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✓ Peer Reviewed

Montessori: Origin and reasons for the criticisms of one of the most controversial pedagogues of all time / Montessori: Origen y razones de las críticas a una de las pedagogas más controvertidas de la historia

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: Revista Española de Pedagogia, vol. 81, no. 285

Pages: 251-270

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is one of the most fascinating and controversial pedagogues of all time. On the one hand, the naturalists reproached her for the rigidity and artificiality of her method, as well as her rejection of productive imagination and fantasy. On the other hand, progressive educators reproached the individualist and prescriptive character of her method. The modernists reproached her for her religiosity. Some criticized her for accelerating learning or for not respecting the freedom of the child, others for the contrary. Christians branded her a secularist, positivist, naturalist, and theosophist, while theosophists defined her as Catholic. These paradoxical criticisms are due, among other reasons, to the context of the antimodernist frenzy in which she developed her method, to her network of friends in Freemason circles, to the numerous nuances of her method, to her resistance to fitting in with existing educational currents, to the instrumentalization of her method by third party interests, to her sometimes entangled and not very clear language and to the lack of knowledge of her method in action. / Montessori es una de las pedagogas más fascinantes y controvertidas de la historia. Resulta curioso que todos le reprochasen tantos aspectos tan contradictorios. Los naturalistas, la rigidez y la artificialidad de su método, así como su rechazo a la imaginación productiva y a la fantasía; los progresistas, la individualidad y el carácter coercitivo del método; los modernistas, su religiosidad; algunos la criticaban por adelantar los aprendizajes o por no respetar la libertad del alumno, otros, por lo contrario; los cristianos la tildaron de laicista, naturalista, positivista y teósofa, mientras que los teósofos la definieron como católica. Esas críticas tan paradójicas se deben, entre otras razones, al contexto de persecución antimodernista en el que desarrolló su método, a su red de amistades en los ambientes masones, a los numerosos matices de su método, a su resistencia a encajar en las corrientes educativas existentes, a la instrumentalización de su método por intereses ajenos, a su lenguaje a veces enredado y poco divulgativo y al desconocimiento de su método en acción.

Language: English, Spanish

DOI: 10.22550/REP81-2-2023-01

ISSN: 0034-9461, 2174-0909


✓ Peer Reviewed

Classics of Education Sciences: Maria Montessori. Background knowledge and perceived meanings of University students compared to teachers attending Montessori in-service training courses / Klasyka nauk edukacyjnych: Maria Montessori. Wiedza środowiskowa i odkrycie znaczenia w ocenie studentów Uniwersytetu oraz nauczycieli uczestniczących w kursie szkoleniowym Montessori

Available from: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski (Poland)

Publication: Kultura - Przemiany - Edukacja, vol. 6

Pages: 241-255

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Abstract/Notes: Maria Montessori’s pedagogy is considered a “classics” of Education Sciences. In this contribution, a survey conducted with three different groups of subjects attending University lectures or in-service Montessori training courses is reported. Main research purpose is to discover background knowledge and perceived meanings of each group concerning the Montessori Method and its main characteristics. Data collected from the three groups under investigation are compared to identify the most macroscopic differences and / or similarities. Through the graphs produced, first reflections and conclusions are attempted, at the same time readers are invited to build their own opinions inferring other meanings or conclusions thanks to data and reading tools provided.

Language: English

DOI: 10.15584/kpe.2018.6.18

ISSN: 2300-9888, 2544-1205


Nouvelle Diverses; Le 20. Congrès international de Pédagogie Montessori [The 20th International Montessori Congress]

Available from: Université Caen Normandie

Publication: Pour l'ère nouvelle: revue internationale d'èducation nouvelle, vol. 13, no. 97

Pages: 124-125

Conferences, International Montessori Congress (20th, Karachi, Pakistan, 3-5 January 1985)

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Language: French

Doctoral Dissertation

L'educazione Montessori nelle scuole primarie d'Italia. Indagine su alcuni apprendimenti disciplinari e caratteristiche socio-affettive di studentesse e studenti Montessori

