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Doctoral Dissertation

The Growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States, 1909-1970

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States during the periods 1909-1921 and 1952-1970. The Montessori system was viewed as an innovation in American education and special attention was directed to the leaders of the movement and the role they played in its growth. The primary sources used for the initial period were the papers of Mabel Bell kept in the Bell Room of the National Geographic Society and the McClure Manuscripts housed in the Lilly Library at Indiana University. For the latter period, the following sources were utilized: American Montessori Society files, files of Whitby School, tape recordings from the American Montessori Society, interviews with Nancy Rambusch, Cleo Monson, John McDermott and correspondence with Mario Montessori and Margaret Stephensen. In addition to visits to the original Casa dei Bambini in Rome and modern Case in Italy, many Montessori schools in the United States were observed. The background of Dr. Montessori was discussed and the influences, principles and contributions of her method were examined. The period from 1909-1921 was analyzed with reference to the leadership of Maria Montessori, S.S. McClure, Mabel Bell, Helen Parkhurst and William Kilpatrick. The social, educational, political, theoretical and communications problems were examined to determine possible reasons for the demise of Montessori education in that era. The renascance [sic] of Montessori education in the United States (1952-1970) was examined with emphasis on the leadership of Mario Montessori, Nancy Rambusch, Margaret Stephenson, Cleo Monson and John McDermott. The areas of social, educational, theoretical and communications were studied for likely reasons for the resurgence of Montessori education in America. A paradigmatic schema was used to compare the role of the leaders in each period: Policy maker- Maria Montessori and Mario Montessori; Promoter- S.S. McClure and Nancy Rambusch; Organizer- Mabel Bell and Cleo Monson; Disciple- Helen Parkhurst and Margaret Stephenson; Professional Educator- William Kilpatrick and John McDermott. The qualities of leadership which led to the original demise of the Montessori Movement were: 1) Mistrust and lack of direct contact with United States educators and Montessori promoters by Maria Montessori; 2) Withdrawal of lecture and film rights from S.S. McClure by Dr. Montessori; 3) Dissolution of Montessori organizations by Mabel Bell and Helen Parkhurst because of lack of confidence in them by Maria Montessori; 5) Strong influence by William Kilpatrick (who did not believe in the Montessori method) on kindergarten teachers. The rebirth of the Montessori Movement was influenced by: 1) Mario Montessori's strong adherence to the original ideas of Maria Montessori; 2) Nancy Rambusch's proper use of leadership and timing and the formation of the American Montessori Society by her; 3) The organized efforts of the American Montessori Society and its teacher-training and public relations function by Cleo Monson; 4) The loyalty and knowledge displayed by Margaret Stephenson in running the Association Montessori Internationale teacher-training course in Washington; 5) the efforts of John McDermott to put Montessori in an American cultural context in teacher-training and professionalization of Montessori education. The writer finds strong indications for the thesis that it was the leadership which effected the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States and recommends further research into other educational innovations in the United States such as the British Infant School Movement and Headstart with attention to the leadership.

Language: English

Published: New York City, New York, 1971

Doctoral Dissertation

Conditions Associated with the Rise and Decline of the Montessori Method of Kindergarten-Nursery Education in the United States from 1911-1921

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Language: English

Published: Carbondale, Illinois, 1966

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of the Application of Maria Montessori's Language Arts Ideas and Practices in Two Periods of Development in the United States: 1909-1921 and 1953-1963

