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Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Montessori and Non-Montessori Early Childhood Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Inclusion and Access

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 28-41

Children with disabilities, Comparative education, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, Teachers - Attitudes

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori and non-Montessori general education early childhood teachers were surveyed about their attitudes towards including children with disabilities and providing access in their classrooms.  Both groups reported similar and positive supports for inclusion within their schools. Montessori teachers reported having less knowledge about inclusion and less special education professional development than their non-Montessori counterparts.   Implications for professional development and teacher preparation are described.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v1i1.4944

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Dilemma of Scripted Instruction: Comparing Teacher Autonomy, Fidelity, and Resistance in the Froebelian Kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All

Available from: Teachers College Record

Publication: Teachers College Record, vol. 113, no. 3

Pages: 395-430

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Abstract/Notes: More than a century before modern controversies over scripted instruction, the Froebelian kindergarten--the original kindergarten method designed by Friedrich Froebel--and Maria Montessori's pedagogy were criticized for rigidly prescribing how teachers taught and children learned. Today, scripted methods such as Direct Instruction and Success for All are condemned for limiting teachers' autonomy and narrowing students' learning, especially that of students from low-income backgrounds, for and with whom scripts are often designed and used. Proponents of scripted instruction counter that it is helpful for teachers and effective with students. Comparing historical and modern scripts offers an opportunity to explore teachers' reactions to this hotly debated approach to school reform and to think about some possible implications for teacher education. I examine how teachers reacted to four different models of scripted instruction. I chose to compare the Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All because of their longevity, wide use, and the amount of information available about them. I focus on the scripts' theory and research base and teacher training, and on teachers' assessments of the scripts' effectiveness, and ask how these factors might influence teachers' autonomy, fidelity, and resistance when using scripts. Research Design: Using historical methods, I summarize the history of scripted instruction; selectively survey research on teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance; and interpret primary and secondary sources on the Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All. Teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance varied in these four scripts. Froebelian kindergarten and Montessori teachers autonomously chose to receive scripted, lengthy, intensive, pre-service training and professional development in closed professional learning communities. Direct Instruction and Success for All teachers receive scripted, relatively limited pre-service training and ongoing professional development in schools in which teachers often do not autonomously choose to teach. Despite the scripted training, most Froebelian kindergarten teachers, and many Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All teachers modified these scripts at the classroom level; some Froebelian and Montessori teachers made very overt, substantial changes when the social class backgrounds of the students changed. Many Froebelian and most Montessori teachers seemed to believe that these scripts helped their students learn. Direct Instruction and Success for All teachers express more mixed views of these scripts' effectiveness. Some say that the scripts "work "for their students but that as teachers they feel constrained, a situation I see as a professional dilemma. Anecdotally, some new teachers with little pre-service training say that they feel limited by scripts but daunted by the task of creating curricula and instruction on their own. My research raises questions about teachers' reactions to scripts. The examples of Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All teachers I studied suggest that there may be unpredictable contradictions in scripted instruction. Scripted, autonomously chosen, intensive training may strengthen teacher fidelity and resistance, by giving teachers a deep repertoire of pedagogical skills that some continue to use and others use to autonomously modify scripts in response to students' perceived needs. Scripted, externally imposed, less extensive training may give some teachers a sense of security but also create tensions between the scripts 'perceived effectiveness and the teachers' desires for autonomy, and, for new teachers, between autonomy and the difficulty of independently designing curricula and methods. I argue that these reactions suggest that educators in traditional pre-service teacher education programs may want to experiment with offering an autonomous choice of distinctly different instructional models, including scripted ones such as Direct Instruction and Success for All, in which teachers in training in professional learning communities may become deeply skilled. I also argue that script developers may want to experiment with giving teachers more explicit autonomy, both in choosing scripts and in modifying them, and more extensive pre-service training. I recommend more comparative research on teachers' reactions to scripts, especially on new teachers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Language: English

