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640 results

Article

Working Memory and Executive Functions: Effects of Training on Academic Achievement

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Psychological Research, vol. 78, no. 6

Pages: 852-868

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s00426-013-0537-1

ISSN: 0340-0727

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of the Academic Achievement of Primary School Students in Multiage and Traditional Classrooms

Available from: East Tennessee State University

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students in a kindergarten/first-grade multiage class achieve at a different level than students enrolled in a traditional kindergarten or first-grade class in a selected primary school in East Tennessee. The question of the interaction between gender and type of instruction was also analyzed. The causal comparative quantitative research method was used to analyze data differentiating between students enrolled in multiage and traditional classes, retrospectively. A t-test was used to determine the level of performance the students demonstrated on the BRIGANCE K Screen at the beginning of the study. The number of mastered first-grade reading skills and mathematics skills, the score on the system-wide first-grade reading test and mathematics test, and gender interaction with type of instruction in each area were analyzed using ANCOVAs. Statistically significant results (pBRIGANCE 1 Screen(ANCOVA). In 1998, the combined males scored significantly higher than the combined females. In 1999, multiage males had significantly higher means than traditional males. ANCOVA results showed statistically significant difference in the number of mastered reading skills of the multiage students in 1998 as well as with the combination of all three years. The multiage mean was the higher of the two groups all three years. For the number of mastered mathematics skills, ANCOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in 1999 with the multiage scores higher than the traditional group. ANCOVA results showed no significant difference between the groups on the standardized reading and mathematics tests analyzed. Findings indicate that kindergarten students may benefit from kindergarten classes in a multiage setting, and that first-grade students may benefit from multiage settings in mastering skills in reading and mathematics but that benefit is not necessarily demonstrated by standardized test scores.

Language: English

Published: Johnson City, Tennessee, 2001

A Comparison of Academic Achievement of Montessori and Non-Montessori Students in a Public School Setting

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Abstract/Notes: Relationships between academic achievement and type of curriculum delivery system, Montessori or traditional, in a diverse group of learners from a public school district were examined in this study. In a repeated measures, within subjects design, students from an elementary Montessori program were paired with agemates from a traditional group on the basis of similar Stanford Achievement Test Scores in reading or math during the baseline year. Two subsequent administrations of the Stanford were observed for each subject to elucidate possible differences which might emerge based on program affiliation over the three year duration of the study. Mathematics scores for both groups were not observed to be significantly different, although following the initial observation, the Montessori group continued to produce higher mean scores than did the traditional students. Marginal significance between the groups suggests that the data analysis should continue in an effort to elucidate a possible trend toward significance at the .05 level. Reading scores for the groups demonstrated marginally significant differences by one analytical method, and significant differences when analyzed with a second method. In the second and third years of the study, Montessori students produced means which consistently outperformed the traditional group. Recommendations included tracking subsequent administrations of the Stanford Achievement Test for all pairs of subjects in order to evaluate emerging trends in both subject areas.

Language: English

Article

Report on Academic Achievement in a Private Montessori School

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 20, no. 2

Pages: 145-147

Academic achievement, Americas, Elementary education, Elementary school students, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, Private schools, Standardized tests, Tim Duax - Writings, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: A study at an established private Montessori school in a diverse suburb revealed strong achievement gains by students on the Stanford Achievement Test, which was administered to 36 students every year from second through eighth grade. Concludes that Montessori elementary education can take high achieving students and produce even higher academic results. (MDM)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Master's Thesis

Academic Achievement Outcomes: Montessori and Non-Montessori Public Elementary Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Elementary education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, Public Montessori, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Within the realm of elementary public schools, several pedagogical models of early childhood education are practiced in the United States (Lillard, 2007). The constructivist approach to early childhood education is illustrative of best practices based on current theory. One model of constructivist early childhood education is the Montessori Method founded in the early twentieth century by Maria Montessori, an Italian physician (Montessori, 1912/1964). Though the Montessori Method is aligned with research-based best practices espoused by constructivism, there are relatively few public Montessori schools currently in the United States. A direct comparison is needed between the academic outcomes of public elementary school programs which implement the Montessori Method and those which implement a more traditional approach to early childhood education. The focus of this study is the academic achievement outcomes of Montessori public school students as compared to similar non-Montessori students.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2013

Article

Four Seventh Grade Students Who Qualify for Academic Intervention Services in Mathematics Learning Multi-Digit Multiplication with the Montessori Checkerboard

Available from: ERIC

Publication: Teaching Exceptional Children Plus (TECPlus), vol. 4, no. 3

Pages: Article 2

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Abstract/Notes: This article describes the positive impact of Montessori manipulative materials on four seventh grade students who qualified for academic intervention services because of previous low state test scores in mathematics. This mathematics technique for teaching multi-digit multiplication uses a placemat-sized quilt with different color-coded squares for place value, color-coded bead bars for representing digits, and small numeral tiles in a procedure related to lattice multiplication. The article presents a brief introduction to the Montessori approach to learning, an overview of Montessori mathematics, and an explanation of the Checkerboard for Multiplication with related multiplication manipulatives. Pretest/posttest results of the four students indicated that all increased their understandings of multiplication. The results of an attitude survey showed students improved in enjoyment, perceived knowledge, and confidence in solving multiplication problems. (Contains 19 figures and 5 tables.)

