links with other organisations, for example, the United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), and its membership in those countries where the NEF maintained branches are explored in order to gauge the success of the NEF as a movement with internationalist ambitions.

Language: English

Published: London, England, 2009

Article

Preschool Educational Approaches: A Comparative Study

Available from: Comparative Education Society of Iran (CESIR)

Publication: Iranian Journal of Comparative Education, vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 1898-1928

Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., ⚠️ Invalid DOI

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of research was a comparative study of preschool educational approaches. In this research, the components of goals, content, teaching method, educational atmosphere and evaluation in romantic, humanistic, Montessori, Waldorf and Reggio Emilia approaches have been compared. The method of data collection and analysis were documentary and Bereday’s four-step approach respectively. In dimension of goals, all approaches emphasize the enrichment of the child's imagination through the senses. In the activities dimension, all approaches emphasize the learning process. Montessori and Reggio Emilia's approach, more than other approaches, design activities in a more problem-oriented manner. In the Montessori, Reggio Emilia and Waldorf approaches emphasized the question-and-answer method and indirect transmission of material to the child. In particular, the Reggio Emilia and Waldorf approaches have made the learning method the basis of child-teacher interaction, and teaching means the process of helping children learn research. In the dimension of educational atmosphere, human interaction with the environment - through the senses - is the basis of education in all approaches. In the evaluation dimension - with the exception of the Montessori approach which focuses on the extent to which predetermined goals are achieved-, other approaches do not emphasize learning standards and the evaluation is not done in the traditional way. Iranian curriculum planners are encouraged to use the findings of the present study to develop a suitable approach for early childhood education

Language: English

DOI: 10.22034/ijce.2022.301204.1339

ISSN: 2588-7270

Article

On Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s Philosophy of Education

Available from: Universitetsbiblioteket OsloMet

Publication: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 65-78

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Ki Hadjar Dewantara - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia, Taman Siswa

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Abstract/Notes: This comparative education article explores the purpose of education in the Indonesian context. My aim is to see if there are any differences between the purpose of education during the colonial era and present-day Indonesia. In order to do that, I draw mostly on the philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara, who is regarded as the father of Indonesian education. This article is particularly relevant because the Indonesian government has recently started to critically re-examine two of the educational concepts proposed by Dewantara, which are "pendidikan karakter" (character education) and "merdeka belajar" (independent learning). In conceptualising education, Dewantara, who was influenced by Tagore, Montessori, and Fröbel, saw the importance of imparting local wisdom and values ignored by the colonial schools. Therefore, in this article, I will compare his educational views with the Dutch view of schooling during the colonial era. I will then look at Indonesia's current approach to education to find the similarities and differences of purpose relative to Dewantara's views of education. In this article, I argue that Dewantara's philosophy is still very much relevant today. I conclude that the Indonesian government should refer back to its history when defining education for its next generation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.7577/njcie.4156

