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Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Goal Setting on Student Work Completion in a Lower Elementary Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Americas, Goal setting, Montessori method of education, North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This investigation explored if and how direct instruction on goal-setting and working toward a goal over a four-week period impacted the number of activities students independently completed in class. The amount of math and language work completed and the way the participants felt about their ability to manage their time and goals were measured and evaluated. The study took place at a diverse elementary school in the Midwest. The classroom involved is the only Montessori lower elementary classroom in the district. The 26 students were ages 6-9 at the time of the study. Students were taught how to set a goal and work toward that goal. They also planned for challenges and how to overcome those challenges. Students checked in with their teacher and peers daily to reflect and report how focused they were in regards to achieving the goal they set. Students were observed, data was collected about the type and amount of work completed, students were rated by a peer accountability partner daily, and students completed a pre and post-self-assessment about setting goals and how competent they felt in doing so. The results of the study showed that while the amount of work did not increase, students reported feeling more confident in their ability to set goals and use strategies to stay on task and on-task behavior increased. Direct instruction in goal setting enabled students to feel more confident in selecting a goal and working toward it. They gained tools for staying focused during work times. They were able to use these tools to be on task more frequently than before the intervention. Teachers may want to choose to include direct goal setting in their practice. Further studies may want to track data for a longer period of time to see if work output also would increase.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2020

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effect of Student-Led Conferencing at School and at Home on Goal-Setting, Goal-Fulfillment, Effort, Achievement, Intrinsic Motivation, and Satisfaction for Montessori Lower Elementary 3rd Year Students.

Available from: St. Catherine University

Academic achievement, Action research, Americas, Goal setting, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study was designed to determine the effect of weekly student-led conferences (both at-home and at-school) on goal setting, goal fulfillment, effort, achievement, intrinsic motivation, and satisfaction. One teacher, eight Montessori third-year lower elementary students, and eight parents participated in the study for six weeks. Baseline data on goal setting and fulfillment was collected and analyzed. Guiding questions designed to encourage and support the students formed the content of the conferences. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered. The results showed that while the intervention did not help the students set and fulfill greater quantities of goals, it did have a positive effect on the prioritizing of academic and project-based goals. Communication and relationships between parties also increased, resulting in greater adult awareness of student success and challenge, as well as more supportive adult behavior. Continued research could involve a modified home and school conference format for all lower elementary students.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2017

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Goal Setting and Choice on Student Motivation

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Americas, Goal (Psychology), Motivation (Psychology), North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this research is to determine what effect weekly conferences and goal setting opportunities have on the motivation of kindergarten children, in a multi-age (3-6 year-old) Montessori early childhood classroom in the Midwest. The goal was for children to become selfmotivated to choose and practice independent work that is developmentally appropriate. Data was collected before, during, and after the project using an observational checklist to determine the effectiveness of implementing goal setting and conferences with students. The research showed that writing goals in a journal was helpful for the majority of students. The students involved in the study came into the classroom ready to choose the lessons that were written in their journal. Also witnessed was an increase in positive talk and encouragement throughout the classroom. The students were reassuring each other and checked on one another to see how close they were to meeting their goals. Future research could be done to determine if goal setting could be carried over into the home and further research into intrinsic motivation of children would be helpful.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2017

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effect of Goal Setting and Student Self-Reflection on Motivation and On Task Behavior in the Upper Elementary Public Montessori Environment

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Americas, Goal (Psychology), North America, Public Montessori, United States of America, Upper elementary

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this action research project was to study the effects of goal-setting and self-reflection on the intrinsic motivation and on task behavior of students in an upper level (ages 9-12) public Montessori classroom. The project used multiple data sources to better understand the impact of goal-setting and self-reflection on student academic achievement, prosocial behavior, and emotional wellbeing. Teacher-made rating scales and self-reflection prompts were used to determine student outlook on completion of their goals while semi-structured student interviews, given at the beginning, middle, and end of the project, gave insight into student perceptions of goal-setting benefits. After analyzing the results of the data, it was found that weekly short term and long range goal-setting can have a positive impact on student achievement, prosocial behavior, and emotional wellbeing.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2018

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

"What are the Effects of Goal-Setting on Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Fourth Grade Classroom?"

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this action research was to study the effects of goal-setting as a strategy on student motivation and academic achievement in a fourth-grade classroom. The study was performed at a rural public elementary school in South Carolina, consisting of eighteen students in a general education classroom. This study used a preassessment/post-assessment set-up in order to collect data for math achievement and reading comprehension. An attitude survey was used to collect data on student’s motivation towards academic work. The data shows that the goal-setting strategy had a positive effect on math achievement and motivation towards academic work and may have an effect on reading comprehension.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Master's Thesis

Do Goal Setting and Student-Directed Learning Lead to Gains in Self-Motiviation and Academic Performance?

