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Doctoral Dissertation

Where Have All the Children Gone? A Case Study of Three American Preschools

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In sociological investigation, Weber (1968) believes that concrete historical events can be interpreted in terms of social action. These patterns of action differ from historical accounts, which explore the importance of causal explanation of individual events. Entwistle and Alexander (1993) contend that sociologists of education have paid little attention to patterns of class interaction and inequality in preschools. Adding to Hartley's (1993) work on nursery schools in Scotland, and using an organizational model with a sociohistorical standpoint, this ethnographic case study helps to bridge that gap by concentrating on the historical and ecological contexts of (1) a Laboratory school; (2) a Montessori school; and, (3) a Head Start center. The central problem of the study seeks an answer to the question "If inequalities in preschools exist, what do they look like?" This study assumes that historically educational systems have exerted a form of social control over children in order to transmit cultural values. Part I of the study examines ancient and modern societies, their cultures and their philosophical grounding to reveal the values and trends that contribute to social change in the early education of children. Part II adds a triangulation strategy to explore the ecology (environment and culture) of the three schools in the study. These strategies include archival content analysis of the preschool organizations, nonparticipant observation of the classrooms (Bell, 1993), intensive interviewing of the staff and administration members and a brief survey of the preschool parents. This study draws from the sociology of Weber's "ideal bureaucracy," Berger's "bureaucratic cognitive style," Elias' "civilizing process," Bernstein's "visible and invisible" pedagogy, Bourdieu's "cultural capital" and Anyon's "biased ideological messages." In this exploratory study, the data analysis uses a descriptive methodology, not to draw conclusions, but similar to Glaser and Strauss' "grounded theory" to introduce questions to be explored further by researchers. A final section on policy recommendations is included.

Language: English

Published: Boston, Massachusetts, 2000

Doctoral Dissertation

An Analysis of Documents Pertaining to the Influence of Maria Montessori's Work on the Infant and Elementary Schools of England and Wales, 1910 to 1933

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

England, Europe, Great Britain, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, Northern Europe, United Kingdom, Wales

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Abstract/Notes: Did the work of Maria Montessori have an influence on the educational methods used in the infant and elementary school classrooms in England and Wales between 1910, when her work was first publicized in England, and 1933, when the Consultative Committee of the Board of Education published its report on Infant and Nursery Schools? To answer this principal question the following factors are considered: the effect on educational practices of the slow development of government provided education, the characteristics of the British Infant School, the social and political circumstances which were effecting education in 1910, the nature of Montessori's fame, and the official reaction to Maria Montessori and her work. For information concerning the methods actually being used in the classrooms from 1928 to 1933, the primary sources are memoranda submitted during that period to the Consultative Committee on the Primary School and to the Consultative Committee on Infant and Nursery Schools. The documents were analyzed for references to Montessori, for evidence of teachers having attended Montessori training courses, and for descriptions and advocacy of classroom methods which, according to a definition given by the Consultative Committee in its published report, reflect a Montessori influence. Eleven of thirteen Junior School Inspectors, six of thirteen Infant School Inspectors, and eleven of sixteen Heads of Infant Schools, according to the criteria used, advocate Montessori methods for more than half of the curriculum areas which they discuss. This evidence from the memoranda submitted to the Consultative Committees, combined with conclusions drawn from historical evidence, indicate that Maria Montessori did have considerable influence on the schools of England and Wales.

Language: English

Published: Mansfield, Connecticut, 1981

Doctoral Dissertation

The Montessori Method in America: Montessori Schools in New York and Rhode Island from 1910-1940

Available from: Loyola University Chicago

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Abstract/Notes: During the very early twentieth century, Dr. Maria Montessori produced a pedagogical approach that permitted the developmental delayed, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and the youngest of children to advance their cognition and adaptive skills to conventional standards. Her renowned "Montessori Method" was unleashed in 1906 in her home country of Italy and found its way to the shore of the United States soon after. This research will compare the implementation of the Montessori Method in two states, Rhode Island and New York. Both states invested time and money into the instructional ideals of Dr. Montessori in response to the advice of educators and, as is frequently overlooked in the scholarly literature, at the request of parents and community organizations. This study will focus on policy implementation: the how and the who, and on the overall growth and decline of Montessori programs, concentrating on the role parents played.