ISSN: 0161-4681, 1467-9620

Master's Thesis

Montessori, Reggio Emilia ve MEB okul öncesi eğitim yaklaşımlarında aile katılımına yönelik öğretmen tutumlarının incelenmesi / Examining of teacher's attitudes to family participation in preschool education in Montessori, Reggio Emilia, and Ministry of National Education approaches

Available from: Ulusal Tez Merkezi / National Thesis Center (Turkey)

Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Parent participation, Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education), Teachers

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study is to determine whether teachers' attitudes towards family participation in preschool education institutions that adopt the approaches related to Montessori, Reggio Emilia and MEB education programs differ. In addition, teachers' level of education, age, type of institution, professional qualifications and professional experiences are also considered as variables. In addition, the opinions of pre-school teachers about family participation were examined comparatively. The sample of the study consists of 81 preschool teachers working in the educational institutions that adopt the approaches related to Montessori, Reggio Emilia and MEB education programs in Kadıköy, Maltepe and Ataşehir districts of Istanbul province in the 2018-2019 Academic Year. The Attitude Scale on Family Participation Studies for Teachers and the Personal Information Form containing open-ended questions for family participation were simultaneously filled in order to reveal the similarities and differences in family participation studies. According to the results of the study; the attitude points of the teachers who work in preschool education institutions which adopt the approaches related to Montessori, Reggio Emilia and MEB programs have shown a significant difference. In this context, it was determined that the scores obtained from the attitude scale differed according to the approaches.The attitude scores of the teachers working in preschool education institutions, which adopted the Reggio Emilia approach, was higher than the attitude scores of the teachers working in preschool education institutions that adopted the Montessori and MEB educational approaches. In addition, the attitudes of pre-school teachers towards family participation showed statistically significant differences according to age and category of the institution they served. However, it was determined that the attitudes of pre-school teachers towards family participation did not show a statistically significant difference between the professional title and professional experience categories. At the same time, it was concluded that preschool teachers' views on family participation reflect the educational approaches adopted by preschools. / Bu çalışmanın amacı, Montessori, Reggio Emilia ve Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı eğitim programlarına ilişkin yaklaşımları benimseyen okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında aile katılımına ilişkin öğretmen tutumlarının farklılık gösterip göstermediğini ortaya koymaktır. Ayrıca öğretmenlerin öğrenim düzeyi, yaşı, görev yaptıkları kurum çeşidi, mesleki ünvanları ve mesleki deneyimleri gibi özellikler de değişken olarak ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin aile katılımına yönelik görüşleri karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2018-2019 Eğitim Öğretim yılında İstanbul iline bağlı Kadıköy, Maltepe ve Ataşehir ilçelerinde bulunan Montessori, Reggio Emilia ve MEB eğitim programlarına ilişkin yaklaşımları benimseyen eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan 81 okul öncesi öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Çalışma grubunu oluşturan okul öncesi öğretmenlerine "Öğretmenler İçin Aile Katılım Çalışmaları Hakkında Tutum Ölçeği" ile aile katılım çalışmalarındaki benzerlikleri ve farklılıkları ortaya koymak amacıyla demografik bilgileri ve aile katılımına yönelik açık uçlu soruları içeren "Kişisel Bilgi Formu" eş zamanlı olarak doldurtulmuştur. Araştırmanın sonucuna göre; Montessori, Reggio Emilia ve MEB programlarına ilişkin yaklaşımları benimseyen okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin aile katılımına yönelik tutum puanları anlamlı farklılık göstermiştir. Bu bağlamda tutum ölçeğinden alınan puanların yaklaşımlara göre farklılık gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Reggio Emilia yaklaşımını benimseyen okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin tutum puanları Montessori ve MEB eğitim yaklaşlarımını benimseyen okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin tutum puanlarından yüksek çıkmıştır. Ayrıca okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin aile katılımına yönelik tutumları yaş ve görev yaptıkları kurum çeşidi kategorilerine göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık göstermiştir. Ancak okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin aile katılımına yönelik tutumlarının mesleki ünvan ve mesleki deneyim kategorilerinin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık göstermediği tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin aile katılımına yönelik görüşlerinin görev yaptıkları anaokulları tarafından benimsenen eğitim yaklaşımlarını yansıttığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