ISSN: 2535-4051

Master's Thesis

Montessori and Religious Education in Western Cape Preschools

Available from: University of Cape Town

Africa, Catholic schools, Comparative education, Jewish religious schools, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Religious education, South Africa, Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The debate about whether or not religious education should be included in early childhood education is a longstanding one. Even those who believe that Religious education should be included in early childhood programs cannot agree about the content or method for including it. The phenomenon of religious education in Montessori pre-primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa is explored in this study, using a qualitative research approach. More specifically, the study explored the goals of their religious education; the level of awareness of Montessori's approach to religious education and finally looked at how they were implementing religion in their schools. A sample of 4 pre-schools were selected from the 90 Montessori pre-schools in the Western Cape. These included a Non-Denominational, Muslim, Christian and a Jewish School. The Muslim and Non-Denominational schools are full Montessori schools, while the Christian and Jewish schools have incorporated Montessori alongside other curriculums, namely the Jubilee Excellence School Curriculum and Reggio-Emilia approach, respectively. A collective case study approach was adopted and data was collected through observations and interviews. While the findings cannot easily be generalized, it is significant in providing a starting point to understanding the phenomenon of religious education in Montessori pre-schools in the Western Cape. The study highlighted Dr Montessori's personal and professional struggle with religion and found that the struggles Dr Montessori faced in terms of Religion have still not been resolved today. The schools in the Western Cape still grappled with the essence of Montessori's struggle, i.e. where to place religion and how to integrate it in the Montessori method and philosophy. Dr Montessori's beliefs about the importance of spirituality in the early years were found to be consistent with the contemporary views of scholars around the world. The religious schools followed guidelines of their own religions when deciding on which values to focus on. At the Jewish school, the focus was on the community, while at the Muslim school the focus was on the individual and selfetiquette. The focus of the Christian school was on discipline and obedience. The schools had various commitments to spiritual and ethical development of the children. Finally, the study found that the Montessori method was ideal for teaching the practices of religion, but when schools delved into issues of faith or love of God, they switched to other modes of teaching (e.g. preaching). This disjuncture between teaching faith and practices was ultimately Dr Montessori's reason for abolishing religious education from her method.

Language: English

Published: Cape Town, South Africa, 2017

Article

Pour l'Ère nouvelle (1922-1940): La science convoquée pour fonder une «internationale de l'éducation» [For the New Era (1922-1940): Science called upon to found an "international education"]

Available from: CAIRN

Publication: Carrefours de l'education, no. 31

Pages: 137-159

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., New Education Fellowship, New Ideals in Education

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Abstract/Notes: La revue Pour l’Ère nouvelle constitue un observatoire privilégié pour cerner la nature des initiatives prises par les tenants de l’éducation nouvelle pour mobiliser, par delà les frontières, tous les amis de l’enfance afin d’améliorer l’humanité par une meilleure connaissance de l’enfant. En tant que lieu d’échange, elle permet à ses protagonistes d’y faire connaître leurs convictions et expériences favorisant ainsi la construction et la diffusion de connaissances au-delà de la francophonie. Nous nous proposons plus concrètement d’éprouver la thèse du cosmopolitisme et de la communauté d’esprits (convergence/divergence) des promoteurs de l’éducation nouvelle, en étudiant comment, dans Pour l’Ère nouvelle, ses auteurs invoquent la science pour fonder leurs thèses et si cette invocation fait l’objet de tensions ou controverses parmi eux. Cet article s’inscrit dans le sillage de recherches menées sur les relations entre éducation nouvelle et sciences de l’éducation, par nombre de chercheurs, notamment par ERHISE (Equipe de recherche en histoire des sciences de l’éducation). [The journal Pour l’Ère nouvelle is a privileged observation post from which one can define the initiatives promoted by the leaders of the New Education movement. They seek to mobilize, over frontiers, the actors involved in the study of childhood, aiming to ameliorate humanity through a better knowledge concerning that question. As a place of interaction, it allows its protagonists to bring their convictions and experiences to others, favouring development and spreading of knowledge beyond French speaking community. In this article, we propose to test the theory of the New Educationalist’s cosmopolitism and community of minds (convergence/ divergence) and to see how, Pour l’Ère nouvelle’s authors use science to base their theories and, further, we propose to see if this position arouses tensions or controversies. This article is part of a research undertaken by ERHISE (Research Team in History of Sciences of Education).]

Language: French

DOI: 10.3917/cdle.031.0137

ISSN: 1262-3490

Conference Paper

mLearning in Primary Education: An Online Teacher Training Proposal Based on Montessori Education Principles