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

Americas, Classroom environments, Montessori materials, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Teachers, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Maria Montessori's work is intimately grounded in her detailed teaching practices and the logic of their sequence, along with their underlying ideas and values, particularly in the area of language arts. There are no studies, however, which comprehensively analyze her language arts curriculum for children from three to seven as it was applied by the practitioners who fostered, interpreted, and promoted her work in America in periods of its popularity: 1909-1921 and 1953-1963. This lack of comprehensive analysis blurs the fundamental identity and contextual coherence of Montessori's work and obscures the significant and ongoing contribution made to American education through her language arts curriculum. An analysis of Montessori's published work and those written about her was made in order to achieve a description of her language arts curriculum for the purpose of comparing her work to that of her American sponsors. To determine how Montessori's curriculum was interpreted and applied, the literature on the history of the Montessori movement was reviewed and five leaders were identified: Ann George, Alexander Graham Bell, Clara Craig, Helen Parkhurst, and Nancy McCormick Rambusch. Their writings and other primary sources were analyzed with reference to Montessori's curriculum. In some cases interviews were conducted and Montessori classrooms were observed over an extended period of time. The analysis of the activity of the leaders, within their contemporary social and educational settings revealed how Montessori's curriculum became detached from her original experimental context and was reshaped because of lack of understanding or of agreement with the systematic purpose of her educational material in the development of language arts skills, and because of varying intentions and views on how and what children should learn. The findings of the study also contribute to existing studies on the reasons for the decline of Montessori's practices by the end of the first period, and for success in the revival of her work in the second period. In addition, conclusions contribute to the unified body of knowledge needed to thoroughly identify the Montessori educational model practiced and researched by educators.

Language: English

Published: Durham, North Carolina, 1984

Book

Directory of Montessori Classes and Montessori Teachers in the United States

Available from: Google Books

Americas, Montessori method of education - Teacher training, Montessori method of education - Teachers, National Montessori Promotion Fund, North America, Teacher training, Teachers, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Includes an index of: (1) individuals who participated in Montessori training courses in 1913, 1914, and 1915; (2) Montessori schools or classes located across the United States.

Language: English

Published: New York, New York: National Montessori Promotion Fund, 1916

Article

FIDCR [United States Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements] Halted

Publication: Montessori Observer, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 1, 4

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Language: English

ISSN: 0889-5643

Book Section

Montessori Education and Critical Race Theory in the United States

Book Title: The Bloomsbury Handbook of Montessori Education

Pages: 503-511

Americas, Critical race theory, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This chapter explores critical race theory (CRT) within Montessori contexts from the perspective of people of the global majority residing in the U.S. with implications for other oppressed groups globally. CRT developed from American legal scholarship in the 1970s to explain the persistence of racism after the Civil Rights Movement’s apparent success. CRT argues that the legacies of racism persist and provides an analytical lens to examine the ways that racism pervades various facets of life, including education. This chapter examines how Montessori education infused with culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) and anti-bias/anti-racist (ABAR) curricula and can be a viable alternative to educational systems that perpetuate white supremacy and fail students of the global majority and other marginalized groups. However, the chapter also challenges aspects of Montessori practice that retain a Eurocentric perspective to the exclusion of other cultural, racial, and linguistic groups’ contributions.

Language: English

Published: New York, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2023

ISBN: 978-1-350-27561-4 978-1-350-27560-7 978-1-350-27562-1

Series: Bloomsbury Handbooks

Article

Regional Reports [Mexico, United States]

Available from: University of Connecticut Libraries - American Montessori Society Records

Publication: Public School Montessorian, vol. 13, no. 2

Pages: 21

Americas, Central America, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: El Boletin, January 2001

Language: English

ISSN: 1071-6246

Article

International News [New Zealand, United States]

Publication: Montessori Courier, vol. 1, no. 3

Pages: 22–23

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Language: English

ISSN: 0959-4108

Blog Post

Growth of Public Montessori in the United States: 1975-2014

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Abstract/Notes: The last fifteen years have witnessed a surge of interest in Montessori education. This interest is evident in a rise in research on Montessori, increased mainstream press, and the opening of new Montessori schools. This growth in Montessori programs is evident not just in the private but also in the public sector, where we estimate that over 300 new public Montessori programs have opened since 2000.

Language: English

Published: 2014

Article

International News [United States, India, Trinidad, France, Pacific Islands]

Publication: Montessori Courier, vol. 1, no. 2

Pages: 12–13

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Language: English

ISSN: 0959-4108

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