Language: Turkish

Published: Istanbul, Turkey, 2019

Doctoral Dissertation

Möjligheter och begränsningar: Om lärares arbete med montessoripedagogiken i praktiken [Opportunities and limitations: About teachers' work with Montessori pedagogy in practice]

Available from: DiVA Portal

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Abstract/Notes: This study examines processes connected to teacher’s transformation of the Montessori theory and it's described application to a daily practice. The aim is to create knowledge about what constitutes possibilities and limitations for teachers in their daily work with Montessori education. This does not only refer to what constitutes opportunities and limitations in teachers' everyday work with teaching, but also to what constitutes opportunities and limitations for teachers to learn at work. The theoretical framework is based on action theory and theories on adult learning and connects to a tradition called workplace-learning in which learning is considered to take place in, but also between, individuals. This approach indicates that the contextual conditions which the teachers were imbedded in are important to identify. The study was conducted in four different Montessori-environments and involved nine Montessori teachers. The methods used were participant observation, interviews, informal conversations and review of teacher produced material and documents. Possibilities and limitations in teachers work were related to if they had access to Montessori materials or not. In work with Montessori materials teachers identified the children's abilities to a greater extent than they did when other materials were in use. This identification directed their interventions. When the teachers did not have access to Montessori material their method often appeared to be the same as “individual work” with the provided material. Furthermore, interventions of the teacher were then significantly often procedural rather than content-related, although the teachers clearly expressed that they wanted to go into a dialogue with children about the treated subject area. The survey therefore contradicts with the opinion that Montessori-teachers withdraw in favor of Montessori materials that sometimes has been brought up by interpreters of the pedagogy. Rather, teachers stepped back when other materials were in use. The study also shows how a prerequisite for a collective development-oriented learning among the teachers was dependent on whether teachers made their own private understanding of the pedagogy available to each other. At times, however, teachers took the use of the materials for granted. Some of the teachers also deliberately refrained from making their personal understanding available to others due to the fact that they then could be seen as a less competent Montessori-teacher. This maintaining of a “false” collective understanding is seen as an expression of an institutionalization of teaching practice which was maintained by sanctions from the environment if the individual didn´t recognize the institutionalization in question. Since teacher’s “space for action” in this way was limited, the institution created conditions that prevented a possible development of the working methods in use. In those cases when conditions for a collective development-oriented learning were more favorable, it was clear that the teachers did not perceive Montessori education as a given method but rather saw it as a "model" for teaching in which the teachers had to interpret and define their own method from. The teachers thus came to take advantage of a potential “space for action” which was not noticed when the pedagogy was seen as a method.

Language: Swedish

Published: Stockholm, Sweden, 2016

Doctoral Dissertation

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Korean Montessori Teacher Training Program as Perceived by Montessori Teachers and Parents of Montessori-Educated Children

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: During the past ten years, a total of 3,642 teachers and administrators have attended the Korean Montessori Teacher Training Program (KMTTP). A sample of Montessori teachers (n = 261) and Korean parents (n = 375) from 32 Korean Montessori schools located in the major cities of Korea were surveyed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this teacher preparation program. The EXPECTATIONS AND GOAL ATTAINMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (EGAQ), designed by the researcher, was the instrumentation used to conduct this study. Major findings demonstrated that 74.5 percent of the teachers surveyed indicated that their main reasons for attending the KMTTP were to increase their professional competency and their knowledge of child development through Montessori philosophy. The correlation between teachers' levels of satisfaction with their preparation and perceived effectiveness of the training program was higher (r =.29, p $<$.05) than between their levels of satisfaction with the program and their perceptions of their preparedness after completion of training (r =.18, p $<$.05). Significant differences existed between perceived effectiveness of the KMTTP and teachers' ages, positions, and years of experience. Older teachers and those with more advanced teaching positions expressed greater satisfaction with the program. Teachers indicated that, upon completion of the KMTTP, they felt more prepared in, than knowledgeable of, Montessori educational methodology. From the parent perspective, the most frequently cited reason (74.3%) for sending their child to a Montessori School was to provide a learning environment that nurtured their child's interpersonal growth. A majority of the parents (58.5%) were very satisfied with the Montessori experience; no parents were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied. In correlating the effectiveness of Montessori education with specific outcomes, parents indicated highest levels of satisfaction in the areas of "concentration" and "academic achievement." A majority of the teachers surveyed (52.8%) encouraged the implementation of the Montessori Teacher Training Program in neighboring countries, with 42.1 percent strongly encouraging implementation. This study demonstrated the need for further development and improvement in the area of Montessori teacher training in Korea.

