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285 results

Article

Dropcopters: A Problem Solving Experience

Publication: The National Montessori Reporter, vol. 29, no. 2

Pages: 24–25

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Language: English

Article

Principles of Problem Solving

Publication: Around the Child, vol. 14

Pages: 24

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Abstract/Notes: From the Alfred Adler Insitute, Minnesota

Language: English

ISSN: 0571-1142

Article

Montessori Schools: Problem Solving Solutions

Publication: The National Montessori Reporter, vol. 21, no. 2

Pages: 17–18

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Abstract/Notes: Conflict resolution in the school community

Language: English

Doctoral Dissertation

How the Use of Montessori Sensorial Material Supports Children's Creative Problem Solving in the Pre-School Classroom

Available from: British Library - EthOS

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Abstract/Notes: Maria Montessori famously designed her own materials to support children’s development. Thus far, the literature which focuses on Montessori Sensorial education - and on creativity, problem solving and creative problem solving - has not investigated connections between these matters. This study investigated the effect of using the Montessori Method on children’s skills, especially in creative problem solving. This research examines the integration of Montessori materials into a social context to develop children’s creative problem solving, and analyses these data using the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) framework [Isaksen et al., 2000] and Rogoff’s model [1990] of social interaction. The study provides a new way of using the CPS framework, for data analysis, rather than as a way of training an individual or a group in solving problems creatively. The methodology combines a quasi-experimental design with a sample of qualitative cases. The research was conducted in one pre-school in Saudi Arabia, in the city of Riyadh, and involved twenty-four five-year-old children (12 boys, 12 girls) and four teachers. Six matched pairs of children were observed using Montessori sensorial materials (MSM) for one academic year. All the children were assessed on their problem solving capacities, in order to compare their development, using the British Ability Scale-II. The results from the quantitative analysis reveal significant differences between the experimental and control groups in their capacity to solve problems, using a pre-post-test of the four subscales of the BAS II. The qualitative analysis shows social interaction assists children in the “understanding of the challenge” component of the creative problem solving process while individual differences were identified in relation to the three creative skills. The results revealed the children’s different ways of framing and solving their own problems creatively through exploring different positions of the materials and applying them in creative solutions. The research also found that children’s own individual experiences with, and interests in, the material affected their creative problem solving.

Language: English

Published: Southampton, England, 2011

Doctoral Dissertation

Empathy, Social Problem-Solving, and the Social Behavior of Preschoolers

Available from: ProQuest - Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: A social skills intervention was implemented at two suburban preschools. The purpose of the intervention was to develop subjects' empathic and social problem-solving skills to test whether this training would increase prosocial behavior in class. In addition, the study compared the effectiveness of two teaching methods in promoting cognitive and affective skills: training using role playing and discussion-based training. The subjects were 45 children of both sexes between the ages of four-and-one-half to five-and-one-half years. At each school, teachers led one of three training groups: empathy and problem-solving using role playing; the same training using discussion; home and outdoor safety training, which served as an attention-control group. Training sessions were conducted for 15 to 20 minutes, three times a week for six weeks. Pre- and post-intervention empathy, role-taking, problem-solving scores, observational behavior ratings, and teacher ratings using the Devereux scales were administered. Results of pre-testing revealed expected, significant associations between cognitive and affective skills and between these abilities and subjects' social behavior, with empathy showing the strongest associations. Responses to affective measures, however, did not prove to be consistent across emotions. Empathic and role-taking responses to anger and fear stimuli were unrelated to responses to happiness and sadness stimuli, yet were associated most strongly with observed and rated social behaviors. No significant differences in gain scores emerged across the three treatment groups on outcome measures, although gains in cognitive and affective skills correlated significantly with behavioral improvement. The most likely reasons for this lack of training effects across groups were: all children were from a higher SES background and displayed fewer behavioral problems than subjects used by many other studies in this area; children at one setting (a Montessori program) were much less receptive to a group social skills approach; the small sample size provided insufficient statistical power to assess small effects. Implications of the study's findings for future measurement and training of empathy and social problem-solving skills were discussed.

Language: English

Published: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1983

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Effects of Peace Education and Grace and Courtesy Education on Social Problem-Solving Skills and Social Awareness

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Grace and courtesy, Montessori method of education, Peace education

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Abstract/Notes: This action research studied the impact of peace education and portions of the Positive Discipline curriculum in a three-six primary Montessori classroom. During five weeks of implementing the research, sixteen students participated in class meetings for twenty minutes a day. The peace table activities and wheel of choice lessons were conducted individually and as a whole class. The peace table activities included a set of mini dishes on a tray, a rain stick, and a peace rose. The wheel of choice consisted of pictures and words of examples of what students could choose to help them solve problems. A few examples are count to ten, apologize, ask for help, and write your name on the agenda. Implementing the presentations into the classroom environment became a work for the students to use if needed and did not occur daily. As a work choice, the previous activities were available on tables and children were allowed to choose the work as many times as they felt was necessary. The research began with baseline data collection through SWIS (School Wide Information System) referral records, student interviews, and student surveys. Sources of data obtained during the study included interviews, surveys, observation tally sheets, and a field journal. The results presented an increase in social awareness and problem-solving skills through the class meetings. Students began acknowledging problems and brainstorming solutions. Class meetings will continue daily to extend the positive problem-solving capabilities and mindfulness students developed in their classroom community.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2016

