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Conference Paper

Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Education: An Early Beginning of Embodied Education

Available from: University Colleges Knowledge database (Denmark)

18th International Network of Philosophers of Education Conference: Pedagogical Forms in Times of Pandemic (Copenhagen, Denmark, 17-20 August 2022)

Comparative education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: For a century Montessori’s philosophy of education has been understood in separation from Dewey’s philosophy of education. According to Thayer-Bacon [1], a plausible explanation is that Kilpatrick, Dewey’s influential student, rejected Montessori’s system of education [2]. His main objection was that her educational system was founded on an outdated psychology. In contrast, this paper suggests, Montessori’s educational systems is founded on a psychology which, like Dewey’s, was markedly ahead of her time by putting purely embodied interactions with the environment as the foundation of human understanding. By comparing Montessori’s psychology [3; 4] to Dewey’s [5; 6] this paper shows their compatibility. The developed pragmatism of Sellars [5;6] and the interactivism of Bickhard [7] further enables us to explain how the prelinguistic human-environment interactions (or transactions), central to Dewey and Montessori, are pure processes [8]. The pure process ontology enables us to see how more complex processes emerge from simpler ones and how learning in the mere causal domain of bodily human-environment interactions can grow into the linguistic and conceptual domain of education. The ambition is to show that a flourishing interaction between Montessori and pragmatism is possible and preferable if we are to understand the proper role of the body in education. [1] Thayer-Bacon, Barbara (2012). Maria Montessori, John Dewey, and William H. Kilpatrick. Education and Culture, 28, 1, 3-20. [2] Kilpatrick, W. H. (1914). The Montessori system examined. Cambridge, Mass.; The Riverside Press [3] Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori method. NY: Frederick A. Stokes Company [4] Montessori. M. (1949). The absorbent mind. Adyar: The Theosophical Publishing House [5] Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. NY: The Macmillan Company [6] Dewey, J. (1925) Experience and nature. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company [7] Sellars, W. (1960). Being and Being Known. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, 34, 28-49. [8] Sellars, W. (1981). Foundations for a metaphysics of pure process: The Carus lectures of Wilfrid Sellars. The Monist 64 (1):3-90. [9] Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The interactivist model. Synthese, 166, 3, 547-591. [10] Seibt, Johanna (2016). How to Naturalize Intentionality and Sensory Consciousness within a Process Monism with Gradient Normativity—A Reading of Sellars. In James O'Shea (ed.), Sellars and His Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 186-222.

Language: English

Published: Copenhagen, Denmark: International Network of Philosophers of Education, 2022

Article

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The Social State, Active Citizen and Empowering Education: Contribution of Montessori’s Humanistic Philosophy of Education / Социальное государство, активный гражданин и расширяющее права и возможности образование: вклад гуманистической философии образования Монтессори / Әлеуметтік мемлекет, белсенді азамат құбылысы және құқық пен мүмкіндіктерді кеңейтетін білім беру жүйесі: Монтессоридің гуманистік білім беру философиясының үлесі