Language: English

ISSN: 1553-9318

Master's Thesis

A Study Comparing the Effect of Multiage Education Practices versus Traditional Education Practices on Academic Achievement

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: This study compared the effects of multi-age classroom strategies to those of traditional classroom strategies on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in reading and math. Standardized test scores from 20 fourth-grade students in two multi-age third- and fourth-grade classrooms were compared to the scores of 20 students from 7 traditional fourth-grade classrooms. The Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), ninth edition was used as the test instrument. Scores from the students' third grade test in the 1996-97 school year were compared to their scores from the fourth grade test in reading and math by applying T-tests to the data. Analysis of the data revealed no difference in reading or math achievement between students taught in a multi-age classroom and those from a traditional classroom.

Language: English

Published: Salem, West Virginia, 1998

Article

Montessori vs. Traditional Education in the Public Sector: Seeking Appropriate Comparisons of Academic Achievement

Available from: ERIC

Publication: Forum on Public Policy, vol. 2007, no. 2

Pages: 23 p.

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, Public Montessori, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Recent years have provided an interest on the part of public school systems regarding Montessori as an educational choice, often as a magnet school option. "No Child Left Behind" legislation emphasizes the social and learning needs of individual children as well as a national spirit of accountability for academic achievement, and the public sector is making a comprehensive examination of curriculum delivery systems which can provide benefits for all learners in quantifiable ways, most often in the form of standardized test scores which demonstrate improved student achievement. This study examines the relationship of public Montessori education expressed as Stanford Achievement Test scores in reading and math in comparison with similar scores for students in traditional programs, using a within subjects, matched pairs design of repeated measures over a three year period. Math scores for the groups were not observed to be significantly different, although, following the initial observation, the Montessori group continued to produce increasingly higher mean scores than the traditional students. Marginal significance between the groups suggests that the data analysis should continue to elucidate a possible trend toward significance. Reading scores for the groups demonstrated significant differences, and in the second and third years of the study, Montessori students produced means which consistently outperformed the traditional group.

Language: English

ISSN: 1556-763X, 1938-9809

Article

Comparison of Academic Achievement Between Montessori and Traditional Education Programs

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, vol. 20, no. 1

Pages: 5-13

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to compare the academic achievement of 543 urban 4th- (n=291) and 8th- (n=252) grade students who attended Montessori or traditional education programs. The majority of the sample consisted of minority students (approximately 53 percent), and was considered low income (approximately 67 percent). Students who attended a public Montessori school were compared with students who attended structured magnet, open magnet, and traditional non-magnet public schools on standardized measures of math and language arts. Results of the study failed to support the hypothesis that enrollment in a Montessori school was associated with higher academic achievement. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/02568540509594546

ISSN: 0256-8543, 2150-2641

Article

Differences in Mathematics Scores Between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

Available from: University of California eScholarship

Publication: Journal for Learning Through the Arts, vol. 3, no. 1

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Abstract/Notes: While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the ‘whole’ child, that math achievement scores are significantly higher for those students studying music, and if Montessori education produces a more academically accomplished child, then what is the potential for the child when Montessori includes an enriched music curriculum? The decision to support music cannot be made without knowing music’s effect on academic achievement and its contribution to a student’s education. This study was an experimental design using a two-group post-test comparison. A sample of 200 Montessori students aged 3-5 years-old were selected and randomly placed in one of two groups. The experimental treatment was an “in-house” music enriched Montessori program and children participated in 3 half-hour sessions weekly, for 6 months. The instrument used to measure mathematical achievement was the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3 (Barody & Ginsburg) to determine if the independent variable, music instruction had any effect on students’ math test scores. The results showed that subjects who received music enriched Montessori instruction had significantly higher math scores and when compared by age group, 3 year-old students had higher scores than either the 4 year-old or 5 year-old children. This study shows that an arts-rich curriculum has a significant positive effect on young students academic achievement.This comprehensive research presents developmentally appropriate early education curriculum for children from 2 through 6 years old and addresses some of the most compelling questions about early experience, such as how important music is to early brain development. Contemporary theories and practices of music education including strategies for developing pitch, vocal, rhythmic, instrumental, listening, movement and creative responses in children are presented. It explores the interrelationship of music and academic development in children, and demonstrates how music can enhance and accelerate the learning process. This study combines the best of research and practical knowledge to give teachers the necessary tools to educate tomorrow's musicians. It is essential reading for all students and teachers of young children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.21977/D93110059

ISSN: 1932-7528

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