Language: English

Published: San Francisco, California, 1994

Doctoral Dissertation

Knowledge and attitudes of Montessori teachers of young children as a context for guiding normalization and self-construction process

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the degree of agreement between AMI trained Montessori teachers' knowledge and attitudes and Montessori's recommendations for guiding the process of normalization among young children and (2) to discover the reasons for differences from those recommendations. Normalization is the central process in the Montessori method. Except for a study by this investigator (Zener, 1993) guiding the process of normalization had not been researched since Montessori's work some forty-five to eighty-five years ago. Therefore, this investigation also provided current teacher experiences of guiding the process of normalization. One hundred sixty five Montessori teachers attending various regional and national conferences were surveyed with knowledge and attitude scales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10% of the participants. Mean scale scores from 4.0 to 5.0 on a five degree Likert scale and a SD less than 1.0 were projected as satisfactory levels of agreement with Montessori's recommendations. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the scales, and content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. T-tests and ANOVAS indicated that demographic variables were not significant to the results. The study concluded that AMI trained Montessori teachers reflected a satisfactory degree of agreement with the recommended knowledge and attitudes (M = 4.25, SD =.31 and M = 4.50, SD =.34 respectively). Knowledge and attitude correlated (p $<$.01). Reasons for differences among teachers' knowledge and attitudes about guiding the process included using other aspects of Montessori theory, disagreement with Montessori, difficulty in carrying out the theory in practice, misinterpretations of scale items, and misunderstandings about Montessori's recommendations for guiding the process of normalization. Implications for children, teachers, parents, school administration, and teacher education included validation of teachers for the high level of consistency in their reflections on guiding the process of normalization. Recommendations for future research included developing a more complete theoretical understanding of the process of normalization, particularly the importance of respecting children's spans of concentration.

Language: English

Published: College Park, Maryland, 1994

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of Montessori and Non-Montessori Teachers' Beliefs About Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Preschools

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In this study, 173 preschool teachers (80 non-Montessori teachers and 93 Montessori teachers) were given a survey at two early childhood professional conferences that examined their beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP). The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate preschool teachers' beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP); (b) discover the similarities and differences in the factor structures of the Teacher's Beliefs Scale (TBS) between the study conducted by Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thomasson, Mosley, and Fleege in 1993 and the current study about DAP; (c) discover the similarities and differences of Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP) beliefs between Montessori teachers and preschool teachers; and (d) investigate the factors that are related to teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) was used to assess preschool teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. Factor analysis was used to support the validity of TBS in the current study. Multiple t-tests were used to identify the differences in developmental appropriate/inappropriate beliefs between Montessori and non-Montessori teachers. Multiple regression analyses were used to explain the relationship between variables of 173 Montessori and non-Montessori preschool teachers. Results of the study showed that a majority of preschool teachers agreed with 22 Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) and 12 Developmentally Inappropriate Practices (DIP). Responses to seven items were different from the original study (Charlesworth et al., 1993). There was a significant difference on Inappropriate Activities and on Appropriate Child Choice between non-Montessori and Montessori teachers. There was a relationship between teachers' beliefs about DAP and teachers' educational backgrounds, teaching experiences, ethics, and DAP understanding level in the current study.