Available from: Adam alemi

Publication: Adam Alemi, vol. 94, no. 4

Pages: 78-86

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Abstract/Notes: The social state, the phenomenon of the active citizen, and empowering education are the actual goals of what ‘New Kazakhstan’ has to achieve. Maria Montessori is a globally known, leading thinker and practitioner of humanistic education philosophy and positive social transformations. Montessori believed in and practiced the principles of developing non-commercialized and accessible to all quality education, which is not just child-centric but is also conducive to creating global citizens with an inclusive outlook who perceive themselves as the integral parts of the whole, called Universe. Montessori’s education philosophy helps children develop a way of thinking based on the unity of the Universe, awakens and sustains in them an unrestrained interest in exploring the Universe, evokes creativity, and induces them to see everything in interconnectedness. Overall, an analysis of Cosmic education, a fundamental concept in Montessori’s humanistic philosophy of education, which also can be depicted as empowering education, shows some concrete ways how to form active citizens, create a vital social state and build an inclusive society. / Социальное государство, феномен “активный граждан” и расширяющее права и возможности образование – одни из главных целей, которых должен достичь «Новый Казахстан». Мария Монтессори – одна из всемирно известных ученых и практиктов философии гуманистического образования и позитивных социальных преобразований. Монтессори верила и практиковала принципы развития доступного для всех, некоммерческого и качественного образования, которое не только ориентировано на ребенка, но и способствует формированию глобальных граждан с инклюзивным мировоззрением, которые воспринимают себя как неотъемлемую часть целого, называемого Вселенная. Философия образования Монтессори помогает формировать у детей образ мышления, основанный на единстве Вселенной, пробуждает и поддерживает в них безудержный интерес к познанию Вселенной, пробуждает творчество и побуждает видеть все во взаимосвязи. В целом, анализ Космического образования, фундаментальной концепции гуманистической философии образования Монтессори, которая по сути является расширяющей права и возможности системой образованием, может показать некоторые пути создания феномена “активный гражданин”, формирования сильного социального государства и построения инклюзивного общества. / Әлеуметтік мемлекетті, белсенді азамат құбылысын және құқық пен мүмкіндіктерді кеңейтетін білім беру жүйесін – «Жаңа Қазақстанның» қол жеткізуі тиіс басты мақсаттарының арасында атауға болады. Мария Монтессори – жаһанға танымал, гуманистік білім беру философиясы мен оң әлеуметтік өзгерістер жасаудың жетекші ойшылы және практиктерінің бірі. Монтессори барлық азаматтарға қолжетімді, коммерциялық емес сапалы білім беруді дамыту қағидаттарына сенді және оны жүзеге асыра білді. Монтессоридің білім беру философиясы баланы (яғни баланың қажеттіліктерін) негізге алып қана қоймай, сонымен бірге балаға өзін “Ғалам” деп аталатын үлкен жүйенің ажырамас бөлігі және жаһан азаматы ретінде қабылдайтын инклюзивті көзқарас құруға ықпал етеді. Монтессори білім беру философиясы балаларға Ғаламда әр нәрсенің басқалармен тығыз байланыста екенін көрсетуге негізделген ойлау тәсілін дамытуға көмектеседі, оларда Ғаламды зерттеуге деген шексіз қызығушылықты оятады және қолдайды, шығармашылық рухты оятады. Тұтастай алғанда, Монтессоридің гуманистік білім беру философиясында (оны құқық пен мүмкіндіктерді кеңейтетін білім беру жүйесі деп те сипатауға болады) іргелі тұжырымдама болып табылатын “Ғарыштық білім” түсінігі, белсенді азамат құбылысын қалыптастырудың, күшті әлеуметтік мемлекет пен инклюзивті қоғам құрудың кейбір нақты жолдарын көрсетеді.

Language: English

DOI: 10.48010/2022.4/1999-5849.08

ISSN: 1999-5849

Article

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A Study Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori and Its Relevance in Present Educational Scenario

Available from: Sabhavna Research Journal

Publication: Sadbhavna: Research Journal of Human Development, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: 100-107

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori system its impact can easily be seen in the field of pre-primary education in the European countries, U.S.A., India, China, Japan, African countries, Latin American countries and all through the world, This system has encouraged lovers of education to discover new methods of teaching young children. This system emphasized the necessity of study of children in order to educate them properly. As a result, education became child-centered. The construction of curriculum became oriented to the actual needs of life. It was considered necessary to provide a good environment in the school. The aims of education became oriented to individual development of each child. Hence emphasis was laid on the development of personality of each child. Proper training of teachers was considered necessary.

Language: English

ISSN: 2277-7377

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The Comparison of the Intuitive Mathematic Skills of Preschool Children Who Take Education According to Ministry of National Education Preschool Education Program and Montessori Approach

Available from: IISTE - International Knowledge Sharing Platform

Publication: International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research, vol. 6, no. 6

Pages: 167

Asia, Comparative education, Mathematics education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Preschool children, Preschool education, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This study analyzed intuitive mathematics abilities of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) preschool education program and the Montessori approach. It was also examined whether the intuitive mathematics abilities of the children who were educated according to the MoNE program and Montessori approach showed a significant difference according to variables of gender, duration of pre-school education, and educational levels of parents. The study sample of the study consisted of 121 children (56 girls, 65 boys) aged between 60-72 months. The data was collected via “Personal Information Form” and “Intuitive Mathematics Ability Scale” developed by Güven (2001). Intuitive mathematical abilities of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to MoNE program. There was no significant difference in intuitive mathematical abilities according to duration of preschool education, education levels of parents. As a result of the study, a significant difference was observed in the intuitive math abilities of the children trained according to the MoNE program in favor of the girls, whereas no significant difference was observed trained according to the Montessori approach. The results are discussed in light of the relevant literature.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.7176/JSTR/6-06-12

ISSN: 2422-8702

Article

Montessori Preschool Education: 유아교육에 관하여 [Montessori Preschool Education: About Early Childhood Education]

Available from: RISS

Publication: 人間理解 / Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling, vol. 3

Pages: 23-31

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Language: Korean

ISSN: 2005-0860, 2671-5821

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A New Education for a New Era: The Contribution of the Conferences of the New Education Fellowship to the Disciplinary Field of Education 1921–1938

