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Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Three Streams in Alternative Education: A Philosophical, Pedagogical, and Practical Comparison Between Democratic, Waldorf, and Montessori Education

Available from: European Journal of Alternative Education Studies

Publication: European Journal of Alternative Education Studies, vol. 6, no. 1

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Abstract/Notes: This article examines the three most prominent movements of alternative education in Israel: Democratic education, Waldorf education, and the Montessori method of education. By comparing the educational approaches according to specific criteria, the goal is to provide the reader with as broad a picture as possible of their similarities and differences. The discussion focuses on the philosophical approach and general principles of each movement and does not aim to provide information or characteristics of specific educational institutions. One of the goals of the article is to bring before parents, educators, and policy makers knowledge of the different approaches so that they can understand and judge them with greater clarity.

Language: English

DOI: 10.46827/ejae.v6i1.3563

ISSN: 2501-5915

Master's Thesis

Montessori and Religious Education in Western Cape Preschools

Available from: University of Cape Town

Africa, Catholic schools, Comparative education, Jewish religious schools, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Religious education, South Africa, Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The debate about whether or not religious education should be included in early childhood education is a longstanding one. Even those who believe that Religious education should be included in early childhood programs cannot agree about the content or method for including it. The phenomenon of religious education in Montessori pre-primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa is explored in this study, using a qualitative research approach. More specifically, the study explored the goals of their religious education; the level of awareness of Montessori's approach to religious education and finally looked at how they were implementing religion in their schools. A sample of 4 pre-schools were selected from the 90 Montessori pre-schools in the Western Cape. These included a Non-Denominational, Muslim, Christian and a Jewish School. The Muslim and Non-Denominational schools are full Montessori schools, while the Christian and Jewish schools have incorporated Montessori alongside other curriculums, namely the Jubilee Excellence School Curriculum and Reggio-Emilia approach, respectively. A collective case study approach was adopted and data was collected through observations and interviews. While the findings cannot easily be generalized, it is significant in providing a starting point to understanding the phenomenon of religious education in Montessori pre-schools in the Western Cape. The study highlighted Dr Montessori's personal and professional struggle with religion and found that the struggles Dr Montessori faced in terms of Religion have still not been resolved today. The schools in the Western Cape still grappled with the essence of Montessori's struggle, i.e. where to place religion and how to integrate it in the Montessori method and philosophy. Dr Montessori's beliefs about the importance of spirituality in the early years were found to be consistent with the contemporary views of scholars around the world. The religious schools followed guidelines of their own religions when deciding on which values to focus on. At the Jewish school, the focus was on the community, while at the Muslim school the focus was on the individual and selfetiquette. The focus of the Christian school was on discipline and obedience. The schools had various commitments to spiritual and ethical development of the children. Finally, the study found that the Montessori method was ideal for teaching the practices of religion, but when schools delved into issues of faith or love of God, they switched to other modes of teaching (e.g. preaching). This disjuncture between teaching faith and practices was ultimately Dr Montessori's reason for abolishing religious education from her method.

Language: English

Published: Cape Town, South Africa, 2017

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Montessori Eğitim Yönteminin Rousseaucu Kökenleri / The Rousseauian Roots of Montessori Education Method

Available from: The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies

Publication: Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, vol. 14, no. 86