Available from: IATED Digital Library

12th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies

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Abstract/Notes: Mlearning is learning through digital mobile environments, making it possible to acquire, interrelate and share new knowledge through mobile devices. There is a consensus on the growth of the use of these devices for different educational actions. According to Sarrab, Elgamel & Aldabbas (2012), there are different recreational and pedagogical uses based on mlearning. According to De Araújo Junior et al (2019), these uses are based on the possibility of combining more than one methodology and learning strategies in line with students’ learning characteristics and needs. To this end, mlearning seeks to integrate learning theories, especially constructivist and behavioral theories to also create collaborative working environments (Crompton, Burke & Gregory, 2017). The greatest advantage of mlearning is the possibility of it being applied pedagogically beyond the school environment, with the participation of families and with various proposals for interaction between teacher-student, student-student, and teacher-student-families. This whole range of possibilities has created a new field of study. By overcoming the design approach on mlearning environments and their different effects (Devinder Singh & Zaitun, 2006), a new line of research is becoming relevant: the role of teachers and their training in the use of this technology. Sanchez-Prieto & Hernández García (2019) point out that despite its advantages, the number of teachers using this technology is still very limited. A bibliographic review of 7 scientific articles related to the use of mlearning in primary classes within different educational contexts identified that teachers still lack, not only technical and/or pedagogical but also comprehensive training, making it difficult for them to become familiar with this technology and applying it as another teaching tool in their primary classes. Considering the needs found regarding digital teacher competence, the basis of digital interaction between teacher-student-families and the assessment, selection, and design of didactic contents, this study is an integral part of the Koulu I +D project (Mobile learning in primary education) number ID19-XX-003, aims to present a proposal for teacher training taught within an online learning environment. It does so regarding the basis, application and use of mlearning in primary classes based on the principles of Montessori education: personal choice of the student, collaborative learning, self-direction, the teacher as a guide and learning by discovery. To this end, the training model is based on these points to guide the work using mlearning by considering the characteristics and needs of primary education, regardless of the tool’s typology. The training proposal is based on providing the necessary teaching knowledge to conduct the pedagogical work at the comprehension, application and assessment levels of mlearning in primary classes. The training was designed as an online format to overcome the first barrier for some teachers: the use of technology. The defined points of training to meet the demands of the application in primary classes are: Digital teacher competence, Montessori and Mlearning Pedagogy, Pedagogical tools and the possibilities of primary education and mlearning Assessment in primary education.

Language: English

Published: Online Conference: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2020

Pages: 7979-7983

DOI: 10.21125/edulearn.2020.2004

ISBN: 978-84-09-17979-4

Article

New Zealand Theosophists in “New Education” networks, 1880s-1938

Available from: Emerald Insight

Publication: History of Education Review, vol. 46, no. 1

Pages: 42-57

Asia, Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, India, Montessori method of education, New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, New Zealand, Oceania, South Asia, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: Purpose It is well-known that Beatrice Ensor, who founded the New Education Fellowship (NEF) in 1921, was a Theosophist and that from 1915 the Theosophical Fraternity in Education she established laid the foundations for the NEF. However, little research has been performed on the Fraternity itself. The travels of Theosophists, texts, money and ideas between Auckland, India and London from the late nineteenth century offer insights into “New Education” networking in the British Commonwealth more broadly. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on archival documents from the Adyar Library and Research Centre, International Theosophical Society (TS) headquarters, Chennai, India; the archive at the headquarters of the New Zealand Section of the TS, Epsom, Auckland; the NEF files at the archive of the London Institute of Education; papers past digital newspaper archive. Findings New Zealand’s first affiliated NEF group was set up by the principal of the Vasanta Gardens Theosophical School, Epsom, in 1933. She was also involved in the New Zealand Section of the Theosophical Fraternity, which held conferences from 1917 to 1927. New Zealand’s Fraternity and Theosophical Education Trust had close links with their counterparts in England and India. The setting up of New Zealand’s first NEF group was enabled by networks created between Theosophists in New Zealand, India and England from the late nineteenth century. Originality/value The contribution of Theosophists to the new education movement has received little attention internationally. Theosophical educational theory and Theosophists’ contributions to New Zealand Education have not previously been studied. Combining transnational historiography with critical geography, this case study of networks between New Zealand, Adyar (India) and London lays groundwork for a wider “spatial history” of Theosophy and new education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1108/HER-10-2015-0024

ISSN: 0819-8691

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