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Book Section

Montessori and the Child with Developmental Disabilities

Available from: ERIC

Book Title: Implementing Montessori Education in the Public Sector

Pages: 283-291

Children with disabilities, Developmental disabilities, Developmentally disabled children, Developmentally disabled youth, Inclusive education, Special education

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Language: English

Published: Cleveland, OH: North American Montessori Teachers' Association, 1990

Article

Montessori and the Child with Developmental Disabilities

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1984, no. 4

Pages: 5–13

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959

Doctoral Dissertation

The Developmental Psychology of Maria Montessori (Italy)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. In contemporary terms her "psychopedagogy" would be considered an action psychology, which basically precludes it from academic "respectibility". Her theory contains both strengths and weaknesses in light of present-day thinking; however, on balance, Montessori's theory is quite contemporary and remarkably ahead of most of the psychological thinking of her time.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Early Signs of Specific Learning Disabilities in Early Childhood

Available from: International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education (INT-JECSE)

Publication: International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education (INT-JECSE), vol. 12, no. 1

Pages: 84-95

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Abstract/Notes: Since comprehensive evaluation of academic skills cannot be extensively conducted in early childhood, specific learning disabilities cannot be diagnosed in preschool-aged children. To evaluate academic skills, children must be school-aged and interventions cannot begin in the preschool period. However, specific learning disabilities in children may also be noticed during preschool. Preschool teachers need to determine which kids are at risk of having specific learning disabilities so that they can be detected early and an intervention provided. Preschool teachers need to be aware of the early signs of specific learning disabilities to distinguish between typically developing children and those at risk of having specific learning disabilities. In this review, studies describing the preschool characteristics of students at risk of having specific learning disabilities are examined, and the early signs of specific learning disabilities and early intervention processes are described based on the literature. Research suggests that the signs of specific learning disabilities can be seen in early childhood. The need for preschool teachers and families to be sensitive to the characteristics of children at risk of specific learning disabilities in the context of early intervention is discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.20489/intjecse.722383

ISSN: 1943-023X

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of Montessori and Non-Montessori Teachers' Beliefs About Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Preschools

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: In this study, 173 preschool teachers (80 non-Montessori teachers and 93 Montessori teachers) were given a survey at two early childhood professional conferences that examined their beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP). The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate preschool teachers' beliefs about Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP); (b) discover the similarities and differences in the factor structures of the Teacher's Beliefs Scale (TBS) between the study conducted by Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thomasson, Mosley, and Fleege in 1993 and the current study about DAP; (c) discover the similarities and differences of Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice (DIP) beliefs between Montessori teachers and preschool teachers; and (d) investigate the factors that are related to teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. The Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS) was used to assess preschool teachers' beliefs about DAP and DIP. Factor analysis was used to support the validity of TBS in the current study. Multiple t-tests were used to identify the differences in developmental appropriate/inappropriate beliefs between Montessori and non-Montessori teachers. Multiple regression analyses were used to explain the relationship between variables of 173 Montessori and non-Montessori preschool teachers. Results of the study showed that a majority of preschool teachers agreed with 22 Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) and 12 Developmentally Inappropriate Practices (DIP). Responses to seven items were different from the original study (Charlesworth et al., 1993). There was a significant difference on Inappropriate Activities and on Appropriate Child Choice between non-Montessori and Montessori teachers. There was a relationship between teachers' beliefs about DAP and teachers' educational backgrounds, teaching experiences, ethics, and DAP understanding level in the current study.

Language: English

Published: Greeley, Colorado, 2003

Article

Signals of Learning Disabilities at Various Developmental Stages

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 14, no. 3

Pages: 46–48

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Learning disabilities

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Book Section

Münchener Funktionelle Entwicklungsdiagnostik als Basis der Münchner Entwicklungstherapie [Munich functional developmental diagnostics as the basis of Munich developmental therapy]

Book Title: Die Montessori-Pädagogik und das behinderte Kind: Referate und Ergebnisse des 18. Internationalen Montessori Kongresses (München, 4-8 Juli 1977) [Montessori Pedagogy and the Handicapped Child: Papers and Results of the 18th International Montessori Congress (Munich, July 4-8, 1977)]

Pages: 250-255

Conferences, Europe, Germany, International Montessori Congress (18th, Munich, Germany, 4-8 July 1977), Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: München: Kindler, 1978

ISBN: 3-463-00716-9

Mainstreaming the Young Child with Developmental and Learning Disabilities: An Interpretation of Selected Montessori Principles Related to Curriculum Design for an Integrated Preschool Setting

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Language: English

Published: Honolulu, Hawaii, 1978

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Integrating the Educational Principles of Maria Montessori in the Process of Pedagogical Support for Pupils with Learning Disabilities