Pages: 535-556

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Abstract/Notes: Bu çalışmada eğitim felsefesinde adı çokça zikredilen Fransız filozof Jean-Jacquez Rousseau’nun, Maria Montessori tarafından kurulan ve kendi adıyla anılan Montessori eğitim yöntemi üzerindeki etkisi incelenecektir. Rousseau’nun meşhur Emile kitabı, eğitimin amacı ve işlevi meselesine dair ayrıntılı bir izah içerir. Onun eğitim konusuna yaklaşımı kimi zaman sert tartışmalara sebep olmuş kimi zaman da ilham kaynağı olmuştur. İtalya’nın ilk kadın doktoru olarak da bilinen Maria Montessori onun fikirlerinden olumlu yönde etkilenen bir isimdir. Montessori, yaşama uzanan yardım eli yaklaşımına indirgediği eğitim meselesini aldığı tıp, felsefe ve antropoloji eğitimi sayesinde geniş bir bakış açısıyla inceler. Bu sayede daha sistemli ve bilimsel temeli olan bir eğitim modeli sunar. Rousseau ise kelimenin tam anlamıyla sistematik olmaktansa doğal gidişata göre hareket etmeyi ve kendi gözlemlerinden faydalanmayı tercih eder. Bu tercihinden dolayı kendisine ağır eleştirilerin yapıldığı da bir gerçektir. Rousseau’nun ve Maria Montessori’nin eğitim alanındaki fikirleri pek çok tartışmayı beraberinde getirse de her iki ismin pedagoji alanındaki etkisi görmezden gelinemez. Ancak Rousseau’nun bu alandaki düşüncelerinin bir eğitim tasarısı ya da eğitime dair yapılan bir yorum düzeyinde kaldığı söylenebilir. Rousseau’nun aksine Maria Montessori’nin fikirlerinin ise pek çok ülkede benimsendiği ve bu fikir doğrultusunda pek çok eğitim kurumunun açıldığı görülür. Her ne kadar somut alanda aralarında bu denli fark olsa da çıkış noktaları ve eğitim alanındaki bazı tasavvurları benzerlik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada söz konusu benzerlik kavramsal bir çerçeve doğrultusunda ele alınacaktır. Böylece Rousseau’nun Maria Montessori üzerindeki etkisi irdelenip onun eğitim alanında bir romandan fazlasını yazdığı sonucuna ulaşılacaktır. / In this study, the effect of the French philosopher Jean-Jacquez Rousseau, whose name is mentioned a lot in educational philosophy, on the Montessori education method established by Maria Montessori and named after her will be examined. Rousseau’s famous book Emile contains a detailed explanation on the goal and function of the education. Sometimes, his approach to education caused very significant discussions and sometimes it was a source of inspiration. Maria Montessori, who is also known as Italy’s first female doctor was one of the names who was affected from his opinion in a positive way. Montessori examines the issue of education considered as helping hand approach to life from a wide perspective thanks to her education in medicine, philosophy and anthropology. In this way, she presents a more systematic and scientific based education model. On the other hand, Rousseau prefers to act according to the natural course and uses his own observations rather than being systematic in the strictest sense of the world. It is a fact that he was heavily criticized for this preference. Even though Rousseau and Maria Montessori’s ideas on the education field bring a lot of debate, the effect of both names in pedagogy cannot be ignored. However, it can be noted that Rousseau’s ideas in the field stayed only as an education design or a comment made on education. Unlike Rousseau, it is seen that Maria Montessori’s ideas were adopted in many countries and a lot of educational institutions were established in the direction of this idea. Although there is such a difference between them in the concrete field, their starting points and some of their imaginations in the field of education are similar. These similarities in the direction of a conceptual frame will be addressed in the study. Thus, Rousseau’s influence on Maria Montessori will be examined and it will be concluded that he wrote more than a novel in the field of education.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.29228/JASSS.50020

ISSN: 2148-4163

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Spread of Montessori Education in Mainland China

Available from: Journal of Montessori Research and Education

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research and Education, vol. 3, no. 1

Pages: 1–8

Asia, China, East Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This paper is a historical account of the spread of Montessori education in mainland China. It surveys the general picture of early childhood education (ECE) in China and discusses the factors leading to the popularity of Montessori education in the 1990s. Although first introduced into China in the early 1900s, for reasons explained, Montessori education was unsuccessful in catching on as an education method in the early part of the 20th century. Following policy changes and growing interest in western education methods, Montessori education reemerged in the 1990s and has remained a sought-out education method since. In this paper, localization is also discussed as a prominent concern expressed in the Chinese research is ensuring Montessori education promotes and instills values consistent with Chinese society. As is shown, elements of the Montessori method are consistent with Chinese culture, creating a cooperative relationship between these two systems. Of equal importance, Montessori education emphasizes the cultivation of collective identity and societal relationships similar to Chinese culture, the slight difference between them being that Montessori also emphasized the construction of the individual as well.

Language: English

DOI: 10.16993/jmre.17

ISSN: 2002-3375

Master's Thesis

蒙特梭利幼兒教育的幼兒就學準備度之研究 [The School Readiness of Montessori Early Childhood Education]

Available from: National Chengchi University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Academic achievement, Asia, East Asia, Montessori method of education, Readiness for school, Taiwan

