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Doctoral Dissertation

The Developmental Psychology of Maria Montessori (Italy)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. In contemporary terms her "psychopedagogy" would be considered an action psychology, which basically precludes it from academic "respectibility". Her theory contains both strengths and weaknesses in light of present-day thinking; however, on balance, Montessori's theory is quite contemporary and remarkably ahead of most of the psychological thinking of her time.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Book Section

Montessori aus der Sicht der heutigen Entwicklungspsychologie [Montessori from the point of view of today's developmental psychology]

Book Title: Kinder Sind Anders: Maria Montessoris Bild Vom Kinde Auf Dem Prüfstand [Children Are Different: Maria Montessori's Picture of the Child on the Test Bench]

Pages: 183-201

Developmental psychology

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Language: German

Published: Würzburg, Germany: Ergon, 1996

ISBN: 3-928034-90-1

Article

Developmental Psychology and the Problem of Peace

Publication: Around the Child, vol. 9

Pages: 14-17

⛔ No DOI found

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Language: English

ISSN: 0571-1142

Book Section

Developmental Psychology: Its Potential Role for Peace

Book Title: The Education of Man for a Peaceful World Community: Congress Report of the XIIIth International Montessori Congress, Amsterdam, Holland, April 1-4, 1964

Pages: 69-89

Conferences, International Montessori Congress (13th, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1-4 April 1964)

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Language: English

Published: Amsterdam: Association Montessori Internationale, 1964

Article

Developmental Psychology and the Problem of Peace

Publication: The Child and You, vol. 4

Pages: 19-23

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Abstract/Notes: Originally published in 1964.

Language: English

Article

Rewriting Wundtian Psychology: Luigi Credaro and the Psychology in Rome

Available from: APA PsycNet

Publication: History of Psychology

Europe, Italy, Luigi Credaro - Biographic sources, Luigi Credaro - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Sante de Sanctis - Biographic sources, Sante de Sanctis - Philosophy, Southern Europe, Wilhelm Wundt - Biographic sources, Wilhelm Wundt - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: After Rome became the capital of Italy in 1871, prestigious scientists arrived at the University of Rome. One of these scholars was the pedagogical philosopher Luigi Credaro (1860-1939). He was one of the rare Italian students of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) when he went to Leipzig and attended the Institute for Experimental Psychology in the academic year 1887-1888. There he also followed the pedagogical seminars and considered the usefulness of establishing sections of practical pedagogy in Italian magisterium schools, which were teacher-training institutions. In 1904, he founded in Rome the Scuola Pedagogica (Pedagogical School). Through the school, Credaro proposed the concept of a scientific pedagogy based on the application of the results of experimental sciences in the educational field. We can suppose that this approach influenced the first generation of Italian scholars interested in experimental psychology in Rome, in particular Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935) and Maria Montessori (1870-1952). The article thus considers the hypothesis of the formation of a so-called Roman school of psychology, which created in the field of pedagogy a ground on which to develop its research and applications. It should be noted that Credaro devoted himself to the potential applications of experimental psychology in the context of the modernization of the liberal states of the 20th century. Specifically, scientific pedagogy constituted a field of application and development for Roman psychology. At the end, the foundation of psychology in Rome was influenced by a particular version of the Wundtian psychology promoted by his pupil Credaro.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1037/hop0000219

ISSN: 1939-0610, 1093-4510

Article

Zur Entwicklungs- und Neuropsychologie der sensiblen Phasen [On the developmental and neuropsychology of the sensitive phases]

Publication: Montessori: Zeitschrift für Montessori-Pädagogik, vol. 34, no. 3-4

Pages: 117-128

Developmental psychology, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Sensitive Periods

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Language: German

ISSN: 0944-2537

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of Montessori and Non-Montessori Teachers' Beliefs About Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Preschools

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In this study, 173 preschool teachers (80 non-Montessori teachers and 93 Montessori teachers) were given a survey at two early childhood professional conferences that examined their beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP). The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate preschool teachers' beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP); (b) discover the similarities and differences in the factor structures of the Teacher's Beliefs Scale (TBS) between the study conducted by Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thomasson, Mosley, and Fleege in 1993 and the current study about DAP; (c) discover the similarities and differences of Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP) beliefs between Montessori teachers and preschool teachers; and (d) investigate the factors that are related to teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) was used to assess preschool teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. Factor analysis was used to support the validity of TBS in the current study. Multiple t-tests were used to identify the differences in developmental appropriate/inappropriate beliefs between Montessori and non-Montessori teachers. Multiple regression analyses were used to explain the relationship between variables of 173 Montessori and non-Montessori preschool teachers. Results of the study showed that a majority of preschool teachers agreed with 22 Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) and 12 Developmentally Inappropriate Practices (DIP). Responses to seven items were different from the original study (Charlesworth et al., 1993). There was a significant difference on Inappropriate Activities and on Appropriate Child Choice between non-Montessori and Montessori teachers. There was a relationship between teachers' beliefs about DAP and teachers' educational backgrounds, teaching experiences, ethics, and DAP understanding level in the current study.

Language: English

Published: Greeley, Colorado, 2003

Book Section

Münchener Funktionelle Entwicklungsdiagnostik als Basis der Münchner Entwicklungstherapie [Munich functional developmental diagnostics as the basis of Munich developmental therapy]

Book Title: Die Montessori-Pädagogik und das behinderte Kind: Referate und Ergebnisse des 18. Internationalen Montessori Kongresses (München, 4-8 Juli 1977) [Montessori Pedagogy and the Handicapped Child: Papers and Results of the 18th International Montessori Congress (Munich, July 4-8, 1977)]

Pages: 250-255

Conferences, Europe, Germany, International Montessori Congress (18th, Munich, Germany, 4-8 July 1977), Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: München: Kindler, 1978

ISBN: 3-463-00716-9

Article

Multiage Programming Effects on Cognitive Developmental Level and Reading Achievement in Early Elementary School Children

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Reading Psychology, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 1-17

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Abstract/Notes: Differences in cognitive developmental level and reading achievement of elementary school children in multiage programming and traditional classrooms were explored. There is controversy regarding the benefit of multiage classrooms for learning academic subjects. According to previous research (e.g., Almy, Chittenden, & Miller, 1967; Brekke, Williams, & Harlow, 1973; Cromey, 1999), cognitive developmental level, reading achievement, and classroom type all seem to be related entities. This study assesses the effects of multiage classrooms compared to traditional classrooms on cognitive developmental level and reading ability of kindergartners, first graders, and second graders. The effects of cognitive developmental level on reading ability were also explored. The results support the connections among cognitive developmental level, reading ability, and classroom type.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/02702710490271800

ISSN: 0270-2711

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