Language: English

Published: Greeley, Colorado, 2003

Doctoral Dissertation

Understanding What it Means to be a Montessori Teacher: Teachers Reflections on Their Lives and Work

Montessori method of education - Teacher training, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Teachers

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Abstract/Notes: The overall aim of this study has been to come to a better understanding of what it means to be a Montessori teacher, by getting a group of Montessori teachers to reflect on their lives and work. Data exploration has comprised journals, interviews, written reflections and collaborative con-textual analysis. Analysis of the teachers? occupational life histories and the findings as a whole have been used to shed light on: ?Values and specific aspects of the philosophy of Montessori edu-cation that primarily attract teachers to this profession. ?Ways in which teachers? conceptions of their professional roles reflect their own personal values, beliefs and convictions. ?Teachers? views regarding the role of Montessori education to-day and in the future. Eight female Montessori primary school teachers participated in the study. Findings reveal that the strengths of the Montessori method lie in its focus on philosophical awareness, the holistic approach and a genuine ethic of care. Montessori?s fundamental educational principles are also in alignment with the current Curriculum for Compulsory Schools (Lpo 94). On the other hand, difficulties are experienced due to conflicting tradi-tional/contemporary interpretations of Montessori theory and practice and a general lack of collaboration among Montessori teachers. Open discussion and a sharing of ideas and experiences would help Montessori teachers come to terms with how to apply fundamental principles in new ways without the fear of losing an educational ?identity?. The Montessori teachers in this study reflect this attitude. Tendencies toward continu-ity/meaningful change in education depend to a great extent on the ways in which teachers are able to critically reflect about how they think and what they do. Taking seriously what teachers have to say is in fact essen-tial in order to understand the forces that, among other things, govern and sway teachers? inner as well as outer motivations, something of relevance and concern to all involved in teaching and educational processes.

Language: English

Published: Malmö, Sweden, 2003

Doctoral Dissertation

Examining Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Classroom Teaching Practices: A Mixed Methods Study

Available from: UAB Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires schools to be held accountable for academic performance. It is believed the pressure of accountability will lead teachers to narrow the curriculum by engaging students in test preparation activities. The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methods study was to examine elementary teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT-10) and the Alabama Reading and Math Test (ARMT) on classroom teaching practices from a sample of third-grade, fourth-grade, and fifth-grade teachers in three large school systems in Alabama. The purpose of the first, quantitative phase of the study, was to reveal teachers’ perceptions of the impact of high-stakes testing on curriculum and instructional approaches, the amount of time spent on critical thinking skills, the amount of time spent on test preparation activities, and the perceived impact of state tests on students and teachers by surveying 123 third-grade through fifth-grade teachers in three large Alabama school systems. In the second, qualitative phase of this study, purposeful sampling strategy and maximal variation sampling strategy were employed to interview nine teachers who responded to the survey in the first, quantitative phase of the study to explore the results from the statistical tests in more depth. Findings suggested urban teachers spent more time on critical-thinking skills than rural and suburban teachers, and low-socioeconomic, rural teachers experienced more stress caused by high-stakes testing than their geographical counterparts. All teachers independent of socioeconomic status or school geographical location reported they increased their focus on reading and math, which were the subjects assessed on high-stakes tests and de-emphasized subjects not tested such as social studies and science. Finally, most teachers reported they decreased the teaching of critical thinking skills due to the SAT-10 but increased the teaching of critical thinking skills due to the ARMT. Due to the lack of research regarding high-stakes testing in Alabama elementary schools, there was a need for teachers to discuss the specific impact of testing on classroom teaching practices because they work directly with students and are cognizant of the challenges that teachers face.

Language: English

Published: Birmingham, Alabama, 2010

Book

Together with Montessori: The Guide to Help Montessori Teachers, Assistant Teachers, Resource Teachers, Administrators and Parents Work in Harmony to Create Great Schools

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Language: English

Published: Minneapolis, Minnesota: Jola Publications, 2001

Edition: 2nd ed.

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