Available from: Sapienza Università di Roma

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori education was born in Italy more than a century ago and today it is widespread in at least 36 countries around the world. In Italy, from 2016 to 2021, the number of Montessori primary schools more than doubled. This explanatory and exploratory research is the most comprehensive evaluation of Montessori education ever conducted in Italy. We investigated: a) the impact of Montessori education on academic and socio-emotional outcomes; b) the profiles of Montessori primary school teachers and the extent to which they implemented Montessori education with fidelity. The longitudinal study on the academic outcomes was conducted on 2nd, 5th, 8th and 10th grade students in two separate cohorts. The results demonstrate that, depending on the grade and the cohort considered, Montessori students achieve similar or significantly higher scores than non-Montessori students. In some cases, they achieve more heterogeneous scores, especially in mathematics. More heterogeneous scores were expected according to the hypothesis that Montessori education aims to develop the characteristics of each one and not to standardize academic outcomes. The study on the socio-emotional outcomes was conducted on 8th grade students and it demonstrates that Montessori students achieve significantly higher scores on the empathy scale. The survey on the teachers permitted to delineate 3 different profiles of them, thanks to a cluster analysis. Only the first group of teachers, which made up half of the sample, managed to implement Montessori education with fidelity. These findings highlight two main requirements. The first is the need to continue monitoring and guiding the diffusion of Montessori education among Italian primary schools, to improve and maintain fidelity. The second concerns the reaffirmation of the value of educational practices and the principles of Montessori activism as possible answers that are still valid to the new needs of the Italian school.

Language: Italian, Spanish

Published: Roma, Italy, 2022


Ōbei de no montessōri kyōiku / 欧米でのモンテッソーリ教育 [Montessori Education in Europe and the United States]

Publication: Montessori Kyōiku / モンテッソーリ教育 [Montessori Education], no. 8

Pages: 57-70

Asia, East Asia, Japan

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Language: Japanese

ISSN: 0913-4220


Kind und Religion bei Maria Montessori: eine historisch-systematische Untersuchung über den Zusammenhang von Religion und Erziehung in der Montessori-Pädagogik

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Abstract/Notes: This is the authors doctoral dissertation (University of Bonn, Germany, 1996).

Language: German

Published: Bonn, Germany: Euro Korea Journal, 1998


Montessori-Projekte: [Projektarbeit mit Kindern auf der Grundlage der Montessori-Pädagogik]

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Language: German

Published: München, Germany: Oldenbourg, 1997

ISBN: 3-486-98734-8

Series: Prögel-Praxis


✓ Peer Reviewed

Miłość w perspektywie dzieci ze szkół pracujących w oparciu o pedagogikę M. Montessori i system tradycyjny / Love in the Perspective of Children from Schools Working on the Basis of M. Montessori’s Pedagogy vs. Those Working on the Basis of the Traditional One

Available from: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University

Publication: Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, Sectio J – Paedagogia-Psychologia, vol. 31, no. 4

Pages: 275-291

Comparative education, Emotions in children, Love, Montessori method of education, Social emotional learning

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Abstract/Notes: W artykule opisano wyniki badań dotyczących rozumienia pojęcia „miłość” przez dzieci uczęszczające do szkół pracujących w oparciu o system tradycyjny oraz alternatywny – M. Montessori. Badania zostały przeprowadzone w 2018 r. w grupie 80 dzieci w wieku 6–9 lat. Wyniki zostały zebrane na podstawie analizy wytworu plastycznego, przedstawiającego wyobrażenie miłości (rysunek wykonany dowolną techniką), oraz wypowiadanych przez dziecko skojarzeń ze słowem miłość. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych analiz zauważono większą różnorodność interpretowania miłości wśród dzieci uczących się w oparciu o system alternatywny, jakim jest pedagogika Montessori. / The article presents the results of the research of understanding of the concept of “love” by children attending to schools based on traditional and M. Montessori’s alternative system. The research was conducted in 2018 on a group of 80 children (aged 6–9). The results were collected on the basis of the analysis of their artistic products, presenting an image of love (drawings with the use of various techniques) and associations expressed by the child with the word love. According to the analyses, a greater variety of interpretations of love among children learning on the basis of an alternative system, i.e. the pedagogy of Montessori, has been noticed.

Language: Polish

DOI: 10.17951/j.2018.31.4.275-291

ISSN: 0867-2040


Montessori in the Former USSR: Ukraine: Government Opens a Montessori School

Available from: University of Connecticut Libraries - American Montessori Society Records

Publication: Public School Montessorian, vol. 7, no. 4

Pages: 20

Eastern Europe, Europe, Montessori method of education, Public Montessori, Ukraine

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Abstract/Notes: Provides a brief history of Montessori in Ukraine.

Language: English

ISSN: 1071-6246

Book Section

Begabtenförderung und Montessori-Pädagogik [Promotion of talented students and Montessori pedagogy]

Book Title: Montessori-Pädagogik in Deutschland: Rückblick - Aktualität - Zukunftsperspektiven ; 40 Jahre Montessori-Vereinigung e.V. [Montessori Pedagogy in Germany: Review - Current Issues - Future Perspectives 40 years of the Montessori Association]

Pages: 335-342

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Language: German

Published: Münster, Germany: Lit, 2002

ISBN: 978-3-8258-5746-2

Series: Impulse der Reformpädagogik , 7

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