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Article

Türkiye’de Montessori Yöntemi ile İlgili Yapılan Çalışmaların İncelenmesi / Investigation of Studies on Montessori Method in Turkey

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Yaşam Becerileri Psikoloji Dergisi / Life Skills Journal of Psychology, vol. 5, no. 10

Pages: 101-118

Asia, Literature reviews, Middle East, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori Yöntemi, bir eğitim sistemidir ve Maria Montessori tarafından oluşturulmuştur. Maria Montessori İtalyan bir pedagog ve ülkesinin ilk kadın doktorudur. Montessori sistemi çocuğu merkeze alır ve çocuğa görelik ilkesiyle hareket ederek, çocuğa uygun oluşturulmuş bir çevreye dayanır. Çocuğun ilgi alanları ve yetenekleri dikkate alınarak, bireysel öğrenme hızının olduğunu kabul eder ve bunu temel alan esnek bir eğitim süreci oluşturur. Montessori yöntemi bir sentezdir; çocukların içlerindeki potansiyeli fark edip keşfetmelerini ve karakterlerini oluşturmalarını amaçlar. Ayrıca çocuğun içindeki potansiyele ulaşması için düzenlenmiş bir alana ve özgürlüğe ihtiyacı olduğunu savunur. Ülkemizde Montessori konusu ile ilgili bilimsel çalışmalara önem verildiği ve çalışmalarının son yıllarda arttığı gözlemlenmektedir. Bu araştırmada, ülkemizde Montessori metodu ve uygulamaları ile ilgili, 2010-2021 yılları arasında yazılan tez ve makaleler, belirlenen ölçütlere göre incelenerek, hem bu metodun güvenilirlik ve geçerliliğini görmek hem de yapılacak yeni araştırmalara fikir vermek amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışma nitel bir araştırma olup, amaçsal öğrenme stratejilerinden ölçüt öğrenme yöntemi ve doküman tarama (analizi) tekniği kullanılmıştır. Google Akademi, Dergipark ve Ulusal Tez Merkezi veri ortamlarından “montessori” kelimeleri ile kaynaklar taranmış ve 48 tez çalışması, 36 makale çalışması olmak üzere toplam da 84 çalışmaya ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara bakıldığında; ülkemizde Montessori metoduna yönelik çalışmalarının yoğunluğunun son 5 yıla ait olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırmaların büyük bir bölümünün okul öncesi kademesinde yapıldığı söylenebilir. Yapılan çalışmaların tamamına yakınının sonuç bölümlerinde, Montessori yöntemi ile eğitim alan çocukların lehine değişim gözlendiği belirtilmiştir. / The Montessori Method is an education system and was created by Maria Montessori. Maria Montessori is an Italian pedagogue and the first female doctor in her country. The Montessori system puts the child in the center and, acting on the principle of relative to the child, is based on an environment created suitable for the child. Considering the interests and abilities of the child, it accepts the individual learning speed and creates a flexible education process based on this. The Montessori method is a synthesis; It aims for children to realize and discover the potential within them and to create their characters. He also argues that the child needs a regulated space and freedom to reach their potential. It is observed that scientific studies on the subject of Montessori are given importance in our country and their studies have increased in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to see the reliability and validity of this method and to give an idea for new researches by examining the theses and articles written between 2010-2021 about the Montessori method and its applications in our country, according to the determined criteria. This study is a qualitative research and criterion learning method and document scanning (analysis) technique, which are purposeful learning strategies, were used. Sources were scanned with the words "montessori" from Google Academy, Dergipark and National Thesis Center data environments, and a total of 84 studies, including 48 thesis studies and 36 article studies, were reached. Considering the findings obtained from the research; It has been determined that the intensity of the studies on the Montessori method in our country belongs to the last 5 years. It can be said that most of the studies were conducted at the preschool level. In the conclusion sections of almost all of the studies, it was stated that a change was observed in favor of the children who received education with the Montessori method.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.31461/ybpd.1026936

ISSN: 2587-1536

Bachelor's Thesis

Perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak Prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori [Differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools]