Language: English

Published: Chicago, Illinois, 2011

Doctoral Dissertation

Internationalisierung Durch Lokalisierung: Gülen Inspirierte Schulen [Internationalization Through Localization: Gülen Inspired Schools]

Available from: Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf [Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf]

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Abstract/Notes: Internationalisierung ist heute eines der wichtigsten Themen in diversen Sektoren. Viele nationale Bildungsbewegungen versuchen, durch ihre internationalen Filialen oder durch Zusammenarbeit im internationalen Märkte zu expandieren. Die Gülen-Bewegung ist eine dieser Bewegungen, die ihre Schulen erfolgreich internationalisiert hat und somit in den letzten drei Jahrzehnten zu einer internationalen Bildungsbewegung geworden ist, wie die Waldorf- und Montessori-Bewegung. Ziel dieser Studie ist es, die Internationalisierung der von Gülen inspirierten Schulen zu untersuchen. Ein qualitatives Forschungsdesign wird verwendet, um dieses Problem zu untersuchen. Halbstrukturierte Interviews werden mit Leitern der Gülen inspirierten Schulen aus drei Kontinenten und Experten der Bewegung durchgeführt. In der Feldstudie wurden zunächst die Bildungsphilosophie, das Schulkonzept und die Pädagogik der Gülen-Bewegung untersucht. Anschließend werden Internationalisierungsstrategien, Gründung und der Erfolg der Gülen inspirierten Schulen in verschiedenen Regionen der Welt untersucht. Am Ende werden die Auswirkungen des gescheiterten Putschversuchs in der Türkei im Juli 2016 auf Gülen inspirierte Schulen, ihre aktuelle Situation und die Zukunft dieser Schulen mit den Teilnehmern dieser Studie diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen das spezifische Bildungsmodell der Gülen inspirierten Schulen; wie diese Schulen mit kulturellen und sprachlichen Unterschieden in einem internationalen Umfeld umgehen; wie sie dem politischen Druck auf die Bildungseinrichtungen der Bewegung entgegenwirken und schlussendlich die Qualitäts- und Finanzfragen dieser Bildungseinrichtungen in verschiedenen Regionen. [Internationalization is one of the most important subjects in different sectors today. A lot of national educational movements attempt to open international markets by opening branches or working on cooperation. The Gülen Movement is one of these movements, which has successfully internationalized their schools and, thus has become an international educational movement in the last three decades, like Waldorf and Montessori movements. The purpose of this study is to examine the internationalization of the Gülen Inspired Schools. A qualitative research design is used to study this issue. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with managers of the Gülen inspired schools from three continents and experts on the movement. Initially, the educational philosophy, school concept and the pedagogy of the Gülen movement was examined on the field study. Following, internationalization strategies, founding and the success of the Gülen inspired schools in different regions of the world is researched. At the end, the effects of the failed coup attempt in Turkey in July 2016 on Gülen inspired schools, their current situation and the future of these schools is discussed with the participants of this study. The results show, the unique educational model of the Gülen inspired schools; how these schools deal with cultural and language differences in international environments; how they challenge political pressure on educational institutions of the movement; and quality and financial issues of these educational institutions in different regions.]

Language: English

Published: Düsseldorf, Germany, 2020

Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Montessori Schools: How and Why Do They Impact Student Relationships and Communication Skills?

Available from: Portland State University

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori schooling, created by physician and educator Maria Montessori, is a well-known alternative to the traditional style of teaching. Many researchers have focused on how the Montessori method can produce successful and well-rounded students, not only academically, but within the social realm as well. What is less known is the extent to which Montessori impacts the social development of children and their forming of peer relationships and why it does so. After looking into and discussing the previous literature written on this topic, this thesis project utilizes reviews with two individuals with experience in the primary level Montessori setting to further understand how the Montessori method can possibly benefit the students socially and draw connections between teacher experience and scholarly research. It was discovered that the responses of the participants generally paralleled the claims of previous literature, with specific emphasis being placed on the sense of responsibility and ownership students held in the environment and the reduction of the teacher’s role in constructing how students utilize the environment and interact with one another.

Language: English

Published: Portland, Oregon, 2022

Doctoral Dissertation (Ed.D.)

Journaling for Equity: A Self-Reflective Process of Discovery for Middle School Teachers in Public Charter Montessori Schools