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori education has developed for over a century, mainly due to Montessori found the early childhood development principles and rules by the scientific method. She advocates child-centered,and there are three elements of Montessori education:(1)prepared environment, (2) teachers, (3) teaching aids, through the three to guide children's learning. However, in Taiwan, people worried about that Montessori education is lack of emotional, creativity , interpersonal learning, and the transition with primary education, therefore Montessori education is still being considered as an alternative education. In this regard, Montessori Teachers Association of the R.O.C pointed many longitudinal study shows that Montessori children perform better than the traditional-education children in many ways of academic achievements, active learning, interpersonal relationships, and emotional management. Nowadays, the concept of " school readiness " becomes more important, and the Ministry of Education is actively compiling the "Guidelines of Nursery Education Activities and Security Curriculum " which is particularly imply the importance of transition program. Thus, this study proposes to investigate Montessori education from the perspective of school readiness. First , researcher explored the common context of Montessori education and school readiness by document analysis, then based on the results to construct "The corresponding table of Montessori education and five-year-old children school readiness assessment “, and corrected the table by expert validity. Finally, assess the Montessori children's school readiness in actually. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, Crosstabs, Chi-square test, Pearson’s product -moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, t- test, and one way ANOVA. The results were summarized as follow: A."The corresponding table of Montessori education and five-year-old children school readiness assessment “ is highly corresponded, show they concerned the same capacity of children. Initially reflected Montessori education conform the basic development requirements of Taiwan early child education, and could help children get ready into primary school. B. Montessori children in this study sample get good school readiness. C. There is significant difference towards the school readiness between children study /non-study Montessori kindergarten. D. There is significant difference towards school readiness of “physical health and development domain”、”mathematical logic and cognitive science domain” between Montessori kindergartens and Montessori child care;there is no significant correlation between children’s school year in Montessori kindergarten and children’s school readiness;there is no significant difference towards the school readiness between boys and girls. E. There is significant correlation in “physical health and development domain”、”language and communicate domain”、” mathematical logic and cognitive science domain”、” cultural and artistic domain” and ” overall average” between school readiness and the years of teaching five-year classes (ambiguous age);there is significant correlation between school readiness and the highest degree of Montessori teachers;there is no significant difference towards the school readiness between the teachers with different Montessori teacher license.

Language: Chinese

Published: Taipei, Taiwan, 1999

Article

Монтессори-педагогика: от Эдуарда Сегена к инклюзивному обучению [Montessori Pedagogy: From Edouard Séguin to Inclusive Learning]

Available from: National Pedagogical Dragomanov University

Publication: Scientific Journal of the National Pedagogical University - Series 19. Correctional Pedagogy and Special Psychology, vol. 28

Pages: 147-152

Eastern Europe, Europe, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, Ukraine

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Abstract/Notes: У статті представлений процес взаємовпливаючого розвитку найважливіших ідей спеціальної педагогіки і реформаторської педагогіки на прикладі педагогіки М.Монтессорі, який забезпечав вихід на якісно новий рівень розвитку педагогіки – педагогіки інклюзивної освіти. Розглянуті найважливіші педагогічні ідеї Е.Сегена, представлені в його «фізіологічному методі», як джерело зазначених вище педагогічних напрямків. До них відносяться: індивідуально-особистісний підхід до дитини, залежність інтелектуального розвитку від розвитку сенсорної і моторної сфери, виключно важливе значення власної активності діяльності дитини в процесі навчання. Далі в статті простежується розвиток ідей Е.Сегена в педагогічній концепції М. Монтессорі, що не тільки розвинула положення Едуарда Сегена стосовно до дітей зі збереженим інтелектом, але й включила їх у власну систему педагогічних ідей та принципів, сукупність яких утворює сьогодні Монтессорі-педагогіку. У статті наголошується, що так і спеціальна педагогіка, пройшовши складний полуторавіковий шлях свого розвитку, використовувала і збагачувала ключові педагогічні ідеї Едуарда Сегена новими знаннями, новими науковими концепціями, які не лише не суперечили ідеям Сегена, але й надавали їм нового, все більш глибокого змісту. У цьому контексті показана роль реформаторської педагогіки у становленні та розвитку інклюзивного навчання в контексті конструктивістського підходу. Автор підкреслює, що практично всі педагогічні ідеї Монтессорі не суперечать найважливішим положенням інклюзивного навчання. Проаналізовано причини труднощів впровадження інклюзивного навчання. У статт робиться висновок про те, що радянська школа, педагогіка і педагогічна освіта в минулі десятиліття ХХ століття пропустили важливий етап у своєму розвитку – творче освоєння філософії, теорії та практики реформаторської педагогіки (у тому числі і Монтессорі-педагогіки) і впровадження нових елементів її сучасного розвитку в освітню практику. Статтю завершує думка про те, що феномен закордонного інклюзивного навчання є не що інше, як продукт творчого розвитку теорії, методології та практики європейської реформаторської педагогіки протягом ХХ століття. [The article presents the process of interacting development of the most important ideas of special pedagogy and reform pedagogy in the example of the Montessori pedagogy. He provided a qualitatively new level of development pedagogy - pedagogy inclusive education. These include: individual and personal approach to child dependency intellectual development from activation of sensory and motor areas, important activity and the activity of the child in the learning process. The following shows the development of their pedagogical E. SEGUIN in teaching the concept of Maria Montessori. She developed his ideas in relation to the normal children, who constitute today Montessori pedagogy. Special pedagogy in the process of its development was also based on the most important pedagogical ideas E. SEGUIN, complement them with new scientific knowledge and concepts. From the standpoint of modern science reform pedagogy, including Montessori pedagogy, developed in the mainstream ideas of constructivism. At these positions develop and inclusive education. Trueste implementation of inclusive education are analyzed. The author comes to the conclusion that the Soviet school and pedagogy, teacher education in the twentieth century have missed an important stage in its development. This use of the ideas of progressive pedagogy, Montessori pedagogy in the process of long-term development of pedagogy and education.Preconditions for the successful development of inclusive education was not established. The author believes that the success of development of inclusive education abroad is the result of the development of reform pedagogy in the twentieth century.]