Available from: CORE

Asia, Australasia, Comparative education, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Kemandirian adalah kemampuan seseorang untuk melakukan segala sesuatunya sendiri sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yang didasari oleh inisiatif, keinginan, kontrol diri dan kepercayaan pada kemampuannya sendiri. Anak perlu dilatih kemandiriannya sejak usia dini supaya tugas perkembangan dapat berkembang secara optimal. Sekolah memiliki peran penting untuk meningkatkan kemandirian anak. Menurut Santrock (2002:242), lingkungan bermain sangat penting dalam optimalisasi perkembangan anak. Salah satu sekolah dengan pendekatan seperti di atas adalah sekolah Montessori. Pendekatan Montessori menerapkan agar anak belajar mandiri dan tidak bertanya kepada guru atau menunggu jawaban (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Anak yang dididik dengan pendekatan Montessori diberi kesempatan untuk bekerja sendiri dengan material-material yang ada di lingkungannya, mengungkapkan keinginannya untuk memilih aktivitas, mengembangkan disiplin, dan anak perlu mengetahui apa yang baik dan buruk. Apabila hal-hal ini telah dipenuhi, maka kemandirian anak akan terbentuk (Modern Montessori International n.d.:40-41). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui secara empiris ada tidaknya perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori. Subjek penelitian (N=28) adalah anak prasekolah berusia 3-4 tahun yang bersekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dan sekolah non Montessori “Y” Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan seluruh populasi playgroup 2. Pengambilan data menggunakan rating scale terhadap kemandirian anak di sekolah Montessori maupun di sekolah non Montessori. Data dianalisis dengan teknik Uji t (t-test). Nilai t = 0.364, dengan p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis penelitian ditolak. Hal ini berarti tidak ada perbedaan signifikan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dengan sekolah non Montessori “Y”. [Independence is a person's ability to do things on their own in accordance with their developmental tasks based on initiative, desire, self-control and belief in their own abilities. Children need to be trained to be independent from an early age so that developmental tasks can develop optimally. Schools have an important role in increasing children's independence. According to Santrock (2002: 242), the play environment is very important in optimizing children's development. One of the schools with such an approach is the Montessori school. The Montessori approach applies so that children learn independently and do not ask the teacher or wait for answers (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Children who are educated with the Montessori approach are given the opportunity to work alone with materials in their environment, express their desire to choose activities, develop discipline, and children need to know what is good and bad. If these things have been fulfilled, then the child's independence will be formed (Modern Montessori International n.d.: 40-41). This study aims to determine empirically whether there are differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools. The research subjects (N=28) were preschoolers aged 3-4 years who attended Montessori schools "X" and non-Montessori schools "Y" The sampling technique used the entire playgroup population 2. Data collection used a rating scale on the independence of children in Montessori schools. as well as in non-Montessori schools. The data were analyzed by using the t-test technique (t-test). The value of t = 0.364, with p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) which means the research hypothesis is rejected. This means that there is no significant difference in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools "X" with non-Montessori schools "Y"]

Language: Indonesian

Published: Surabaya, Indonesia, 2009

Article

Recent Studies and Practices of the Montessori Educational Method: Ten Years from 1979 on the DIALOG Data-Base

Available from: Semantic Scholar

Publication: Annual Reports from the Faculty of Education, Iwate University, vol. 51, no. 2

Pages: 147-161

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Abstract/Notes: I review recent practices and studies of the Montessori method from 1979 and intend to discover some tasks for future studies. I researched fourteen files in the DIALOG database, and tried to find papers from 1979 using the key word "MONTESSORI". Sixty-seven titles of books and papers were output from the DIALOG database. I classified them into five large groups. Each large group was further divided into small groups. The following are these large groups, with the numbers of books and papers contained in each large group shown in parenthses. 1. Studies which compared the Montessori method with other methods. (27) 2. Practical examples which developed and applied the Montessori method. (18) 3. Studies about the Montessori method for handicapped children. (12) 4. Philosophical and theoretical studies about the Montessori method. (8) 5. Scientific studies about the Montessori method. (2) The group of "Scientific studies about the Montessori method" had only two papers, the smallest in number of the five groups. The Montessori method was created scientifically by Maria Montessori at the beginning of this century. During the following years the educational and psychological sciences have developed gradually. I think that the Montessori method should be further studied scientifically from the modern educational and psychological points of view. Scientific studies will clarify new aspects of the Montessori method and add new elements to it. The Montessori method will develop and be applied to various fields.