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, vol. 40, no. 5-6

Pages: 733-755

New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: This article examines the role played by the conferences of the New Education Fellowship (NEF) in the emerging disciplinary field of the sciences of education between the two world wars. As Fuchs points out in an article in the present issue, the field of education at this time was being internationalized, and, being an international movement, the field impacted on by the NEF was international in scope.1 As will be seen, the ideas and practices of the new education were mediated by national cultural differences and thus their impact on the disciplinary field varied from nation to nation.2 In addition, the development of the field in terms of journals, conferences and its institutionalization within nations was uneven, which presents further difficulties when trying to evaluate the impact of the NEF's conferences. Much of the following discussion focuses on their impact on the disciplinary field in England though, as will be seen, not exclusively so. One of the distinguishing features of the NEF other than its international scope was that it was a movement that connected lay enthusiasts for the educational reforms associated with the new education with major figures in the developing disciplines of psychology and education, such as Carl Gustav Jung, Jean Piaget and John Dewey. The relation between these lay and professional constituencies is examined and conclusions drawn regarding the professionalizing process in the field and the impact of the conferences on educational research and its institutionalization.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0030923042000293742

ISSN: 0030-9230, 1477-674X

Article

Achieving Inclusive Education in Early Childhood: From the Viewpoint of an Affinity Between Inclusive Education and Montessori Education

Publication: Montessori Kyōiku / モンテッソーリ教育 [Montessori Education], no. 49

Pages: 100-113

Asia, East Asia, Inclusive education, Japan, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: This is an article from Montessori Education, a Japanese language periodical published by the Japan Association Montessori.

Language: Japanese

ISSN: 0913-4220

Article

Une éducation pour une ère nouvelle: le congrès international d’éducation de Calais (1921) [Education for a new era: the international congress of education in Calais (1921)]

Available from: CAIRN

Publication: Les Études Sociales, vol. 163, no. 1

Pages: 43-77

Europe, France, New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Renouant avec les pratiques d’échanges intellectuels d’avant 1914, des spécialistes de l’éducation d’une quinzaine de pays, appartenant à l’enseignement public comme au secteur privé, tiennent un congrès original, durant deux semaines, à Calais. Au-delà du thème qui les rassemble, « l’expression créatrice de l’enfant », éducateurs théosophes, pédologues et psychologues de l’enfant, praticiens des écoles nouvelles et représentants de l’institution scolaire débattent d’une conception de l’éducation pertinente pour l’ère nouvelle de l’humanité qu’ils appellent de leurs vœux. Conscients d’ouvrir un chantier immense, les personnalités majeures du rassemblement calaisien (B. Ensor, O. Decroly, A. Ferrière) mettent à profit le congrès pour fonder une organisation durable qui poursuivra la réflexion : la Ligue internationale pour l’éducation nouvelle. [Reviving the practices of intellectual exchange that began before 1914, education specialists from some fifteen countries, belonging to public and private school organizations, gathered for an original congress held over two weeks in Calais. Beyond the matter that brought them together, dedicated to “the creative expression of children,” educators, theosophists, pedologists and child psychologists, practitioners of New Education and school officials, discussed what could be the significant educational concepts for the new age of humanity they expected. Conscious of launching a huge project, the prominent personalities of the Calais gathering (Béatrice Ensor, Ovide Decroly, and Adolphe Ferrière) built on that project to create a sustainable organization that could carry on discussions: The New Education Fellowship.]

Language: French

DOI: 10.3917/etsoc.163.0043

ISSN: 0014-2204

Article

An Analysis of the Philosophy of Montessori Educational Theories / 몬테소리 아동 교육론의 사상적 기초에 관한 분석

Available from: RISS

Publication: 아동교육 [The Korean Journal of Child Education], vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 191-204

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Language: Korean

ISSN: 1226-2722

Conference Paper

Teaching the "Ineducable": The Impact of Sensationalist Philosophy on Educational Thought and Practice

Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

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Abstract/Notes: The paper traces the influence of theories of J. Locke, J. Rousseau and the Abbe de Condillac on the development of educational programs for persons with mental retardation under J. Itard and E. Seguin. Itard's emphasis on sensory activities is discussed, as is his collaboration with Seguin. The effects of their work on M. Montessori, specifically on her stress on the senses of touch and vision are considered. Contemporary practices which emphasize sensory training are traced to these earlier theorists. Appended materials include illustrations of Montessori's sandpaper letters, Sequin's texture board and training apparatuses, and gymnastic exercises designed to improve perceptual motor development.

Language: English

Published: Montreal, Quebec, Canada: American Educational Research Association, Apr 1983

Pages: 30 p.

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