Language: Ukrainian

ISSN: 2310-8290

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Effect of Montessori Programme on the Motion and Visual Perception Skills of Trainable Mentally Retarded Individuals

Available from: RedFame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 7, no. 2

Pages: 120-128

Asia, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: In this research, it is aimed to examine the effects of Montessori education on the mentally retarded individuals in the special education who have had Montessori education and who have not had it. 24 trainable mentally disabled male students who had and did not have Montessori education in a private school in Kayseri participated in the study. The students were between the ages of 20-22. 12 voluntary participants constituted the experimental group who had Montessori education. The control group included 12 voluntary mentally disabled individuals. While the control group had a routine training for 8 weeks, the experimental group had Montessori education program for 8 weeks. In addition, mothers of the students in the experimental group were included in the training program. The mentally disabled individuals had movement and visual perception skills tests.When the results of the movement perception skills in the experimental and control groups were reviewed, no significant differences were found in the movement skill variables according to the values (p>0.05). While the pretest posttest values in the mentally retarded individuals in the experimental group revealed significant difference (p<0,05), no difference occurred only in the left foot balance test (p>0,05). All pretest posttest values depending on the movement revealed significant difference in the control group (p<0,05).As a result, when the effect of the Montessori program on the movement skills of trainable mentally retarded people was examined, no significant difference was found between the values of the control group, and Montessori education gave similar values as the classical education. Thus, it was concluded that it was advisable Montessori education program to be used widely. When its effect on the visual perception skills was examined, it could be stated that the posttest averages of the each visual perception sub-scale average revealed an increase except the shape-ground connection. Consequently, when the movement skills of the trainable mentally retarded individuals were reviewed, no difference was found in the control group values, and Montessori education values were similar to classical education. Therefore, it is concluded that Montessori education program should be used widely.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v7i2.3875

ISSN: 2324-8068

Article

Education for the Handicapped Under the Viewpoint of Montessori Education

Publication: Montessori Kyōiku [Montessori Education], no. 28

Pages: 106-114

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, People with disabilities

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Language: Japanese

ISSN: 0913-4220

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Early childhood care and education in india [Accueil et education de la petite enfance en inde / Cuidado temprano en la niñez y educación en india]

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 2, no. 2

Pages: 31-42

Asia, India, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: A brief history of the development of Early Childhood Care and Education in pre and post Independent India has been given first. The current situation of ECCE, teacher training and research has been described and the Research — Policy — Program interface has been delineated. Among the myriad issues confronting ECCE in the country a few have been selected for discussion. [Un bref historique du développement de l'accueil et de 1'éducation de la petite enfance de la période pré — et post Indepnédance est donné pour débuter. La situation actuelle ,1a formation des enseignants et la recherche ont été décrites et la Recherche — Politique — Programme envisagé ont été délimités. Parmi les myriades de sujets auxquels l'Accueil et l'Education de la Petite Enfance ont été confrontées quelques‐uns ont été sélectionnés pour la discussion. / Primero ha sido descrita una breve historia acerca del desarrollo del Cuidado Temprano de la Niñez y Educacion en la India pre y post independiente. Se ha descrito la situación presente de ECCE, el entrenamiento del profesorado e investigatión y la Investigación — la Política — el Programa común ha sido delineado. Dentro de los muchos miríados temas que confronta la ECCE en el país unos pocos han sido seleccionados para discusión.]

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0966976940020103

ISSN: 0966-9760

Doctoral Dissertation (Ph.D.)

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970

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