Language: English

Article

History of the Reception of Montessori Education in Japan

Available from: Espacio, Tiempo y Educación

Publication: Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, vol. 5, no. 2

Asia, East Asia, Japan, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: This paper focuses on the history of the reception of Montessori Education, and sheds light on the development of childhood education in Japan. From its first adoption in the 1910s until today, the Montessori style of Education has been both praised and criticised. Nevertheless, this period has seen three distinct phases of theory and practice. The first stage (1910s-1930s) saw, from its initial adoption, a rapid acceptance of Montessori Education, due to its promise of early education and new teaching methods promoting freedom for children. However, the method soon lost popularity because some educators criticized the weakness of Montessori’s theory. In the second stage (1930s-post-World War II), interest in the method continued to grow, albeit gradually, and several books published on the Montessori Method in Europe and America were translated into Japanese. The third stage (1950s-present) saw the so-called «Montessori revival», in which the method caught on again with many educators. Many original works were translated, numerous studies on Montessori appeared, and the number of kindergartens and nursery schools using the Montessori Method increased. Much has been said both for and against Montessori’s concept of «freedom for children». Recently, however «learning from the environment» has become an important topic in early childhood education in Japan. Montessori attaches importance to children’s freedom to interact with each other and their environment, leading to a renewed interest in the Montessori method and the theory behind it. This paper seeks to clarify the transitions in the popularity of Montessori Education and analyse its value to Japan.

Language: English

DOI: 10.14516/ete.227

ISSN: 2340-7263

Article

Konsep Montessori Tentang Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Dalam Perspektif Pendidikan Islam [The Montessori Concept of Early Childhood Education in the Perspective of Islamic Education]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga (Indonesia)

Publication: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam [Journal of Islamic Religious Education], vol. 11, no. 1

Pages: 37-52

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Religious education, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Education is the business of adults to prepare children to be able to live independently and is able to perform the duties of his life as well as possible. The toddler years are a golden period for the growth and development of children. Development of each child must be observed, education and teaching needs to be ailored to the child’s development. Montessori is early childhood education leaders who opened the eyes of their sensitive period in children, Montessori asserted that education is self-education. Montessori then use the freedom and liveliness of the child with the best in the method, so that each child had the opportunity to evolve according to the nature and talent. In Islam, God entrusted the child is to be protected and educated with the best. Therefore, addressing the development and early childhood education, the need for an educational program that is designed in accordance with the child’s developmental level. This study aims to describe and analyze the Montessori concept of early childhood education in the perspective of Islamic education. Data collection through literature study is based on primary and secondary data. Data analysis using analytic descriptive with inductive thinking patterns. The results showed: 1) Montesssori shift from teacher-education center central (teachers as a source of learning) be child-central (protégé as a center of learning); 2) Sensitive Periods expressed early age is a sensitive period; 3) The freedom and independence according to the Montessori system is not real freedom, but freedom is limited; 4) Child’s Self-Construction stating that children construct their own development of his soul; 5) At the time of early childhood have a soul absorbent range of knowledge and experience in his life. Montessori concept in Islamic educational perspective, the emphasis is on the child’s intellectual is right. However, it should pay attention to other aspects such as emotional aspects and skills.