Available from: EconJournals

Publication: International Review of Management and Marketing, vol. 6, no. 3S

Pages: 118-124

Children with disabilities, Eastern Europe, Europe, Inclusive education, Learning disabilities, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., People with disabilities, Russia, Special education, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the present article was to search for new ways of individual pedagogical support for primary school children with learning disabilities. The article describes the mechanisms for putting the educational principles of Maria Montessori into the system of pedagogical support for children with learning disabilities, which apply the exercises of practical life to a real social environment. The objective of the exercises was to develop universal learning activities, e.g., the ability to plan and manage a child's activity, to reflect its results, to build up communication, to encourage cognitive development.Keywords: learning disabilities, individual pedagogical support, Maria Montessori, universal learning activitiesJEL Classifications: I20; I23

Language: English

ISSN: 2146-4405

Bachelors Thesis

Η ενσωμάτωση των παιδιών με μαθησιακές δυσκολίες στο εκπαιδευτικό σύστημα Μοντεσσόρι [The Inclusion of Children with Learning Disabilities into the Montessori Education System]

Available from: University of Western Macedonia

Children with disabilities, Europe, Greece, Inclusive education, Learning disabilities, Montessori method of education, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Η εργασία αναφέρεται στην δυνατότητα ενσωμάτωσης παιδιών προσχολικής ηλικίας με ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες στο παιδαγωγικό σύστημα Μοντεσσόρι. Πιο αναλυτικά η παρούσα πτυχιακή εργασία αποτελείται από τρία κεφάλαια, ουσιαστικά τρία κύρια μέρη. Το πρώτο κεφάλαιο της εργασίας παρουσιάζει τον εννοιολογικό προσδιορισμό των μαθησιακών δυσκολιών και αναφέρει αναλυτικά τα χαρακτηριστικά των παιδιών με ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες. Μετέπειτα, αναφέρεται στο ιδανικό εκπαιδευτικό περιβάλλον μάθησης, στο οποίο κατηγοριοποιούνται οι πιο συχνές ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες. Αφετέρου, τεκμηριώνεται με σαφήνεια ο ορισμός και η έννοια της ενσωμάτωσης στο πλαίσιο του παιδαγωγικού συστήματος της Μοντεσσόρι εστιασμένο σε παιδιά με ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες και τεκμηριώνονται οι παράγοντες που επηρεάζουν την ενσωμάτωση. Το δεύτερο κεφάλαιο περιλαμβάνει το Διαθεματικό Ενιαίο Πλαίσιο Προγραμμάτων Σπουδών (ΔΕΠΠΣ), τις βασικές αρχές και τον σκοπό ολόπλευρης ανάπτυξης των παιδιών και την ανάγκη ποικίλων διδακτικών προσεγγίσεων, διότι κάθε άτομο έχει διαφορετικές ανάγκες. Επίσης, επισημαίνεται η αναγνώριση πρώιμων ενδείξεων για τις ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες στην πρώιμη σχολική ηλικία. Ακόμη, τονίζεται η σημασία της πρώιμης παρέμβασης ως προς την αποφυγή δευτερογενών προβλημάτων. Το τρίτο κεφάλαιο αναφέρεται αρχικά, στην βιογραφία και το έργο της Μαρίας Μοντεσσόρι, στη συνέχεια, παρουσιάζονται τρόποι για την χρήση εκπαιδευτικού υλικού σε παιδιά με ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες. Επίσης, περιγράφεται η οπτική της Μοντεσσόρι για τα παιδιά με ειδικές μαθησιακές δυσκολίες. Τέλος, αναλύεται ο ρόλος του εκπαιδευτικού και το πρόγραμμα σπουδών για τα παιδιά φυσιολογικής ανάπτυξης που συμπεριλαμβάνει και τα παιδιά που αντιμετωπίζουν μαθησιακές δυσκολίες. [The current thesis refers to the possibility of integrating preschool children with special learning disabilities into the Montessori pedagogical system. In more detail, this dissertation consists of three chapters, essentially three main parts. The first chapter of the work presents the conceptual definition of learning disabilities and mentions in detail the characteristics of children with special learning disabilities. Subsequently, it refers in detail to the ideal educational learning environment, in which the most common special learning disabilities are categorized. On the other hand, the definition and concept of integration within the Montessori pedagogical system is clearly documented in children with special learning disabilities and the factors that affect integration are documented. The second chapter includes the Interdisciplinary Unified Curriculum Framework (IUCF), the basic principles and purpose of children's all-round development and the need for a variety of teaching approaches, because each person has different needs. It is also important to recognize early indications of special learning disabilities in the kindergarten. It also emphasizes the importance of early intervention to avoid secondary problems. The third chapter first deals with the biography and work of Maria Montessori, then presents ways to use educational material in children with special learning disabilities. Montessori's vision for children with special learning disabilities is also described. Lastly are analyzed the role of the teacher and the curriculum for children of normal development, including children with learning disabilities.]

Language: Greek

Published: Kozani, Greece, 2020

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