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Fostering Self-Sufficiency through Problem-Solving

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: “ What is this picture?” “This arrow is missing.” Montessori teachers hear these questions daily. These requests, while valid, often come at inopportune times, interrupting the adults work. This study aimed to see if children could gain independence through problem solving thus decreasing interruptions. 26 children and 4 adults were in this experiment. The intervention had two aspects. The first, a series of Grace and Courtesy lessons to help the children problem-solve common work related issues. The second was incorporation of a waiting necklace that the children would wear if they required an adult. Effectiveness was measured by evaluating the number of interruptions received for ten days prior and following the intervention. The results revealed the overall number of interruptions decreased from 71 to 53 and little to no change in the children’s problem-solving habits. This leads to the question, if the experiment was augmented would the results differ?

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2016

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Relation between Pupils' Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Mathematical Problem Solving in the Context of the Teachers' Preferred Pedagogies

Available from: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)

Publication: Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 23

Pages: Article 10215

Comparative education, Czech Republic, Czechia, Eastern Europe, Europe, Mathematics education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Montessori schools

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Abstract/Notes: In research focused on self-efficacy it is usually teacher-related phenomena that are studied, while the main aspects related to pupils are rather neglected, although self-efficacy itself is perceived as a belief in one’s own abilities. Evidently, this strongly influences the behavior of individuals in terms of the goal and success in mathematical problem-solving. Considering that alternative teaching methods are based on the principle of belief in one’s own ability (mainly in the case of group work), higher self-efficacy can be expected in the pupils of teachers who use predominantly the well-working pupil-centered pedagogies. A total of 1133 pupils in grade 5 from 36 schools in the Czech Republic were involved in the testing of their ability to solve mathematical problems and their mathematical self-efficacy as well. Participants were divided according to the above criteria as follows: (i) 73 from Montessori primary schools, (ii) 332 pupils educated in mathematics according to the Hejný method, (iii) 510 pupils from an ordinary primary school, and (iv) 218 pupils completing the Dalton teaching plan. In the field of mathematical problem-solving the pupils from the Montessori primary schools clearly outperformed pupils from the Dalton Plan schools (p = 0.027) as well as pupils attending ordinary primary schools (p = 0.009), whereas the difference between the Montessori schools and Hejný classes was not significant (p = 0.764). There is no statistically significant difference in the level of self-efficacy of pupils with respect to the preferred strategies for managing learning activities (p = 0.781). On the other hand, correlation between mathematical problem-solving and self-efficacy was confirmed in all the examined types of schools. However, the correlation coefficient was lower in the case of the pupils from the classes applying the Hejný method in comparison with the pupils attending the Montessori schools (p = 0.073), Dalton Plan schools (p = 0.043), and ordinary primary schools (p = 0.002). Even though the results in mathematical problem-solving are not consistent across the studies, the presented results confirm better performance of pupils in some constructivist settings, particularly in the case of individual constructivism in the Montessori primary schools. The factors influencing lower correlation of self-efficacy and performance in mathematical problem-solving ought to be subject to further investigation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3390/su122310215

ISSN: 2071-1050

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Investigation of the Effect of Montessori Approach-based STEM Activities on the Problem-solving Skills of Pre-service Preschool Teachers

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi / Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, vol. 14, no. 2

Pages: 93-119

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Abstract/Notes: This research was conducted to determine whether there is any effect of the Montessori approach-based STEM activities on the development of the problem-solving skills of pre-service preschool teachers or not. The mixed-method was employed in the research. The sample of the research consisted of 50 pre-service teachers, who were taking education in the Preschool Teacher Training Department of the Faculty of Education. A single grouped pretest-posttest pattern was created to determine the difference in the problem-solving skills of the pre-service teachers in the research. The quantitative data gathered during the process of the research were analysed with the statistical methods; the qualitative data were analysed with the content analysis. The “Problem Solving Scale” and the “Semi-structured Protocol Form” were used to collect the quantitative data in the research. Qualitative data prepared to support quantitative data consists of the open-ended semi-structured protocol form. The participants were educated with the Montessori approach-based STEM education for 14 weeks. In the results reached as a result of the research, it was observed that there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of problem-solving skills and the qualitative analysis results supported the quantitative results.

Language: English

DOI: 10.30831/akukeg.824773

ISSN: 1308-1659

Article

Exploration and Problem Solving

Publication: Montessori Voices [Montessori Aotearoa New Zealand], no. 72

Pages: 18–19

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori values guiding transition to parenthood

Language: English

ISSN: 1178-6213, 2744-662X

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