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.14421/jpai.2014.111-03

ISSN: 2502-2075

Honors Thesis

The Great Italian Educator: The Montessori Method and American Nativism in the 1910s

Available from: University of Kansas

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this project is to investigate to what extent Protestant nativism impeded the spread of the Montessori Method in the United States. The Montessori Method has experienced waves of popularity in America ever since it was first introduced in 1910. During the first wave of popularity, from 1910-1917, Dr. Maria Montessori, the founder, faced backlash from educators and educational philosophers for her scientific reasoning and her pedagogical and social philosophies. Some Montessori historians believe that these factors were critical in halting the spread of the Montessori Method in America in 1917. An additional theory is that Montessori’s personal identity, as an Italian Catholic woman, impeded the reception of her ideas in America. Considering that the time period was characterized by anti-Catholic rhetoric from political organizations as well as newspapers and journals, the theory makes sense. Research for this project was conducted by examining newspaper publications that covered the Montessori Method, rebuttals of the method published by American educators, and the books and articles written by Montessori advocates. Other primary sources include Catholic publications and Dr. Montessori’s own books and writings. Secondary sources, such as autobiographies of Maria Montessori’s life and examinations of nativist activity at the beginning of the 20th Century, help paint a picture of the state of America when Dr. Montessori visited in 1913. Overall, these sources indicate that anti-Catholic sentiments played a minor role, if any, in hampering the spread of the Montessori Method. Maria Montessori’s publicist, Samuel S. McClure, crafted a particular public image for Montessori, compatible with themes of social reform, Progressive educational reform, and feminism, which would appeal to most Americans. The creation of this public image is significant as it was a manifestation of the cultural upheaval experienced during the early 20th century and had lasting implications for Progressive education and the future of the Montessori Method in America. Supporters for the method emphasized the scientific foundation of the method, Dr. Montessori’s ideas for social reform through education, and the compatibility of the method with American ideals of individual freedom and responsibility. In the end, other factors such as leading educators’ disapproval of different aspects of the method, World War I, and Dr. Montessori’s personality led to the decline of the Montessori Method in America at that time.

Language: English

Published: Lawrence, Kansas, Apr 2019

Thesis

La aplicación del método Montessori para el desarrollo integral en el aula de 3 años, de la Institución Montessori School - Arequipa, 2021 [The Application of the Montessori Method for Integral Development in the Classroom of 3 years, of the Montessori School Institution - Arequipa, 2021]

Available from: Universidad César Vallejo - Institutional Repository

Americas, Child development, Classroom environment, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Peru, Prepared environment, South America

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Abstract/Notes: El presente trabajo de suficiencia profesional tiene como título: “La Aplicación del Método Montessori para el Desarrollo Integral en el Aula de 3 años, de la Institución Montessori School - Arequipa, 2021”. Además, el objetivo general es: Explicar la importancia de la aplicación del Método Montessori para el desarrollo integral de los niños de 3 años, de la Institución Educativa Montessori School – Arequipa, 2021. Está dividido en 4 capítulos; en el capítulo I se aborda la realidad educativa; en el capítulo II se plantean los antecedentes y bases teóricas; el capítulo III está referido al árbol de problemas y actividades y finalmente en el capítulo IV, se encuentran las conclusiones y recomendaciones. De acuerdo con las revisiones teóricas, el Método Montessori, es una educación que permite que los niños de la primera infancia se desarrollen de manera integral, teniendo en cuenta que esta filosofía se basa en el desarrollo natural de las personas, creando un ambiente propicio (ambiente preparado) que satisfaga los períodos sensibles, las tendencias humanas y aprovechando el primer plano de desarrollo que está caracterizado por la mente absorbente. Además, dándole vital importancia a la preparación emocional, física y psicológica del maestro. [The present work of professional sufficiency has as title: "The Application of the Montessori Method for Integral Development in the Classroom of 3 years, of the Montessori School Institution - Arequipa, 2021". In addition, the general objective is: Explain the importance of the application of the Montessori Method for the integral development of 3-year-old children, of the Montessori School Educational Institution - Arequipa, 2021. It is divided into 4 chapters; Chapter I addresses the educational reality; in chapter II the antecedents and theoretical bases are raised; Chapter III refers to the tree of problems and activities and finally Chapter IV contains the conclusions and recommendations. According to theoretical reviews, the Montessori Method is an education that allows early childhood children to develop in an integral way, taking into account that this philosophy is based on the natural development of people, creating a conducive environment ( prepared environment) that satisfies sensitive periods, human tendencies and taking advantage of the first plane of development that is characterized by the absorbing mind. In addition, giving vital importance to the emotional, physical and psychological preparation of the teacher.]