Available from: MINDS@UW River Falls

Academic achievement, Autonomy in children, Goal (Psychology), Goal setting, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: Self-directed learning (SDL) has been gaining popularity in recent years, particularly with adult learners. However, research has indicated that it can be an effective means to educate younger students within a variety of disciplines. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of student-directed learning through goal setting on academic performance and self-determination in lower elementary students. The researcher hypothesized that allowing students to self-direct their learning through goal setting would result in higher self-determination and improved academic performance. Researchers measured the progress of 15 students towards self-selected goals and compared their results to self-determination scores before and after the intervention. 77% of participants showed quantitatively measurable improvement of academic performance in their selected goal. 100% of participants showed qualitatively measurable improvements of academic performance in their selected goal. There was no evidence found to support that self-directed learning leads to higher self-determination, nor was their evidence found to support that self-determination leads to improved academic performance. This study provides evidence that student-directed learning implemented with student-selected goals in multiple academic areas leads to higher academic performance related to self-selected goals.

Language: English

Published: River Falls, Wisconsin, 2021

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Goal Setting and Self-Reflection on Student Work Completion and Work Habits in a Montessori Upper Elementary Environment

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Americas, Goal (Psychology), Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America, Upper elementary

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Abstract/Notes: This study implemented goal setting and self-reflection as self-regulated learning strategies and explored how these affected student work completion and on-task behavior. Students in this environment struggled with self-regulated learning and were observed to not complete work on time and needed redirection to focus on work during the work cycle. The study took place in an upper elementary Montessori environment at a private international school. Thirteen 4th grade students (ages 9-10) participated in the study. During this study, students were given lessons on goal setting and self-reflection and had group discussions about effective goal setting. Students set daily goals for themselves during the study and evaluated their progress at the end of the day. Students met with the guides for pre, mid and post-assessment discussions, where they reflected on their goals and progress. Students were observed twice daily for on and off-task behavior, and follow-up work was checked for completion. Despite the challenges of conducting this study during the COVID-19 pandemic, the results showed that student work completion and on-task behavior increased after students began setting goals. In particular, it proved to be beneficial to students who previously struggled with completing work. Further studies could look into integrating goal setting in a more streamlined manner to increase student engagement and interest.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2022

Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Achievement: Montessori and Non-Montessori Private School Settings

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings differ with regard to academic achievement as measured by the Ninth Edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. Schools that are certified as "Montessori" must meet stringent requirements and although the Montessori philosophy has been implemented in the United States for a number of years, little research has documented its effectiveness, at least as based on students' scores on standardized tests. In the Rio Grande Valley, few Montessori schools are in place and even fewer administer such assessments. A causal-comparative research design with matched pairs was used to describe the difference in academic achievement of sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings with sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings. Archival data were analyzed using five separate t-tests for paired samples in which the raw scores for reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies were the dependent variables for achievement for both sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings as measured by the ninth edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. The results indicate that the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended Montessori school settings is statistically significantly higher than the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended non-Montessori school settings. The knowledge gained from this study might assist educators and parents in search of the most effective education to offer children. It will also extend knowledge of Montessori and the effects that it has on the academic achievement of children.

Language: English

Published: Houston, Texas, 2008

Doctoral Dissertation

An Examination of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Antibias-Antiracist Curriculm in a Montessori Setting

Available from: Lynn University - Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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Abstract/Notes: The research consisted of a qualitative case study of three urban public Montessori schools with a population of 51% or more of students of color and a commitment of 2 years or more of CRP-ABAR within a Montessori setting. The theoretical framework used for the study was the critical race theory, which is the conceptual foundation for examining inequities in public education. This research dissertation had a focus on gaining an insight into the perceptions of administrators, teachers, and parents toward CRP-ABAR in Montessori schools by examining the practices in three public Montessori schools. The possible connections to student outcomes, such as behavioral referrals, suspension rates, and academic achievement for students of color were explored to determine if any connections exist between CRP-ABAR and outcomes for students of color within a public Montessori setting. Three major themes emerged of the perceptions of administrators, teachers, and parents about the impact of the CRP-ABAR in a Montessori setting. The CRP-ABAR could be delivered through a curriculum-oriented approach or a systemic-oriented approach and the CRP-ABAR connects to Montessori through peace-global education and the prepared teacher-environment. The CRP-ABAR practices impact students of color primarily through social emotional growth with limited academic outcomes. Even with an intentional focus and diversity training, many non-Black teachers’ perceptions of students of color included deficit theory thinking. Some parents believed racism is being dismantled through the curriculum and celebrations of diversity. Other parents identified some teachers-staff with underpinning instances of biases and insensitivity.

Language: English

Published: Boca Raton, Florida, 2020

Article

Setting Goals

Publication: Point of Interest, vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 1–2

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Language: English

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