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory descriptive case study of the Moses Journaling for Equity Experience, a self-reflective intervention for public charter Montessori middle school teachers. The intervention is designed to elicit a reflective process to slow teachers’ thinking so they can decenter Whiteness and elevate the cultures and voices of their students of color within their pedagogy. The intervention was developed in the winter and spring of 2020, drawing heavily on the author’s experience as an equity consultant as well as the rich literature on ways teachers can nurture a sense of belonging for students of color. The intervention was refined with feedback from experienced Montessori teachers, with a focus on ensuring pedagogical alignment and curricular expectations within the Montessori system. Because this study represents the first time the intervention was implemented, it is most properly viewed as a pilot study. Three middle school Montessori teachers were recruited to participate. They began the intervention in the fall of 2021. The intervention consisted of eight weeks of reading curated articles, reflection questions, the collection of evidence, and the journaling of the reflection questions. A final debrief via Zoom encouraged participants to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. As a pilot study, the goal was to gather information on the overall effectiveness of the intervention, intervention shortcomings and strengths. Data were collected weekly in the form of written responses to questions intended to provoke thought and deep reflection on the part of the teachers. At the end of the intervention, each teacher participated in a semi-structured interview to further explore the ideas shared in their individual weekly reflective writings. Critical Race Theory, White Supremacy Culture Characteristics, and the Concerns Based Adoption Model were all used to frame the analysis and to draw conclusions. Results suggest the intervention is effective at building teacher awareness of the cultural, academic, and social assets students of color bring to the classroom, which is the beginning point for teachers to decenter Whiteness in their classrooms to support student of color belonging.

Language: English

Published: Eugene, Oregon, 2022

Doctoral Dissertation (Ed.D.)

Maintaining the Montessori Method in Louisiana Public Schools: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to investigate how Montessori educators describe maintaining the fidelity of the Montessori Method when implementing the Louisiana Student Standards influences their ability to provide learning opportunities through social interactions that stimulate multiple senses for students in their classrooms in the south-central region of the United States. This study was informed by a theoretical foundation that drew on the theory of social constructivism and sensory stimulation theory. The three research questions asked participants to describe maintaining the fidelity of the Montessori Method when integrating the Louisiana Student Standards and the influences the standards had on their ability to construct learning through social interactions and provide learning opportunities that stimulate multiple senses in their classrooms. The sample consisted of public Montessori educators teaching in the south-central region of the United States. The two sources of data included 45 questionnaires and 12 semi-structured interviews. All interviews were transcribed and then coded. A thematic analysis of the data resulted in five themes: Montessori educators use supplemental materials, creative scheduling, need targeted professional development, plan instructional activities that require students to work cooperatively, and use authentic Montessori materials. This study will help advance scientific knowledge by adding to the current body of knowledge about the Montessori Method and implementing state standards. Finally, this study provides theoretical, practical, and future implications and suggestions for further research.Keywords: Montessori Method, Louisiana Student Standards, theory of social constructivism, sensory stimulation theory, state standards

Language: English

Published: Phoenix, Arizona, 2022

Doctoral Dissertation

Enacting Accountability in Innovative Schools: The Sensemaking Strategies of Public Montessori Principals

Available from: University of Virginia

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Language: English

Published: Charlottesville, Virginia, 2021

Master's Thesis

Normalization and its Relation to Peace Education Using a Sampling of Montessori Preschools from Around the World

Available from: MINDS@UW River Falls

Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Normalization, Peace education, Preschool children

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori education is known as peace education. Normalization is one of the most significant concepts within Montessori education and which herself identifies as the “most important result.” The purpose of this study is to find out when and how precisely this Montessori theory of Normalization occurs in deviated children between zero and six years old; to precisely identify the timing, steps, and circumstances of Normalization, and secondly to examine the possibility of the normalized state of children to lead to peace in society. A total of 48 online survey responses were received from around the world. Twenty-one of the participants completed the open-response sections of the survey, and the analysis was primarily conducted based on these total responses. Results from teachers showed that Normalization begins with children’s spontaneous choice of work and comes with a solid and certain length of concentration. After they finished the work, peacefulness appeared in each child. The children experience this Normalization repeatedly and it manifests either as permanently or semi-permanent. This study centers on Normalization as a potential powerful tool for social change since this state is directly linked to concomitant individual and community peacefulness which can certainly spill beyond the classroom walls into general society. Furthermore, this study identifies the importance of analyzing the permanence of the state of Normalization since knowing the conditions for and causes of this permanence is key to both replication in experiments and its potential as an effective means for long lasting social change.

Language: English

Published: River Falls, Wisconsin, 2022

Doctoral Dissertation

The New Independent Schools: A Study of Their Characteristics and Patrons' Expectations

Available from: University of Southern California - Digital Library

Americas, Independent schools, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study was concerned with the emergence of a new form of private school in the United States and particularly within the state of California, the new independent school, and with the parents of children attending these schools. The problem of the study was to highlight and define the existence of new independent schools; to identify their characteristics; to determine their scope and influence; to establish their potential contributions to the public school system; and to describe the backgrounds, motivations, and educational expectations of the parents supporting such schools.

Language: English

Published: Los Angeles, California, 1975

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