Language: Spanish

Published: Lima, Peru, 2021

Book

Studien zur Montessori-Pädagogik I: Maria Montessori und die "reform-pädagogische Bewegung" [Studies on Montessori Education I: Maria Montessori and the "New Education Movement"]

Europe, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Language: German

Published: Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 1986

ISBN: 978-3-451-20919-2

Article

L’educazione morale e religiosa nell’opera di Maria Montessori: Alcuni studi del Laboratorio Montessori di Roma [Moral and religious education in the work of Maria Montessori: Some studies of the Montessori Laboratory in Rome]

Available from: Università di Macerata

Publication: History of Education and Children's Literature (HECL), vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 159-168

Europe, Italy, Moral education, Religious education, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: L’articolo illustra il programma di ricerche del Laboratorio Montessori di Roma, un’as- sociazione che raccoglie ricercatori di varia provenienza impegnati nello studio della storia del metodo Montessori. Particolare attenzione è rivolta a due tematiche: da una parte, la formazione del carattere, che è stata oggetto di approfondite ricerche negli ultimi vent’anni (si vedano le ricerche di Angeline Stoll Lillard); e, dall’altra, l’educazione religiosa – temati- ca alla quale la Montessori si dedicò profondamente, mantenendo fino alla fine la radicata convinzione che il proprio metodo potesse essere utile all’insegnamento religioso e della religione cattolica in particolare. [This paper presents the research program of the Laboratory Montessori in Rome. The Laboratory is an association which brings together scholars from various countries to carry out research projects on the history of the Montessori movement. In 2011, the association has explored character education according to the Montessori method and special attention will be devoted to religious education. The character education has been studied with par- ticular attention in the last twenty years, and some research (for example, those of Angeline Stoll Lillard) have demonstrated the validity of the Montessori method. Religious education has been the subject of much discussion since Montessori had intense relationships with other cultures and religious figures from around the world. The author argues that Montes- sori devoted himself to Catholic education; she was linked to this confession until the end of his work and his life.]

Language: Italian

ISSN: 1971-1093, 1971-1131

Article

Views on Montessori approach by teachers serving at schools applying the Montessori approach [Montessori yaklaşımını uygulayan okullarda çalışan öğretmenlerin Montessori yaklaşımına ilişkin görüşleri]

Available from: Eurasian Journal of Educational Research

Publication: Eurasian Journal of Educational Research [Egitim Arastirmalari], no. 66

Pages: 123-138

Asia, Middle East, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Problem Statement: Further studies on Montessori teachers are required on the grounds that the Montessori approach, which, having been applied throughout the world, holds an important place in the alternative education field. Yet it is novel for Turkey, and there are only a limited number of studies on Montessori teachers in Turkey. Purpose of Study: The aim was to investigate views on the Montessori approach by the teachers who serve at the schools applying the Montessori approach. Methods: Research data was collected by the basic qualitative research, one of the qualitative research methods. Descriptive analysis method was used in analysis of the qualitative data. Nine teachers serving at three different schools in Ankara province applying Montessori approach were interviewed. Findings and Results: Eight main themes were determined upon data analysis; namely, education on Montessori approach, basic qualities required for teachers applying Montessori approach, adequacy of education on Montessori approach, in-service training on the challenges experienced by Montessori teachers, plans of teachers for self-development, following existing studies in Turkey on Montessori approach, views on studies on Montessori approach, and views on the criticisms towards Montessori approach. Conclusions and Recommendations: All teachers confirmed that they internalized the approach upon training in line with Montessori philosophy. They emphasized that they received training covering all the educational fields, yet the implementation dimension was inadequate due to training without the involvement of children. Furthermore, they suggested that all the schools in Turkey were opened by commercial motives, and as such these schools failed to comply with the standards of the institutions providing education on the basis of Montessori approach. They asserted that all criticisms towards Montessori approach would be proved to be groundless upon implementation of the approach. It was seen that experienced supervisors, in-service training, and scientific studies on Montessori approach were required.

Language: English, Turkish

ISSN: 1302-597X, 2528-8911

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